Deed of Assignment: Everything You Need to Know

A deed of assignment refers to a legal document that records the transfer of ownership of a real estate property from one party to another. 3 min read updated on January 01, 2024

Updated October 8,2020:

A deed of assignment refers to a legal document that records the transfer of ownership of a real estate property from one party to another. It states that a specific piece of property will belong to the assignee and no longer belong to the assignor starting from a specified date. In order to be valid, a deed of assignment must contain certain types of information and meet a number of requirements.

What Is an Assignment?

An assignment is similar to an outright transfer, but it is slightly different. It takes place when one of two parties who have entered into a contract decides to transfer all of his or her rights and obligations to a third party and completely remove himself or herself from the contract.

Also called the assignee, the third party effectively replaces the former contracting party and consequently assumes all of his or her rights and obligations. Unless it is stated in the original contract, both parties to the initial contract are typically required to express approval of an assignment before it can occur. When you sell a piece of property, you are making an assignment of it to the buyer through the paperwork you sign at closing.

What Is a Deed of Assignment?

A deed of assignment refers to a legal document that facilitates the legal transfer of ownership of real estate property. It is an important document that must be securely stored at all times, especially in the case of real estate.

In general, this document can be described as a document that is drafted and signed to promise or guarantee the transfer of ownership of a real estate property on a specified date. In other words, it serves as the evidence of the transfer of ownership of the property, with the stipulation that there is a certain timeframe in which actual ownership will begin.

The deed of assignment is the main document between the seller and buyer that proves ownership in favor of the seller. The party who is transferring his or her rights to the property is known as the “assignor,” while the party who is receiving the rights is called the “assignee.”

A deed of assignment is required in many different situations, the most common of which is the transfer of ownership of a property. For example, a developer of a new house has to sign a deed of assignment with a buyer, stating that the house will belong to him or her on a certain date. Nevertheless, the buyer may want to sell the house to someone else in the future, which will also require the signing of a deed of assignment.

This document is necessary because it serves as a temporary title deed in the event that the actual title deed for the house has not been issued. For every piece of property that will be sold before the issuance of a title deed, a deed of assignment will be required.

Requirements for a Deed of Assignment

In order to be legally enforceable, an absolute sale deed must provide a clear description of the property being transferred, such as its address or other information that distinguishes it from other properties. In addition, it must clearly identify the buyer and seller and state the date when the transfer will become legally effective, the purchase price, and other relevant information.

In today's real estate transactions, contracting parties usually use an ancillary real estate sale contract in an attempt to cram all the required information into a deed. Nonetheless, the information found in the contract must be referenced by the deed.

Information to Include in a Deed of Assignment

  • Names of parties to the agreement
  • Addresses of the parties and how they are binding on the parties' successors, friends, and other people who represent them in any capacity
  • History of the property being transferred, from the time it was first acquired to the time it is about to be sold
  • Agreed price of the property
  • Size and description of the property
  • Promises or covenants the parties will undertake to execute the deed
  • Signatures of the parties
  • Section for the Governors Consent or Commissioner of Oaths to sign and verify the agreement

If you need help understanding, drafting, or signing a deed of assignment, you can post your legal need on UpCounsel's marketplace. UpCounsel accepts only the top 5 percent of lawyers to its site. Lawyers on UpCounsel come from law schools such as Harvard Law and Yale Law and average 14 years of legal experience, including work with or on behalf of companies like Google, Menlo Ventures, and Airbnb.

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Content Approved by UpCounsel

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  • Contract for Deed in Texas
  • Assignment Law
  • Deed Contract Agreement
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  • Legal Assignment
  • Deed vs Agreement
  • Assignment Legal Definition
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what is deed of assignment and transfer of rights

Deed of Assignment or Deed of Novation: Key Differences and Legal Implications of Novation and Assignment Contracts

what is deed of assignment and transfer of rights

Novation and assignment stand out as pivotal processes for the transfer of contractual rights and obligations. These legal concepts allow a party to the contract to adapt to changing circumstances, ensuring that business arrangements remain relevant and effective. This article explores the nuances of novation and assignment, shedding light on their distinct legal implications, procedures, and practical applications. Whether you’re a business owner navigating the transfer of service contracts, or an individual looking to understand your rights and responsibilities in a contractual relationship, or a key stakeholder in a construction contract, this guide will equip you with the essential knowledge to navigate these complex legal processes.

Table of Contents

  • What is a Deed of Novation? 
  • What is a Deed of Assignment? 

Key Differences Between Novation and Assignment Deeds

Need a deed of novation or assignment key factors to consider, selecting the right assignment clause for your contract – helping you make the right choice, what is a deed of novation.

Novation is a legal process that allows a new party to a contract to take the place of an original party in a contract, thereby transferring both the responsibilities and benefits under the contract to a third party. In common law, transferring contractual obligations through novation requires the agreement of all original parties involved in the contract, as well as the new party. This is because novation effectively terminates the original contract and establishes a new one.

A novation clause typically specifies that a contract cannot be novated without the written consent of the current parties. The inclusion of such a clause aims to preclude the possibility of novation based on verbal consent or inferred from the actions of a continuing party. Nevertheless, courts will assess the actual events that transpired, and a novation clause may not always be enforceable. It’s possible for a novation clause to allow for future novation by one party acting alone to a party of their choosing. Courts will enforce a novation carried out in this manner if it is sanctioned by the correct interpretation of the original contract.

Novation is frequently encountered in business and contract law, offering a means for parties to transfer their contractual rights and duties to another, which can be useful if the original party cannot meet their obligations or wishes to transfer their contract rights. For novation to occur, there must be unanimous consent for the substitution of the new party for the original one, necessitating a three-way agreement among the original party, the new party, and the remaining contract party. Moreover, the novation agreement must be documented in writing and signed by all involved parties. Understanding novation is essential in the realms of contracts and business dealings, as it provides a way for parties to delegate their contractual rights and responsibilities while freeing themselves from the original agreement.

What is a Deed of Assignment?

A deed of assignment is a legal document that facilitates the transfer of a specific right or benefit from one party (the assignor) to another (the assignee). This process allows the assignee to step into the assignor’s position, taking over both the rights and obligations under the original contract. In construction, this might occur when a main contractor assigns rights under a subcontract to the employer, allowing the employer to enforce specific subcontractor duties directly if the contractor fails.

Key aspects of an assignment include:

  • Continuation of the Original Contract: The initial agreement remains valid and enