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4 Conflict Resolution Worksheets for Your Practice

Conflict Resolution Worksheets

As a therapist, counselor, or coach, your main job is to help clients identify the situations that are troubling them – the conflicts in their lives – and guide them through to win–win solutions.

Mutually satisfying outcomes can prevent anger, anxiety, and depression, and enable individuals, couples, and families to live together productively and in peace (Christensen & Heavey, 1999; Cummings, Koss, & Davies, 2015).

In this article, we’ll share some powerful conflict resolution worksheets that can teach parties the pathways to win–win outcomes, converting conflict into shared problem solving. Participants feel like they are sitting on the same side of the table, working together against the problem, instead of against each other.

Before you continue, we thought you might like to download our three Positive Communication Exercises (PDF) for free . These science-based tools will help you and those you work with build better social skills and better connect with others.

This Article Contains:

2 useful conflict resolution worksheets, 4 tools for resolving conflicts at work, worksheets for student conflicts, 2 best worksheets for couples’ conflicts, teaching conflict resolution: 4 lesson plans, 5 positivepsychology.com toolkit resources, a take-home message.

Conflict – problems, issues, troubles, dilemmas, tough decisions, etc. – generally emerge in one or more of the following three areas (adapted from Kellermann, 1996):

  • Intrapsychic conflicts – pulls and tugs within a person’s array of feelings, desires, thoughts, fears, and actions
  • Interpersonal or intergroup conflicts – situations in which two or more preferred action plans seem to be incompatible
  • Situational conflicts – situations in which adverse circumstances such as illness, financial difficulties, or other factors collide with each other or with what participants want

Differences can quickly spark arguments when parties believe that the outcome will result in either winning or losing. That is why the word “conflict” usually suggests fighting. These worksheets, by contrast, teach pathways to win–win outcomes.

By guiding both conflict resolution and cooperative problem solving in the same process, solution building for any decision, issue, or dilemma becomes a combined effort. The idea of winning versus losing is removed, and a win–win outcome negates previous conflicts.

Win–Win Waltz Worksheet

The process that leads to win–win outcomes is referred to as the win–win waltz because the process involves three essential steps.

The Win–Win Waltz Worksheet explains the key terms, core concepts, and essential ingredients for using the exercise successfully.

1. Knowing when to use the win–win waltz

The win–win waltz guides the way to cooperative solution building in situations when there seems to be conflict with underlying or overt tension and a feeling that two sides feel in opposition.

Also, the win–win waltz guides the process in any situation that calls for problem solving.

In both instances, the tone needs to stay calm and cooperative. There needs to be an awareness of the dilemma that participants need to solve and a willingness on both sides to seek a solution that will be responsive to the concerns of all parties.

2. Core concepts: solutions versus underlying concerns

Solutions are potential plans of action.

Concerns , by contrast, are the factors to which the solution needs to be responsive.

For instance, a problem/conflict is that I am hungry, but at the same time, I don’t want to eat – two alternative and seemingly opposed courses of action.

My underlying concern might include wanting to lose weight, to alleviate my hunger, to minimize my intake of calories, and to find an immediate solution. The solution options may be to eat some yogurt, distract myself by phoning a friend, or to exercise as that too tends to alleviate feelings of hunger.

3. One list for both people’s concerns

A happy couple should have healthy conflict

That assumption differs significantly from the usual two-list way of thinking (e.g., my way versus your way or pros versus cons).

4. What if there are seemingly too many underlying concerns?

Paradoxically, the more concerns that have been identified, the more likely it becomes that the ultimate solution will be excellent, even though a long list of concerns may appear daunting.

The trick is for each participant to step back and reflect: “ Of all of these concerns, what one or two concerns are most deeply felt? ” Start the solution-building process by responding to these concerns first. Add additional elements to the solution set until all the underlying concerns have been answered.

For instance, Gil and Angela want to find a new apartment. Stepping back from their list of 20 concerns concerning what apartment to choose, they realize Angela’s primary concern is location. She wants an apartment close to her mother, while Gil’s primary concern is the price. With just two variables to attend to for starters, Angela and Gil can quickly start apartment hunting.

Once they find apartments that met their initial criteria, they add their other concerns.

5. It is for me to look at what I can do, not to tell you what to do.

Solution generating works best if each participant looks at what they can offer toward a win–win solution, and especially toward a plan of action responsive to the other person. Offering suggestions about what the other could do can undermine solution building.

writing assignment conflict resolution plan

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In the workplace, conflict resolution skills enable managers to keep their work environment positive.

They also enable colleagues to work together harmoniously (Johansen, 2012; Korabik, Baril, & Watson, 1993).

Whereas conflict breeds tension that erodes work quality, cooperation maximizes productivity and, at the same time, keeps employees enjoying their work.

Fortunately, the Win–Win Waltz Worksheet works wonderfully in workplace situations too.

The additional tools below also merit attention when conflicts arise in the business world.

Early intervention. It’s best to address potential tensions as soon as you become aware of them.

Participation. It is generally best to bring together all the parties involved in any given dispute and to have them learn to do the win–win waltz together.

Identify those who, even with guidance, cannot think in terms of win–win.

If one or more parties appear to be unable to look for mutually satisfying solutions, a top-down or powering-over decision may be necessary.

Some parties simply cannot get past looking out for themselves only. Others invest more in seeking to hurt the other party rather than to find benefits for both sides. They would rather create a lose–lose outcome than see the other side receive any aspect of what they want.

Keep the problem, the problem.

The vital principle comes from the work of Fisher and Ury (1991). They rightly identify that talking about people and feelings can be inappropriate in work settings.

The problem, for instance, is not that ‘she is an intrusive person.’ The problem is that roles and responsibilities may be unclear. The problem is not that ‘he is lazy.’ The problem is an unclear division of labor. The problem is not that ‘he works too slowly;’ rather, how to speed up the work process so that deadlines can be met.

14 Effective conflict resolution techniques – BRAINY DOSE

Students can benefit from using the Win–Win Waltz Worksheet when they face conflict situations with roommates, friends, and teachers.

Students also are likely to experience conflicts within their own thoughts and preferences.

For instance, these intrapsychic conflicts can arise when they want to go out with friends but also know they need to study for an exam. The win–win waltz recipe works well for any of these situations.

Worksheets to manage couple conflict

From my way , No my way , to OUR way is for practicing win–win conflict resolutions on issues that can arise at home. The worksheet is from Susan Heitler’s (2003) book The Power of Two Workbook . (Available on Amazon .)

The Anger Exit and Re-entry Worksheet offers guidance for stepping back and calming down when anger begins to emerge.

When people become angry, they cease to be able to hear each other’s concerns. They are likely to disregard all their cooperative-talking skills and instead resort to blame, criticism, and attempts to control.

In the face of irritation or anger, it is essential to have a self-calming ability as part of the conflict resolution process.

It generally is best to begin the self-calming process by stepping back or out of the anger-inducing situation. For this reason, couples need to develop mutual exit/re-entry routines.

Win win conflict resolution

In a collaborative marriage, partners respect each other’s ideas; they avoid dismissing or steamrolling over each other’s viewpoints. But what happens when couples have differing opinions regarding a future decision? Both spouses may want the decision to go their way. Fortunately, both can win.

Exercise 1: The Win-Win Waltz

One hallmark of a true partnership is the effectiveness of two people’s shared decision making.

“Effective” means their ability to make decisions that are responsive to the full range of concerns of both partners.

These steps of the win–win waltz can be used in a group to demonstrate how to make decisions about upcoming events (shared decision making) and to change things that are not working (fix-it talk). The only difference is that fix-it talk begins with two initial steps.

  • Learn the signs and costs of unilateral decision making in a partnership.
  • Learn to make shared decisions.
  • Practice division of labor decisions so that they do not keep re-occurring.
  • Identify pitfalls to avoid and keys to success.

Cue cards – Write one step each on three separate pieces of paper:

  • Express initial positions.
  • Explore underlying concerns.
  • Create win–win solutions.

Win–Win Waltz Situation Cards Win–Win Waltz Worksheet : distribute one copy to each participant.

Place the three cue cards so that they are visible to all the group members (e.g., facing the group, propped on chairs in front of the group). Spread the cards/chairs out so there is room for two people to stand next to each.

Explain that a waltz has three steps, as does collaborative problem solving, pointing to the step on each cue card as you explain it.

Walk through the following example to be sure that everyone understands the difference between concerns (fears, values, motivations) and positions and solutions (plans of action). The leader plays both Pete and Mary.

Step 1: Express initial positions.

Peter and Mary want to buy a car. Peter says, “ Let ‘s buy a Ford. ” Mary says, “ No. I want a Toyota. “

Step 2: Explore underlying concerns.

Ask the group what Peter’s concerns might be. Peter might say: “ The prices are reasonable, and the dealership is close by, so it will be easy to take care of maintenance and repairs. “

Stress that both sides need to explore their underlying concerns, and ask then for what Mary’s might be. Mary might say: “ I don’t want to have to keep taking the car back to the shop; I want as much room as we can get for passengers for our kids and their friends. “

Step 3: Create a plan of action responsive to both.

Go with the information generated by the group. Peter and Mary might say: “ Let’s get a Consumer’s Report guide to cars so we have full information on repair rates, roominess, and prices. Let’s also find out which dealers have repair facilities near us. “

Hint: Encourage thinking in terms of solution sets that are multi-piece answers.

Now, invite one couple in front of the group to try the “waltz” sequence. Use the situation of a couple deciding where to go for dinner.

Emphasize the difference between concerns and positions (which are action plans or specific solutions).

Make one list of all of their concerns and a list of three possible solutions: one partner’s idea with modifications, the other partner’s idea with modifications, and at least one new solution (possible final solution).

Invite the group to look at the difference between concerns and solutions.

Have a different couple come to the front and traverse the three steps on their own to the dilemma: “ What should we do for vacation this summer? ”

To be sure they follow the three steps, use the Win–Win Waltz Worksheet where they can write out the three steps.

Pass out additional Situation Cards and invite other couples to try the win–win waltz in front of the group.

  • Most couples have systems for making decisions together, such as taking turns on who gets their way, whoever feels most strongly about the issue gets their way, or they compromise (they both give up some). How do these three options compare to the win–win waltz?
  • What was most satisfying about this style of problem solving?
  • What will be the hardest part of actually using the win–win waltz?


With the win–win waltz, virtually any decision becomes easy and mutual. Both big and little choices – where to live and what to eat for lunch – become simple and shared. The more skilled a couple becomes, the faster the decision making and the more satisfied you both feel with the resulting plan of action.

Exercise 2: Win–Win Worksheet

Applying the win–win waltz successfully, even under challenging dilemmas, requires practice. It often helps to write out your process on particularly tough decisions.

Use the Win–Win Waltz Worksheet as a guide for working through the process of making collaborative decisions.

Two copies of the Win–Win Waltz Worksheet for each participant.

Couples facing each other, with some space between each couple, so that each couple will be able to work semi-privately.

  • Hand out two worksheets to each participant. Explain that one is to use now, and the second is for them to take home.
  • Ask participants to look at the worksheet. What do they notice about the boxes on the page?
  • They start with two different boxes, then merge into one list of concerns for everyone. In other words, each individual’s interests become the concern of the partnership.
  • There are four different suggestions for ways to generate solution sets. Generating multiple solution sets helps in two ways. First, it fosters creative thinking. Second, evaluating between solution set options often gives rise to identifying additional underlying concerns.
  • Have each couple work together to complete the worksheet. Suggest they pick from one of the following topics:
  • Saving for retirement
  • If you should join a new sports club (or some other organization)

How did the worksheet help to structure your decision-making process?

Using the worksheet can help keep track of the details, emphasizing that all underlying concerns are important.

Exercise 3: Traps and Tips

People sometimes say, “ I tried the win–win waltz, and it didn’t work. ” Usually, that means they fell into one of several common traps.

By contrast, if they said, “ The win–win waltz works great! ” odds are they utilized certain techniques that facilitate success.

One copy of the Traps to Avoid and Tips for Success Worksheet One copy of the Win–Win Waltz Situation Cards

1. Recognize at least three potential traps (listed in Procedure, below).

2. Recognize three techniques for success (below).

Briefly explain each Trap to Avoid and Tip for Success.

  • Frozen thinking (saying the same thing over and over, and not taking in new information) versus absorbing information from each other
  • Attachment to a position and pushing for that solution, evident in attempts to debate, persuade, and convince
  • Criticizing the other’s concerns instead of trying to understand them

Tips for success:

  • Be an example to each other and listen to learn!
  • Create one list for concerns, a shared data pool, so both partners’ concerns become of equal import.
  • Emphasize the elephant: Tell the story about the blind men and the elephant. Each blind man felt one part of the animal. The one who touched its side described the elephant as something like a wall. The one who felt the tail described the animal as like a hose. The trunk felt like a tree branch, the leg like a tree trunk. Putting all of their perspectives together was essential for them to be able to appreciate the whole elephant. Similarly, emphasize that both partners have legitimate views; each of them tunes into different aspects of a dilemma.
  • Ask the last question—” Is there any piece of this that still feels unfinished? “
  • Think out of the box and be creative when exploring possible solution sets.
  • Exit now; talk later. When you get too stuck, drop the dialogue and resume later, when everyone is calmer.

Now, pick one situation from the Situation Cards . Ask for one volunteer (A) to try to be a reasonable spouse. In a way that the rest of the group can’t see, point to one of the trap for another participant (B). This participant will use this style of thinking. The group’s role is to be on the alert for recognizing each trap B demonstrates.

As soon as the group identifies a trap, B needs to let go of it and return to productive mode. A’s role is to try to be so effective that A and B reach a consensus despite the traps.

Debrief by noting what A did that was effective even if B was persisting in a trap.

Ask for two new participants to be A and B. Repeat using a different trap.

Ask participants to help you come up with a potentially tricky decision a couple might have to make. Have two participants come to the front and discuss this question with the tips in front of them. Have the rest of the group pay attention to what tips they used and the impact of them.

What would you like to be able to do if you find yourself or your partner in a trap?

With enough skills, couples can avoid slipping into an adversarial stance. If not, take a break from the discussion, and try another time. Using the tips will often make it easier to come to a consensus on complicated dilemmas.

Exercise 4: Costs of Unilateral Rather Than Shared Decision Making

Depression and anger both indicate flaws in shared decision making. Notice the connection in the following story.

  • Understand the relationship between unilateral decision making, anger, and depression.
  • Experience the concept “ Depression is a disorder of power. “

Tell the following story:

Once upon a time, in a kingdom not far away, a lovely lady named Linda married a handsome man named Len. Linda and Len lived in Louiston, where Linda grew up and was a town she loved.

One day Len said to Linda, “ I don’t seem to be able to find employment here that is as good as what I could get if we were to move. ”

Linda felt crushed. “ I love Louiston. I love my job here, my family, my friends. I don’t want to move, as much as I do understand that the job market is better in other areas. ”

Len answered, “ Linda, I’m sorry that you’re so against the idea. But I have already taken a job several states away. We need to move if we’re ever going to get ahead in life. That’s that. The decision has been made. ”

Continue reading the following instructions to the group, pausing after each, but saving the answers until the visualization has been completed:

  • Close your eyes and picture yourself as Linda.
  • Notice what emotions you are experiencing. Notice who seems more prominent, more powerful – yourself or your partner – as you put yourself into the role of the two partners.
  • What did you experience?
  • Now have two participants role-play this scenario using their best win–win waltz skills. What is different?

Discussion and conclusions

What have you learned about the relationship between anger, depression, and unilateral (one-sided) decision making? The powerless person experiences either anger or depression. The more critical the decision, the more potent the anger/depression.

Our toolkit contains invaluable tools for practitioners, coaches, and other professionals. In fact, the Positive Psychology Toolkit© contains over 400 tools, many of which are highly applicable to conflict resolution.

Below we will briefly mention some of these tools that are designed to assist with conflict resolution.

1. Giving Negative Feedback Positively

In any relationship, there are the inevitable ‘hard topics’ to breach, and by avoiding these topics, more harm is done to the relationship. To approach these discussions in a healthy way, our Giving Negative Feedback Positively worksheet guides you through eight constructive steps for a positive conversation and successful relationships.

2. How to Apologize

This exercise also focuses on positive communication in relationships , guides clients in how to apologize effectively to build trust and prevent further conflict.

3. Hot buttons

When Hot Buttons Are Pushed is a coping exercise to help clients become aware of their ‘hot buttons’ that cause unhelpful and impulsive actions. This exercise will help them respond more effectively once they know what their hot buttons are.

4. Difficult people

Looking at Difficult People from a Strength Perspective  is an exercise to guide a client’s thinking about a ‘difficult’ person. Once the client can see the strengths of that person and focus on positive aspects, they’ll be less affected by less desirable aspects.

5. Improving Expression and Understanding

This couples therapy exercise is geared toward Improving Expression and Understanding and is a formatted guide with prompts to encourage positive communication.

6. 17 Positive Communication Exercises

If you’re looking for more science-based ways to help others communicate better, this collection contains 17 validated positive communication tools for practitioners . Use them to help others improve their communication skills and form deeper and more positive relationships.

Conflict leads to emotional distress, turmoil, depression, unhappy relationships, and separation.

But it does not have to be that way.

Being able to manage conflict constructively can instead create opportunities to reach many mutually beneficial decisions. The conflict resolution process can bring you and your partner closer together; allow you to learn from each other; and get to know, understand, love, and respect each other even better.

As long as there are differences of opinion, there will always be conflict. But knowing how to manage it productively and turn it into a win–win situation is the key to a healthy relationship , friendship, and family.

We hope you enjoyed reading this article. Don’t forget to download our three Positive Communication Exercises (PDF) for free .

  • Christensen, A., & Heavey, C. L. (1999). Interventions for couples.  Annual Review of Psychology ,  50 (1), 165-190.
  • Cummings, E. M., Koss, K. J., & Davies, P. T. (2015). Prospective relations between family conflict and adolescent maladjustment: Security in the family system as a mediating process.  Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology ,  43 (3), 503-515.
  • Fisher, R., & Ury, W. L. (1991). Getting to yes. Penguin Books.
  • Heitler, S., & Hirsch, A. H. (2003). The power of two workbook: Communication skills for a strong & loving marriage. New Harbinger.
  • Johansen, M. L. (2012). Keeping the peace: Conflict management strategies for nurse managers.  Nursing Management ,  43 (2), 50-54.
  • Kellermann, P. F. (1996). Interpersonal conflict management in group psychotherapy: An integrative perspective.  Group Analysis ,  29 (2), 257-275.
  • Korabik, K., Baril, G. L., & Watson, C. (1993). Managers’ conflict management style and leadership effectiveness: The moderating effects of gender.  Sex Roles ,  29 (5-6), 405-420.

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Misbah Arshad

Hi, I want to use the Conflict Resolution Checklist by Susan Heitler, PhD., 2020. How should I cite this in my research.

Nicole Celestine, Ph.D.

Glad you found this checklist useful. You can reference it in APA 7th as follows:

Heitler, S. (2020). Conflict resolution checklist [Worksheet]. PositivePsychology.com . Retrieved from: https://positivepsychology.com/wp-content/uploads/Conflict-Resolution-Checklist.pdf

Hope this helps!

– Nicole | Community Manager

Luis Aguirre

I’m trying to conduct a process with my parents, as they wouldn’t accept formal help, and it has been highly helpful for us. Thank you 🙂

Sandra Billingslea

Helpful information.

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The Systems Thinker -

Creating a Conflict-Management Plan

N o one likes conflict in the workplace; most of us will go out of our way to avoid it. But here’s the paradox: Conflict is as essential as it is inevitable.

Unchecked and unmanaged, conflict can be negative and corrosive. But when the competition of ideas is suppressed, conformity stifles creativity. The challenge is to reduce the corrosion while stimulating the creativity.

Conflict has many sources:

  • Disputes about inequities, broken promises, preferential treatment
  • Competition for diminishing resources
  • Fault lines of age, gender, race, craft, status, authority
  • Expectations, especially when they are unclear or unmet

Fear sustains conflict, often the fear of failure. Employees who lack the competence or confidence to take on a challenging assignment will resist in order to avoid potential failure. Newly appointed managers with high potential but limited management experience will often precipitate conflict as a way of diverting attention from their own deficiencies.

Resolving conflict is seldom easy, but the failure to confront it is often more damaging than the conflict itself. The problem will persist, and the reluctant leader will be seen as timid or inept. This also holds true when we send the problem up the ladder of authority. Not only do we clog the ladder, we miss opportunities to learn how to manage effectively.

Every workplace should have a “conflict-management plan,” a prescribed and widely understood method for dealing with conflict. Most don’t; they depend on the experience and intuition of individual leaders. In the absence of a plan, here are some ideas that will help managers resolve conflict:

Stop Blaming. Pinpointing responsibility for past actions can lead to learning, but doing so can easily cross the boundary to blame, where accepting responsibility becomes difficult. Marilyn Paul, writing in The Systems ThinkerV8N1 (February 1997), reminds us, “Blaming leads to fear, which increases cover-ups and reduces the flow of information by stopping productive conversation.”

Manage Your Emotions and Ego. In Adversity Quotient: Turning Obstacles into Opportunities (John Wiley & Sons, 1999), Paul Stoltz suggests that the emotional “noise” of conflict interferes with its resolution:

“Filter out the internal static caused by anger and worry. These emotions cloud your judgment. Detach, in the Buddhist way. Acknowledge the emotion; it was appropriate for a few moments, so don’t fight it. But you need to put it away ‘on the shelf. You can still see it, but you control it rather than having it control you. Focus on the things that can really help you.”

When you’re steamed, conflict resolution tends to be more conflict than resolution. Turn the “noise” down as you try to hear what’s really going on.

And don’t let your ego get in the way. Bosses hate to admit when they’re not skilled at something; they think they look weak and ineffective. In coping with conflict, however, admitting a difficulty may be the smartest strategy, a sign of perceptive self-evaluation and, ironically, authentic confidence.

Deal with the Impact, not the Intentions. You may think you know why someone did something you didn’t like, but you may be wrong, so don’t attribute motives. Instead, deal with the impact and consequences of the actions.

Focus on Interests, not Staked Out Positions. People in conflict will come to you declaring their positions (, “I was only exercising my authority as team leader”) or (, “She doesn’t know what she’s doing”). Acknowledge those positions, but understand that they are not the path toward resolution.

Instead, get people to talk about underlying interests—their needs, desires, concerns, and fears. The positions people take in a conflict are driven by these interests. If an employee is not confident about his skills in a certain realm, his abiding interest in not making a fool of himself will lead to a public position to avoid taking on assignments in that area.

Repeat, Rephrase, Reflect. When someone would rather continue the conflict than resolve it, you need to be patient. One way to hold on is to repeat what they are saying, rephrase it in your own words to show you have heard and understood, and then invite the other person to join you as you reflect on the facts and circumstances of the case.

Here are five tactics for that conversation:

  • Explain the consequences and benefits of his actions.
  • Explain how his actions conflict with your values.
  • Explain how the long-term disadvantages outweigh short-term convenience.
  • Explain how his actions are hurting others.
  • Explain how he is eroding his professional reputation.

Skilled leaders can follow these guidelines to prevent conflict from damaging the relationships in the workplace.

Edward D. Miller is the managing director of The Newsroom Leadership Group, a coaching and consulting consortium that produces the popular APME Leadership Development Workshops. This article is adapted from “Managing Conflict,” part of Edward’s “Reflections on Leadership” series on newsroom management. Learn more at www.newsroomleadership.com /Reflections/s-redesign.html.

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Teaching Guide: Resolving Conflicts

  • for grades K-5

This material is from the teaching guide for the video  “ RESOLVING CONFLICTS “ in the 10-part DVD series You Can Choose!


1.   STOP . Don’t let the conflict get worse. The less angry you are the easier it will be to solve the problem.

2.   SAY what the conflict is about. What is causing the disagreement? What does each of you want or not want?

3.   THINK of positive options. How could you meet each other’s needs and be fair?

4.   CHOOSE a positive option each of you can agree on.

If you still can’t agree, ask someone else (an outsider) to help resolve the conflict.

(If you wish to copy or use any material from this website, please click here for Terms of Use.)


If you are using the video, ask the first two questions before viewing.

1.  Have you ever seen a small disagreement turn into a big fight. What do you think made that happen?

3.  Why did Rhonda and Tuggy get so angry? How could it have been prevented?

4.  How did the argument get out of control? What could Rhonda and Tuggy have done to keep the argument from getting out of control?

5.  Who do you think was to blame? Why?

6.  What happens when people who are disagreeing don’t listen to each other? What can they do about it?

7.  How do you think Missie was feeling?

8.  What would you like to say to Rhonda and Tuggy?

10.  What does the word “compromise” mean? How does it work? What has to happen before people can compromise?

11.  Why is it important to settle disputes peacefully? What can happen if you don’t?

12.  Are there some conflicts that can’t be resolved?


1.  Hand out copies of the STEPS and RULES for resolving conflicts that are in the block at the top of this column (or write them on the board). Discuss each step and rule with the children.

3.  Introduce the concept of “I-messages” and “blaming” messages. Tell the students an “I-message” is a statement about your own feelings. It says what’s bothering you and why.

Example: “It really bothers me that we can’t find a way to compromise. We could do a better job if we worked together instead of arguing all the time.”

A “blaming” message says what’s wrong with the other person.

Example: “You’re ruining our project. You’re a jerk. You never do anything right.”

An “I-message” is constructive and points to a solution. A “blaming” message puts the other person on the defensive and leads to more conflict. “I-messages” usually work better.

Referring to the conflicts already listed on the board, ask students to role play using “I-messages” in these situations instead of “blaming” messages. You might want to demonstrate the “blaming” messages yourself to avoid asking students to practice a negative behavior.

Other teaching guides in this series:


1.  Write about a time when you or someone you know got into a conflict that wasn’t resolved. Describe how the steps and rules of conflict resolution could have been used to resolve it.

2.  Write a short story about a conflict. Make up two endings. In one ending the conflict is resolved, and in the other it isn’t.

4.   Note to the teacher: You can spark students’ thinking for this assignment by giving examples of several typical conflicts between people their age. Divide a sheet of paper in half lengthwise. Think of a conflict or disagreement. On one side write “blaming” messages for that situation. On the other side write “why” messages that could be used instead.


To enlist the involvement of parents, make copies of the “For Parents” block (see below) and send them home with the children. Tell the children to discuss the video with their parents, and to perform the following activities.

1.  List the steps and rules of conflict resolution (see “How to Resolve Conflicts” at the top of this column) on a sheet of paper and post them at home so family members can learn and practice them.

3.  When someone uses a “blaming” message in a conflict with you, ask that person to use an “I-message” instead. Explain the benefits of using “I-messages” instead of “blaming” messages. Also, try not to use “blaming” messages yourself.

Note to the teacher or group leader: It might be a good idea to think of some way for the children to share the outcomes of these activities with each other. Perhaps they could give written or oral reports or discuss their experiences in small groups.

(Copy this block and send it home to the parents.)


Dear Parent,

Your child is involved in learning-activities designed to develop good character and empower young people to make good choices for themselves. He or she may be asked to complete several tasks at home. Your cooperation with these activities will support our overall program.

The current lesson is about conflict resolution. We have shown a video entitled “Resolving Conflicts ,” which presents a skit and discussion about two kids who learn how to settle their differences peacefully. We urge you to ask your child to tell you about this video program and what he or she learned from it.

Here are some things you can do to help your child learn how to settle disputes peacefully and constructively.

• Ask your child to explain the steps and rules of conflict resolution he or she has learned at school. Post them in a place where everyone can refer to them. Use the steps in resolving family conflicts.

• If your child has a conflict with a sibling or friend, call “time out” so they can cool off. Then go through the steps of conflict resolution with them and remind them of the rules.

• Ask your child to explain the difference between “I-messages” and “blaming” messages. Try to use “I-messages” as often as possible and avoid “blaming” messages.

This video teaches children ways to work out interpersonal conflicts without fighting.

see story synopsis . . .

For more information about individual videos in this series, click on the title below.

•   Cooperation •   Being Responsible •  Dealing with Feelings •   Saying No •  Doing the Right Thing •  Disappointment •  Appreciating Yourself •   Asking for Help •  Being Friends •  Resolving Conflicts

If your school or organization does not have these videos, you can purchase them from Live Wire Media , or request them from your local library.

Subscribe to our almost Monthly Newsletter

Get breaking news and developments in character education and helpful tips and ideas that you can use with your own character education program. View the current issue.

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Article • 9 min read

Conflict Resolution

8 ways to resolve conflict in the workplace.

By the Mind Tools Content Team

Where there are people, there is conflict. We each have our values, needs and habits, so it's easy to misunderstand or irritate one another – or worse, to fall into conflict.

Left unchecked, conflict can lead to bad decisions and outright disputes, bullying or harassment. Teamwork breaks down, morale drops, and projects grind to a halt. Organizations feel the hit with wasted talent, high absenteeism, and increased staff turnover.

But conflict can be resolved. What's more, it can bring issues to light, strengthen relationships, and spark innovation – so long as you don't try to ignore it!

In this article, we'll explore different types of conflict, what causes conflict, and how to reach a positive outcome when you find yourself in conflict with a co-worker. (To identify the signs of conflict occurring between other people and to help them overcome their conflict with one another, we recommend our follow-on article, Resolving Team Conflict .)

Conflict Resolution Definition

Generally, workplace conflicts fall into two categories:

  • Personality conflict or disagreements between individuals. These clashes are driven and perpetuated by emotions such as anger, stress and frustration.
  • Substantive conflict is tangible and task-related, like the decisions leaders make, the performance of a team member, or your company's direction.

If unaddressed, both can spiral into wider conflict between teams, departments or businesses. Conflict resolution can be defined as the process of identifying, addressing, and resolving disagreements or disputes among employees in a professional setting, thereby fostering a positive and productive work environment.

What Causes Conflict at Work?

Some of the most common causes of workplace conflict are:

  • Unclear responsibilities . Some team members may feel they do more work than others, or resent those who seem to have fewer responsibilities. Blame and frustration can build due to duplicated work or unfinished tasks.
  • Competition for resources . Time, money, materials, equipment, and skillsets are finite resources. Competition for them can lead to conflict.
  • Different interests . People may focus on personal or departmental goals over organizational ones. Or be held up and frustrated by others who they rely on to do their jobs effectively.

Read our article on Bell and Hart's Eight Causes of Conflict for more sources of – and solutions to – disputes.

Five Conflict Resolution Strategies

When you find yourself in a conflict situation, these five strategies will help you to resolve disagreements quickly and effectively:

1. Raise the Issue Early

Keeping quiet only lets resentment fester. Equally, speaking with other people first can fuel rumor and misunderstanding.

So, whether you're battling over the thermostat or feel that you're being micromanaged, be direct and talk with the other party. However, if you're afraid of making that approach, or worry that it may make the problem worse, speak with your manager first, or your HR department if the other party is your manager.

Either way, be assertive (not aggressive) and speak openly. This will encourage others to do the same – and you can get to the root cause of a problem before it escalates.

2. Manage Your Emotions

Choose your timing when you talk to someone about the conflict. If you're angry, you may say something you'll regret and inflame the situation. Be careful to avoid playing the blame game .

So stay calm, collect yourself, and ask, "What is it I want to achieve here?", "What are the issues I'm having?" and "What is it that I would like to see?"

See our article Managing Your Emotions at Work for more insight and tips.

3. Show Empathy

When you talk to someone about a conflict, it's natural to want to state your own case, rather than hear out the other side. But when two people do this, the conversation goes in circles.

Instead, invite the other party to describe their position, ask how they think they might resolve the issue, and listen with empathy .

Putting yourself in the other person's shoes is an essential part of negotiation. This helps you to build mutual respect and understanding – and to achieve an outcome that satisfies both parties.

4. Practice Active Listening

To identify the source of the conflict you have to really listen. To listen actively:

  • Paraphrase the other party's points to show you're listening and really understand them.
  • Look out for non-verbal signals that contradict what they are saying, such as a hesitant tone behind positive words. Bring these out into the open sensitively to address them together.
  • Use appropriate body language , such as nodding your head, to show interest and to make it clear that you're following them.

Go further with Empathic Listening or Mindful Listening .

5. Acknowledge Criticism

Some of the things the other person tells you may be difficult to hear. But remember that criticism or constructive feedback is about job behaviors and not you as a person.

So, keep an open mind and use criticism to help you to identify areas to improve, perform better next time, and grow.

Glasers' Three-Step Strategy for Conflict Resolution

Conflict management consultants Peter and Susan Glaser recommend a three-step strategy for resolving conflict, and it draws on many of the skills we've looked at above. You can hear the Glasers talking about their model in our exclusive interview with them. [1]

The steps for these conflict resolution skills are:

  • Prove that you understand their side.
  • Acknowledge that you are part of the problem.
  • Try again if the conversation didn't go well.

Let's try a training exercise and apply each step to a fictional conflict resolution scenario.

Conflict Resolution Training Example

Imagine that the heads of two departments are in conflict. Product Manager Sayid changed the price of a product without letting Marketing Manager Gayanne know. As a result, the marketing team sent out an email to customers with incorrect prices. They had to send out a follow-up email apologizing for the error, and make good on the price some customers paid for the product.

1. Prove That You Understand Their Side

Instead of blaming Sayid, Gayanne asks him how he came to make the decision. She uses her questioning and listening skills to get the information she needs and to show that she's truly hearing Sayid's response.

She discovers that Sayid was pressured by a major client to drop the price or risk losing a contract. She empathizes , saying, "Yes, I've had difficulties with that client before, too."

As Susan Glaser says, "Only when you believe that I understand you, will you be willing to try to understand my perspective." [2]

2. Acknowledge That You Are Part of the Problem

If you're in conflict with someone, it's unlikely you're free of all blame. So admit your part in it. This leads to mutual trust, a better understanding of one another, and makes it easier to find a solution.

In our scenario, Gayanne could say to Sayid, "I should have shared our marketing strategy and email send dates with you. I'll do that right away."

3. Try Again if the Conversation Doesn't Go Well

Despite the progress they've made, relations between the two managers remain frosty, so Sayid calls Gayanne the following week. He says, "I was thinking about our conversation, and I'd like to try again because I'm not happy with how it went. I've had time to take your points on board, and I'd like to talk about how we can work together better going forward."

Remember that you get more than one shot at resolving a conflict. Susan Glaser says, "There's a myth that if we have a bad conversation with someone it's over. In fact, 'do overs' are powerful." [3]

Frequently Asked Questions

Why is conflict resolution important in the workplace?

Unresolved conflicts can hinder productivity and damage team dynamics. Effective conflict resolution helps maintain a positive work environment, promotes collaboration, and ensures issues are addressed before they escalate.

What are some common sources of workplace conflicts?

Workplace conflicts can arise from differences in communication styles, conflicting goals, personality clashes, misunderstandings, resource allocation, or competing priorities. Recognizing these sources is crucial for timely intervention.

How can a team manager effectively address conflicts among team members?

A team manager should act as a mediator and facilitator. Begin by listening to both sides, understanding perspectives, and acknowledging emotions. Encourage open dialogue, find common ground, and work together to find a solution that is fair and beneficial for all parties.

What strategies can managers employ to prevent conflicts from escalating?

Managers can implement proactive measures such as fostering a transparent communication culture, setting clear expectations, defining roles and responsibilities, and promoting team-building activities. By addressing potential sources of conflict early on, managers can prevent minor issues from turning into major disputes.

How does effective conflict resolution contribute to team productivity?

Resolving conflicts promptly maintains a harmonious working environment where team members feel valued and understood. This leads to improved morale, increased focus on tasks, and a more efficient workflow, ultimately enhancing overall team productivity.

When is it appropriate to involve higher management in conflict resolution?

Involving higher management should be considered when conflicts cannot be resolved at the team level or when the conflicts involve larger organizational issues. Higher management can provide a neutral perspective and additional resources to facilitate resolution.

Conflict is common in the workplace. The biggest mistake you can make is to do nothing. Unresolved tensions can affect the health and performance of people and organizations.

So, hone these five conflict resolution skills to pre-empt, manage and fix conflicts with your co-workers:

  • Raise the issue early.
  • Manage your emotions.
  • Show empathy.
  • Practice active listening.
  • Acknowledge criticism.

Then try the Glasers' three-step conflict resolution strategy to resolve issues together:

  • Try again if the conversation doesn't go well.

In the process, you may even discover positives such as improved processes, strengthened relationships, and innovation!

[1] [2] [3] Mind Tools interview with Peter A. Glaser, Ph.D. and Susan R. Glaser. Available here .

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Conflict Activities for Literary Analysis

writing assignment conflict resolution plan

Conflict activities for literary analysis: Let’s have fun with this divisive literary device and move toward literary analysis activities. Below, I’ve included literary analysis activities as well as short stories to teach conflict. 

Conflicts in literature : They give our stories movement. Identifying examples for different types—human vs. human, self, nature, society, and the supernatural—is the focus of many class discussions. In literary analysis, conflict remains a cornerstone because every character sees conflicts differently, encounters them differently. Other characters are unaware of certain conflicts, making the implications larger. Literary analysis activities include some sort of discussion about a story’s conflict.

As you discuss a story’s conflict, you’ll naturally expand and connect conflicts to other pieces of the story. Many standards ask students to examine how conflicts move the theme forward or how conflicts reveal characterization . Over the years, I’ve honed several conflict activities for literary analysis that are easy to implement and switch around. Plus, they work well for review. When I provide student choice, students latch to an activity that will individually help them understand literature more than they did before.

Before I dive into a large literary analysis essay, I might use one or two of these activities as a springboard. Once students experience success with analysis, they are willing to expand their thoughts. I’ve included all of these activities (plus many more) in a free download. Access it here:

Looking for a literary conflict lesson plan? These conflict graphic organizers can help.

Free conflict activities.

Here is a list of free, no (or little!) prep conflict activities. These can also easily work for other literary elements activities. Some may fit better with novels and others better with short stories. Adapt these conflict activities for literary analysis as needed!

After the list, I’ve provided five short stories to teach conflict.

Add sticky notes.

Give every student one or two sticky notes. Have them write one conflict per note. Organize different sections around the room—man vs. man, society, and on—and have students file their sticky notes in the appropriate area.

Students can see what the most common conflict was and what the most common type of conflict was. Organizing the conflicts will give students a visual, and you can ask them to explain why some readers see the same conflict, but put them in different categories. Since sticky notes are movable, you can rearrange the conflicts as your discussions grow. Perhaps they overlap.

You can also analyze which category has the most: is this indicative of the story’s time period? the author’s life experiences?

Finally, leave the sticky notes on the wall or poster board. Bring the conflicts back to students as you learn more about the story and discover other literary elements.

Provide a ‘big picture’ of conflict.

Choose one type of conflict to look at throughout history. (This works well for man vs. government.) Students will throw down wars, prohibition, witch trials, voting rights, and segregation. Create a master list from students’ ideas.

Are any remnants of this history seen in the current story? Probably so. Turn that realization into a speech, paper, or additional research. Was the author intentional in bringing the story to life to address societal ills such as slavery or racism? If not, look at how the conflicts from the story are regarded by today’s standards.

Brainstorm ideas about a particular conflict.

Choose a conflict, or have students pick a conflict for further study. Have students decide which character (or force) from the story is ‘correct.’

Look at dissenting sides together, possibly moving students on different sides of the room. Then ask students to write about the opposite of the ‘correct’ character they originally chose. (Bonus: discuss empathy.) Discuss the author’s choice in portraying the conflict as it is. Move students to higher thinking to evaluate the author’s choices.

Think: Not a conflict? Are you sure?

Reread earlier portions of the story, not only to review, but to find seemingly innocuous events between characters and forces that we now know have conflicts. Read these events with a fresh set of eyes. If the story is long, you might list out pages and jigsaw the activity.

This works well with longer novels or plays. When students first read a story, they naturally don’t catch details that add to conflicts.

Take A Separate Peace for example. When readers first meet Phineas and Gene, they might not notice the subtle expressions from Gene. This initial stage of their conflict leads to the story’s climax and ultimately Gene’s realization that there never was an enemy. Students will see that the conflict was always there, before they knew it was.

Move toward literary analysis.

Provide a variety of writing prompts for students that will inspire them to connect pieces of literary analysis together. Not every writing prompt will inspire students, so allow them to choose what make sense to them.

Part of the purpose (and fun) of literary analysis is realizing what other life experiences and beliefs bring to literature. After students write, partner or group students so they can share their ideas. Since brain-based learning tells us to get brains working together, I utilize the writing prompts to accomplish that. Students personalized their analysis, and every student will experience a different angle concerning the story.

Exclude a conflict.

List conflicts in the story. What happens if a conflict were to disappear, big or small: How would the story change? Would readers understand a character less? Would the story be less interesting? Was the conflict unnecessary? (Are you sure?) Could it have been more interesting? Involved another character? Connected to the theme?

By asking these questions after taking a conflict away, students will realize how that conflict shaped other pieces of the story and moved the story along. And if it didn’t—well, that is a huge activity on its own.

What types of conflict activities in literature will you share with students. Add literary elements activities to your literature unit.

Write a correspondence.

I see students use this choice to examine the history behind famous events. For instance, if a novel is set during World War II, students can draft letters between officers from the story.

I’ve also seen students write email correspondences between coaches when they read Mike Lupica books. The emails allow students to analyze the conflicts between players, coaches, and other characters.

Draft a break-up song or poem.

Is a conflict a broken heart? Write a song or poem from the distraught character’s point of view. Include key elements from the story as lyrics.

File a police report.

A police report works well if a physical conflict is involved. I’ve also seen students take a humorous turn with this option, like with “The Monkey’s Paw.” Students will try to explain the situation (which is impossible!) to an outside source.

As a slight alternative, students have also created an insurance report for a car accident. In Lauren Oliver’s Before I Fall, the car accident is a crucial part of the story. Not to spoil the story, but the car accident is reviewed multiple times.

Research authentic parallels.

A conflict might be in a book because real events inspired the author. For instance, Angie Thomas modeled Khali from The Hate U Give after several incidents of police killing unarmed black men.

Conflict activities for literary analysis may need specifically tailored for individual stories, and variations of these start discussions. For when you need a quick activity to study a novel or short story’s conflicts, I hope this list of literary elements activities gets you started.

Looking for extra, ready to print and teach materials to teach conflict? This Conflict Graphic Organizer Bundle will work work with any novel or short story to set students up for success with literary analysis.

Short stories to teach conflict are available online for free. Use these TEN conflict activities for literary analysis with short stories or any piece of literature in your high school language arts classroom. Meet literature standards while teaching conflict in literature. Confilct activities: download this free PDF for literature activities & add to any novel unit or lit circle activity. Join high school English teachers with conflict activities for literary analysis.

Short stories to teach conflict.

But! If you are looking for short stories to teach conflict, I have ideas for you as well.

Quicksand by Nella Larsen

Nella Larsen was a writer during the Harlem Renaissance, and Quicksand is a novella, but mature classes could read it, or you could pull an excerpt from it.

Conflicts in Quicksand are both internal and external. A Black female during the early 1900s (Helga Crane) faces internal conflict due to her family backgrounds. She also experiences external conflict from society and people’s treatment of her.

There Will Come Soft Rains

I love this science fiction story by Ray Bradbury, and I’ve found that I can teach multiple elements with this story. If you are looking to teach the conflict “humans vs. technology,” Bradbury’s story will work. The humans are dead, killed by nuclear war, and their remaining home functions without them. Students can endlessly discuss the conflict of humans’ reliance on technology.

The Lady or The Tiger

Students always debate the conflict that the woman had in this story! The premise that a woman would choose for her boyfriend a new wife or a certain death is so goofy that students open up and debate the feelings surrounding love. As a warning, I have had classes find the story incredibly dumb (their words!), but I have had success. If you have a goofy class who will suspend their disbelief, you can add “The Lady and The Tiger” to your short stories to teach conflict.

Why I Live at the P.O.

Eudora Welty’s story about an angry sister moving to the post office is hysterical and is a classic of American literature. The family’s disfunction and hidden beliefs add to the internal conflicts Sister faces. Students find the story incredibly goofy (it is!) and are quite open to discussing the multiple conflicts.

I love Amy Tan, and I often teach her writing. In “Two Kinds,” the mother and daughter have internal conflicts which manifest into external conflicts. English teachers can cover generational conflicts as well as cultural conflicts.

I hope these short stories to teach conflict fit your audience and your curriculum. You can use any of the above conflict activities with the perfect story.

Conflict activities for literary analysis: ELA puzzle pieces

No template or set of task cards will work for explaining literary conflict to all classes. When creating conflict activities for literary analysis, consider what your classes need for understanding, what story will provide ample discussion points, and what pieces can leverage readers toward true analysis.

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Types of conflict activity can include conflict graphic organizers. A literary conflict lesson plan should include a variety of activities.

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writing assignment conflict resolution plan

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Team-Building Strategies: Building a Winning Team for Your Organization

writing assignment conflict resolution plan

Discover how to build a winning team and boost your business negotiation results in this free special report, Team Building Strategies for Your Organization, from Harvard Law School.

Top Ten Posts About Conflict Resolution

Effective negotiating skills and negotiation tactics for use in conflict resolution.

By PON Staff — on January 30th, 2024 / Conflict Resolution

writing assignment conflict resolution plan

Conflict resolution is the process of resolving a dispute or a conflict by meeting at least some of each side’s needs and addressing their interests. Conflict resolution sometimes requires both a power-based and an interest-based approach, such as the simultaneous pursuit of litigation (the use of legal power) and negotiation (attempts to reconcile each party’s interests). There are a number of powerful strategies for conflict resolution , as you’ll see in our list below of ten popular posts about conflict resolution:

1. How to Resolve Cultural Conflict: Overcoming Cultural Barriers at the Negotiation Table

Understanding cultural norms, while avoiding stereotyping, is a key negotiation skill needed by all international negotiators. Negotiation research reveals that dealmaking across cultures tends to result in worse negotiated agreements than those where negotiators share a common cultural background. Here are some negotiating skills and negotiation techniques you can use to help you avoid cognitive biases at the bargaining table and maximize your value creation opportunities with international counterparts. Read more.

2. 10 Great Examples of Negotiation in Business

Here are some of the most newsworthy business and commercial disputes of 2013 – This was a year that saw many hardball tactics backfire, costly legal battles were waged, and many negotiated agreements were ripped to shreds. Apple versus Samsung. Robin Thicke versus Marvin Gaye. The end of the NHL lockout. 2013 was a year that was filled with negotiation case studies and here are the Program on Negotiation’s top 10 examples that illustrate the importance of negotiation in business. Read more.

The New Conflict Management

Claim your FREE copy: The New Conflict Management

In our FREE special report from the Program on Negotiation at Harvard Law School - The New Conflict Management: Effective Conflict Resolution Strategies to Avoid Litigation – renowned negotiation experts uncover unconventional approaches to conflict management that can turn adversaries into partners.

3. MESO: Make Multiple Equivalent Simultaneous Offers to Create Value in Dealmaking Table

Learn how multiple equivalent simultaneous offers (MESOs) in negotiation offer business negotiators and conflict management professionals multiple avenues for value creation and dispute resolution at the bargaining table. Not only are MESOs effective negotiation strategies, but they can also help resolve seemingly intractable disputes by helping one side or the other reach the zone of possible agreement (ZOPA). Read more.

4. Conflict Resolution in the Family

One of the most common forms of conflict many of us will face is the inevitable dispute with a family member or loved one. What negotiation techniques are best applied to disputes within the family? Drawing on Bruce Feiler’s Lessons in Domestic Diplomacy, this article offers negotiation skills tips for people seeking to resolve conflict inside the home. Read more.

5. Negotiation with Your Children: How to Resolve Family Conflicts

While the negotiation strategies you employ to resolve conflicts with your spouse, brother, or uncle may work wonders in those situations, are they also applicable to resolving conflicts with children? In this article drawn from negotiation research, Scott Brown’s book How to Negotiate with Kids…Even When You Think You Shouldn’t offers practical negotiation advice for parents dealing with difficult situations with children. Read more.

6. Integrative Negotiations: Dispute Resolution Through Joint Fact-Finding

Cooperation in joint fact-finding expeditions can help disputants reach agreement by forcing them to look outside one another’s own limited expertise or experience and rely on that of a neutral third party. Lawrence Susskind’s The Consensus Building Handbook describes joint fact-finding as a multi-step collaborative process designed to help disputants reach a negotiated agreement. Read more.

7. Negotiating the Good Friday Agreement

U.S. Senator George Mitchell’s role in the Good Friday Agreement was pivotal in helping each side reach a negotiated agreement in one of the world’s longest running conflicts. In his interview with Program on Negotiation Managing Director Susan Hackley, George Mitchell describes the negotiating skills and negotiation techniques he employed, namely the “Mitchell Principles,” commitments to open communication, non-violence, and democracy, to bring each side to a negotiated agreement. Read more.

8. Negotiation Games

This article examines the risks disputants take in escalating their conflict to the legal system, – namely, that pure chance, rather than the merits of the case, could decide the outcome of the conflict. Engaging negotiation game resources are also available. Read more.

9. How to Maintain Your Power While Engaging in Conflict Resolution

Here are four negotiation tips for maintaining power and status in negotiation scenarios. While power and prestige may be important factors for the individual negotiator, they may not be important to the negotiation at hand; conversely, high levels of differing status among negotiators may make viable negotiated agreements difficult and value creating agreements impossible. Read more.

10. The Role of Urban Planners in Negotiations: Case Study of Israeli-Palestinian Negotiations

In an event held at the Harvard Law School campus, urban planner Karen Lee Bar-Sinai discussed the role of urban development in peace negotiations between Israelis and Palestinians. Bar-Sinai noted in her discussion that political boundaries and cultural boundaries between peoples often manifest themselves in the form of physical boundaries. Read more.

What did you take away from these examples of conflict resolution? Share your opinions in the comments.

Related Conflict Resolution Article:  Negotiating a Non-Compete Agreement with Employers

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Preparing for negotiation.

Understanding how to arrange the meeting space is a key aspect of preparing for negotiation. In this video, Professor Guhan Subramanian discusses a real world example of how seating arrangements can influence a negotiator’s success. This discussion was held at the 3 day executive education workshop for senior executives at the Program on Negotiation at Harvard Law School.

Guhan Subramanian is the Professor of Law and Business at the Harvard Law School and Professor of Business Law at the Harvard Business School.

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Conflict Resolution Lesson Plan & Printables (K-2)

Conflict resolution lesson plan & printables for K-2

Teach your students how to resolve conflict and help them develop problem-solving and communication skills with this lesson plan of conflict resolution strategies and tools, designed for Kindergarten to Grade 2.

Developing conflict resolution skills is valuable at any age. For students, conflict can arise in and out of the classroom and learning how to develop effective communication to resolve conflict can start as early as Kindergarten. This easy-to-follow lesson plan consists of four conflict resolution activities, including whole-class brainstorms, conflict scenarios, and handouts with useful tools for students to keep and use for conflict management in the future.

Looking for more social-emotional learning resources for K-2? Try The Ultimate Self-Regulation Kit - a complete toolkit of printables and strategies to support students with emotional self-regulation.

What’s included in this lesson plan?

  • 4 conflict resolution strategies for Kindergarten to 2nd grade students
  • Step-by-step teacher instructions
  • Printable handouts for each activity

How to use this lesson plan

The conflict resolution activities in this lesson plan work well when completed in order, as there is a progression of ideas and students can build a conflict resolution toolkit as they go. The lesson plan is flexible and can be adapted to suit your class. Complete activities gradually over several sessions or in one or two longer sessions. The activities encourage collaboration and discussion of different conflict scenarios, and role-play is a good way to encourage decision-making and practice different ways to solve a conflict. The lesson plan works well for whole-class discussion but also for breaking out into small groups who can then share what they’ve learnt with the rest of the class.

Each activity comes with printable tools for students to keep and use, as well as posters to help follow up and support students with using conflict resolution strategies in the classroom.

Jenna Baldwin

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About the author

Jenna Baldwin


Jenna Baldwin is a high school English teacher of 8 years, a lifelong student, and TeacherVision contributor.

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Course info.

  • Prof. Mary Rowe


  • Sloan School of Management

As Taught In

  • Business Ethics
  • Industrial Relations and Human Resource Management
  • Communication

Learning Resource Types

Negotiation and conflict management, assignments.

Grades are based 50% on class work and 50% on writing: your Little Papers, the journal and Separate Pages. Please write in your confidential journal and write evaluations of your colleagues every week. I will read your papers, keep them confidential, and return the papers at the next class – no one else sees them.

Many of the documents that relate to these assignments can be found on the lecture notes page.

2 What Kind of Negotiator am I? Hand in your journal, which should include the following four assignments:

  • The Class Notes reading assignment for today: Rowe, Mary. Options and Choice for Conflict Resolution in the Workplace , in Negotiation: Strategies for Mutual Gain , by Lavinia Hall, ed., Sage Publications, Inc., 1993, pp. 105-119, ends with an “Exercise” which is your first self-assessment. Write about your conflict management preferences and those of people close to you.
  • Score the Thomas-Kilmann Questionnaire – the second self-assessment. Please write about your scores in three areas of your life. Some people photocopy the questionnaire and the answer sheet for a Significant Other before filling it out, either to find out the self-analysis of the Other, or to see how the other person thinks you would answer it, or both.
  • Write about the $2 game: How did you feel about the negotiation conditions, and the tactics you used or observed in the $2 game? Whose negotiating behavior particularly impressed or irritated you, and why?
  • Turn in at least one Separate Page, about the negotiation behavior of someone in the class which you found particularly noteworthy on the first day.

There are pages on the study materials page with questions that may be useful in this analysis. The separate page should include the name of the person whose negotiation you are describing. You do not need to sign the page but if you want to write an anonymous page – and also wish me to give you credit for writing a great assessment – then put your name on it with a sticky note, and I will remove the note before giving the page to the person named. These pages will be sent to all of you after the end of the course. Previous classes have suggested that this feed-back is useful to the recipients of the pages. My first interest, however, is that you should be able to analyze and understand how others negotiate, and how various negotiations strategies and styles affect you.

Case this week: Stratego Aero I. (Please save your copy of the case)

For next week: Please find the Ethics and Machiavelli Questionnaires , and scoring sheets in the Class Notes, for the assignment due in Session 3. Pick up your part in Terry and Josephine at Navigational Systems . 3 Distributive and Mixed Motive Bargaining Hand in: Ethics and Machiavelli Little Paper #1 ( PDF )

The Ethics and Machiavelli Questionnaires are the third and fourth self-assessments of this class. You will find the Ethics and Machiavelli Questionnaires , and scoring sheets, in the Class Notes. If you wish, photocopy the questionnaires and give a copy to someone who knows you well, to fill out about you and return to you. NB: The Machiavelli Questionnaire is at best quaint and sexist, and there are no right answers. The point is to assess the extent to which you think or act in a way that others might think is “Machiavellian,” and to see if you believe that your thinking and behavior reflect your own values. Please feel free to (re) read The Prince , or recall anything you would like about Machiavelli, as you think about this. Alternatively, just deal with the image of “Machiavellianism” and whether you think it suits you.

Also – please write in your journal and, as usual, please write a separate page about the negotiation of someone in the class (journals are handed in during Session 6).

Case: Prepare your role in the Terry and Josephine case. If you can, prepare together with anyone who is playing the same role as you.

For Next Week: Pick up your roles for next week in the Hiring/Salary case ( Barrister ) and the Performance Evaluation case ( The Yearly Review ). Prepare with someone else with the same role if you can. 4 Integrative and Mixed Motive Bargaining This week there is a lot of reading, writing and case preparation but nothing to hand in.

Write: Write in your journal, (which is due in Session 6). As usual, please write a separate page about your observations of someone in the class?

Cases: Prepare your role in Barrister, Counselor, Solicitor and Avocat , and your role in The Yearly Review . Please prepare together with anyone who is playing the same role as you.

Pick up copies of the Aggressive Competitive Negotiator and Tax Books cases to prepare for next week. Choose a partner for next week – the negotiation next week will be two on two. 5 Competitive and Cooperative Styles and Do Gender or Culture Make a Difference? Write: Write in your journal, plus the “separate page” about the excellent (or otherwise remarkable) negotiation of a classmate.

Cases: Prepare the Tax Books case with a partner. NB: Please together choose a negotiating style and strategy and tactics that you and your partner will pursue – see the tactics sheet from Negotiation 101 (refer to the study materials section). Keep your plans secret from the other side, but please tell me in your journals how the planned choice of strategy, style and tactics influences (if at all) your negotiating, and the outcome of the case. See if you are able to figure out which strategy and style the other team adopted? In real life, can you recognize the strategy and style of others? ( negotiated two on two )

Please also prepare the Aggressive Competitive Negotiator with your partner. Come up with several suggestions about how you might deal with this ACN.

Pick up your role in Telemachus , for next week. Please prepare with someone who has the same role. 6 Negotiating in Context Hand in your journal – plus separate pages about people who have inspired you, or who have done something you find questionable, in class negotiations. The journal – covering classes and readings (and your life?) during the period of Session 2 up to today – is due today.

Case: Prepare Telemachus , (but not the Coalition case). Prepare together with anyone who is playing the same role as you in Telemachus . Please pay special attention to the question of choosing a strategy and style and planning your tactics – again please review the Tactics sheet from Negotiations 101 and review the possible roles Ury describes for a Thirdsider – two pages at the end of N101 (refer to the study materials section).

Next Week: Please do the reading for Session 7, before you write your Perceived Injurious Experience letter. Then read the instructions in the Class Notes on how to write a P.I.E. letter. This letter is your Little Paper #2, due in Session 7. You may turn this assignment in early if you wish to because you are taking a trip. Please try hard to follow the instructions even if you think they are too rigid. Holiday Week Optional Assignment: Enders Game , as suggested earlier and/or Joan Slonczewski’s A Door Into Ocean , Avon, 1986, science fiction, which presents a profoundly different view – from Enders Game – of sources of power in dealing with armed conflict. As with Enders Game , this book may interest you especially in the light of hostilities in many parts of the world. If you do read either or both books, please consider writing in your journal your responses to the questions I asked for Session 4, with respect to Enders Game. 7 Origins of Conflict – Dispute Prevention – Delegating Conflict Management to the Disputant Write: In your journal – and look for behavior in a classmate that will inspire a separate page.

**Hand in Little Paper #2: “Perceived Injurious Experience.” **

  • Assignment Description for the PIE Letter ( PDF )
  • Drafting – and Perhaps Sending – A Private Letter to a Person Who has Harassed or Offended You ( PDF )
  • Joe and Josephine at Biochemix ( PDF )

Please try hard to follow the instructions, even if you think they are too rigid? 8 Your Employer’s Dispute Resolution and Complaint Handling System Write: In your journal and, if possible, a separate page. If you read or skimmed the MIT Guide to Dealing with Harassment consider writing a paragraph of critique or commentary. Read the questions posed for last week and answer them?

Preparing for Next Week: Read the instructions (in the Class Notes) for Little Paper #3, “Seeing Both Sides of a Dispute”, due on Session 9.

Pick up Stratego Aero II . Check to see that you still have Stratego Aero I . You will need both I and II to prepare for next week.

Before you leave class please arrange to prepare together with one or more people playing the same role as you in the mediation next week. Preparing for any important negotiation is probably the most important skill in negotiations. It is especially vital if you are going into a mediation in any role. You will find the Moore readings useful, so try to do the readings for next week before you meet with a colleague who has the same role. See also the Moore chart: Figure 2.1 from Moore, Christopher W. The Mediation Process: Practical Strategies for Resolving Conflict. 2nd ed. Jossey-Bass, 1996. Holiday Week Optional Assignment: Rent the video The Return of Martin Guerre . The question is, whom can you believe? Is it possible to tell if someone is lying? If so – how will you do it as a manager? If not – how will you manage? 9 Conciliation and Mediation Write: Write in your journal and – if possible – a separate page.

Hand in: Little Paper #3: Seeing Both Sides of a Dispute ( PDF )

Case: Prepare Stratego Aero II . To do so, you should have re-read Stratego Aero I as well as your Stratego II Secret Instructions. Prepare together with someone who is playing the same role as you and please prepare carefully. Otherwise you will mess up your colleagues’ role-playing, and they will write me fierce notes about requiring people to prepare better.

Pick up cases for next week. These cases are somewhat controversial. Can you find a classmate, or someone else quite different from you , to read the cases together with you, and help prepare for the class discussion?

Remember the double class (6 hours) next week with pizza. 10 Investigation, Arbitration and Exceptionally Difficult People (Double Class, 6 hours) Write: In your journal - and try for a separate page? By now you are totally exhausted with the semester, but the colleagues you write about will (probably) be grateful - and you need all the practice you can get in evaluating Others.

_The last journal (covering the period Session 6 through today) and separate pages, are due after this class, any time later this week. _ Class: Certified Public Accountants, Inc. (Theft); Discussion of Cases Distributed in Class (Drugs, Whistleblowers, and a Convicted Employee).

Cases: Please prepare to discuss the cases. If you possibly can, prepare by asking people outside the class – preferably ask someone who is not of your own background – what should happen in any of these cases. There is no role-play preparation. 11 More Negotiating with Difficult People Hand in: Your journal (covering the period since Session 6) and separate pages are due today if you did not send them in during this past week.

MIT Open Learning


Conflict Resolution Plan Assignment

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Conflict Resolution Plan Step One: Set the Scene Make sure that people understand that the conflict may be a mutual problem, which may be best resolved through discussion and negotiation rather than through raw aggression. If you are involved in the conflict, emphasize the fact that you are presenting your perception of the problem. Use active listening skills to ensure you hear and understand other’s positions and perceptions. * Restate * Paraphrase * Summarize

And make sure that when you talk, you’re using an adult, assertive approach rather than a submissive or aggressive style. Step Two: Gather Information Here you are trying to get to the underlying interests, needs, and concerns. Ask for the other person’s viewpoint and confirm that you respect his or her opinion and need his or her cooperation to solve the problem. Try to understand his or her motivations and goals, and see how your actions may be affecting these. Also, try to understand the conflict in objective terms: Is it affecting work performance? amaging the delivery to the client? disrupting team work? hampering decision-making? or so on. Be sure to focus on work issues and leave personalities out of the discussion. * Listen with empathy and see the conflict from the other person’s point of view. * Identify issues clearly and concisely. * Use “I” statements. * Remain flexible. * Clarify feelings. Step Three: Agree the Problem This sounds like an obvious step, but often different underlying needs, interests and goals can cause people to perceive problems very differently.

Don’t waste your time! Order your assignment!

You’ll need to agree the problems that you are trying to solve before you’ll find a mutually acceptable solution. Sometimes different people will see different but interlocking problems – if you can’t reach a common perception of the problem, then at the very least, you need to understand what the other person sees as the problem. Step Four: Brainstorm Possible Solutions If everyone is going to feel satisfied with the resolution, it will help if everyone has had fair input in generating solutions.

Brainstorm possible solutions, and be open to all ideas, including ones you never considered before. Step Five: Negotiate a Solution By this stage, the conflict may be resolved: Both sides may better understand the position of the other, and a mutually satisfactory solution may be clear to all. However you may also have uncovered real differences between your positions. This is where a technique like win-win negotiation can be useful to find a solution that, at least to some extent, satisfies everyone. There are three guiding principles here: Be Calm, Be Patient, Have Respect…

Project communication documents [Use the Project communication table to identify the communication documents needed for your project, the recipients of the documents, the persons responsible for creating and updating the documents, and how often the documents need to be updated. ] Project communication table Document| Recipients| Responsibilities| Update frequency| Executive status report| | | | Risk management document| | | | Issue management document| | | | Change control document| | | | Project schedule| | | | | | | | | | | | Team structure Identify the key roles of members of your marketing team and the normal patterns of communication between roles. You can create a diagram or table to illustrate communication relationships. ] Team goals [List your team’s quality goals. ] Team assignments [Use the following table to outline the project’s marketing teams, team goals, team leads, and team roles. ] project team| Name of team| Team goals| Team leads| Team roles| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Team roles and responsibilities [Identify the responsibilities assigned to each of the team roles. ]

Risks and issues management Potential exceptions and problems [List all potential problems that might arise during the project, and list their causes, symptoms, consequences, and possible solutions. ] Appropriate corrective measures [For each issue, identify the optimal way to resolve the issue and then identify the steps that your team needs to take in order to implement the resolution. ] Tracking risks and issues [In the following table, track the risks and issues that you identified. ] Date recorded| Risk description| Probability| Impact| Mitigation plan| | | | | | | | | | | | | | | Change management process Change management process steps [Describe the process that your team will follow to document and approve changes to the project. If your team uses a change control document, identify how and when team members should fill it out. ] Change management process flow [Create a flow diagram of your change process. ] Change control board (CCB) [Identify who will serve on the CCB, which determines whether issues are within the current project scope and whether they should be addressed. ]

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Team charter template: A roadmap for team success (with examples)

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A team charter outlines what your team stands for and how they operate. By creating a document of shared goals, strategies, and processes, your team can start every project on a united front. Learn how to create a team charter so you can establish a shared vision and source of truth for your team.

Team charters are a communal reference that show your team that the whole is greater than the individual. In this article, learn how to create a team charter so you can establish a shared vision and source of truth for your team.

What is a team charter?

A team charter is a visual outline of what your team stands for and how they operate. By creating a document of shared goals, strategies, and processes, your team can start every project on a united front. Team charters are a collaborative process and can serve as a central source of information. A team charter:

Provides accountability for team members

Delivers a customized team process document

Establishes a shared vision for project success

Improves communication among team members

Ensures all team members understand team ideals

In addition to their internal benefits, team charters can show your team's purpose to the rest of your company. Not only will you explicitly state your purpose in a section of the document, but as others read the document in its entirety, they’ll understand how your team collectively operates. 

What is included in a team charter?

​​Before learning how to create a team charter, take a look at the basic elements of a team charter template. You can format your team charter template in a variety of ways, ranging from a mind map to a flowchart .

[inline illustration] components of a team charter (infographic)

Mission and objectives: State the purpose of your team and what you collectively seek to accomplish. 

Roles and responsibilities: List team member roles and responsibilities so everyone can review expectations of them and others.

Budget and resources: Explain how your team will determine project budgets and allocate project resources . List any universal rules for managing project finances.

Work processes: Give a step-by-step overview of your team’s project workflows , and ensure everyone on the team understands this process.

Performance assessment: Explain how your team will measure project success in objective and subjective terms.

Communication norms: Identify how and where team members should communicate with each other and whether the communication should change based on your discussion.

Rules and conflict resolution: List basic ground rules for how team members will work together and offer strategies for resolving conflicts when they arise.

Signatures: Provide an area for team members to sign the document and establish accountability for the information presented and agreed upon.

How to create a team charter

As a manager, you’ll likely know what information you want to include in each section of the team charter, but team collaboration is also important as you write up your document. By involving your team members throughout the process, you can co-create a team charter you’re all proud to use. Try the steps below to guide you along the way.

[inline illustration] 8 steps to write a team charter (infographic)

1. State your team’s purpose

While your team may work on multiple projects , there’s likely a larger program that describes your work. Consider this question to begin your team charter: How does our team work within the company? This will help you state your team’s purpose. 

Tip: Place your team’s purpose in the section of your team charter devoted to mission and objectives. Finding a creative way to state your purpose can be a bonding opportunity for the team. Ask your team to brainstorm your team’s purpose, and write down all of their ideas. Then, try narrowing your team’s purpose down to one sentence—kind of like a formal mission statement for your team. Some teams also call this their “North Star.”

2. Outline the team structure

Starting with the highest-ranking job role on your team, break down your team structure and list out the responsibilities associated with each role. This section will help reinforce each team member’s role, while also serving as a reference to help team members understand what their coworkers work on. 

This section is also particularly helpful for cross-team collaboration. Depending on the size of your team and how new a team member is, everyone may not be familiar with what other people’s job duties are. When you share everyone’s roles and responsibilities in your team charter, you’re creating a central source of truth that team members can access if they have any questions. Then, as things change, you can easily update this section if roles switch or new team members join.

Tip: To break down your team structure in a collaborative way, consider turning this section of your team charter into a team-building activity. Gather your team members—virtually or in person—and challenge everyone to learn each other’s names, job roles, and associated responsibilities.

3. Discuss budgeting and resource strategies

Project budgets and resources can be difficult to secure, manage, and allocate. Having a section dedicated to cost management strategies can help team members during project planning and in change control situations. 

Some strategies you may use include:

Create a detailed budget proposal during project planning

Allocate resources as soon as you know what you have to work with

Reduce costs whenever and wherever possible

Anticipate project changes before they occur

If team members know how to predict costs and keep them down, they’ll have a better chance of keeping stakeholders happy.

Tip: The main goal of this section is to document general processes for handling project budgets and ensure everyone is on the same page. While you lead this discussion with your team, make sure to give team members the opportunity to provide input.

4. Explain the project workflow

​​A workflow is an end-to-end process that helps teams meet their goals by connecting the right people to the right data at the right time. Once it’s set up, a workflow helps you organize information in a way that is not only understandable, but also repeatable.

Every project workflow starts with a standard project planning phase, which includes the following seven steps:

Define goals and project objectives

Set success metrics

Clarify stakeholders and roles

Set your budget

Align on milestones and deliverables

Outline your timeline and schedule

Share your communication plan

While each project may vary slightly based on unique features, you should have a general process to create deliverables and achieve project success. 

Tip: Your team may have more than one workflow, depending on how many programs or workstreams you manage. For each major workflow, ensure team members understand the broad process—as well as who to approach for any specific questions. 

5. Define your version of success

Your team should have a general way to measure what project success looks like. It’s a good idea to use a mixture of objective and subjective ways to define success. This way, your team won’t fall into a routine of developing projects without considering all perspectives first. 

To develop your team’s specific definition(s) of success, consider the following questions:

Do you define project success by comparing the project outcome to the initial project objectives ? 

Do you use feedback from stakeholders or customers to measure success? 

Do you have a broader view of success based on your team’s purpose?

Tip: Make sure your goals—even your subjective ones—follow the SMART methodology . SMART stands for specific, measurable, achievable, realistic, and time-bound. 

5. Establish standard forms of communication

Team communication is crucial for project success, but there isn’t a one-size-fits-all approach to communicating with your team members. While face-to-face or virtual meetings may make sense for some types of team communication, keeping a paper trail can also be beneficial for project talk so that details are easy to remember and look back on when needed.

To establish your team’s standard forms of communication, ask questions like:

How should team members communicate when discussing projects? 

How should team members communicate about internal matters? 

Where should team members communicate with clients, or should they relay information to you so that you can handle client communication?

Tip: As you standardize your team communication, take some time to discuss the way your team currently communicates. Try to identify areas where you want to improve and use these areas as jumping off points for your team charter.

6. Set ground rules and conflict resolution steps

Your team will inevitably disagree. In fact, disagreement is a sign of strong collaboration—because it means your team members are comfortable sharing their real opinions and being their full selves. However, while disagreement in and of itself isn’t a bad thing, it is critical to establish a basic set of team values and ground rules to prevent disagreements from escalating. 

Team rules don’t need to be extensive, they just have to be things that your team values. Work with your team members to brainstorm your most important team values and create a series of ground rules. 

Examples of ground rules in a team charter include:

Treat everyone with respect.

Always assume positive intent.

Treat customers, coworkers, and managers equally.

Celebrate each other's accomplishments.

Constructive criticism only.

Practice active listening .

With a simple set of ground rules, you can prevent conflicts and miscommunication. If conflicts occur, having conflict resolution strategies in your team charter can help team members move forward.

Examples of conflict resolution strategies in a team charter include:

Don’t let problems fester.

Differentiate between intent and impact

Discuss conflicts openly.

Find solutions together.

Tip: Turn this section of the team charter into a collaborative activity by acting out challenging situations where these ground rules may unintentionally get broken. Practice using your conflict resolution strategies to find common ground. Like most soft skills, conflict resolution isn’t something you can learn in a day, but continuously practicing it as a team can help you all improve.

7. Review and sign off

Everyone on the team should be on the same page about what to include in the team charter. Share the document digitally with work management software like Asana to allow others to access the document and see when you’ve made changes.

Tip: To maintain team unity and ensure everyone remains on the same page, re-distribute the team charter each quarter and have team members review it. You can then hold a meeting and invite everyone to make suggestions or improvements so the document stays up to date.

Team charter template (and examples)

Here, you’ll see an example of a team charter for a marketing team. It allows team members to visualize each section without needing to scroll through walls of text. This format also makes it easy to find information and change it when needed. 

[inline illustration] team charter (example)

Your team charter will likely have more detail than this sample, but it can still be easily digestible and accessible. Try our free team charter template below to get started.

Clarify your goals with a team charter

It takes more than natural chemistry to create team synergy. Effective teams stand by their core values and collaborate when making decisions. A team charter can ensure everyone stays in touch with the team’s processes and purpose. 

When you integrate your team charter with work management software like Asana , your team can show just how much they can achieve together.

Writing Genius

Decision-Making and Conflict Resolution Plan

by wfqre | Jan 11, 2024 | Business Finance | 0 comments


Working in teams is a part of everyday life in almost every business. Project teams, like other work teams, must function efficiently in order to be productive. When working on a project, it is important to have a process for decision-making and to handle conflicts among team members or clients. Conflict, when it arises, must be resolved so that the members can work together efficiently.

Discuss with the team members the decision-making process and instances of conflict in your work teams, either at your current place of employment or any previous work.

Create a 1,050-word Decision-Making & Conflict Resolution Plan that includes the following:

  • Determine key steps in the decision-making process. Tie into Spigner’s doc.

This is my part this is a team assignment

  • Discuss the importance of each step. My part
  • Determine methods to assess the effectiveness of the decision-making process. My Part

The bullets labeled my part is the only part that needs to be completed on the assingment writing

  • Identify key steps in the conflict resolution process.
  • Explain why conflict resolution is important to project teams.
  • Discuss how this can be used in your jobs or current roles.

Format consistent with APA guidelines.

Please create a job aid:

Create a Conflict Resolution Job Aid for a project team in an appropriate format for the organization based on the action plan. This can be done using Microsoft ® PowerPoint ® , Microsoft® Publisher ® , Microsoft ® Word, or sites such as Glogster ® and PiktoChart ® .

Attached are the other team memebers first bullet

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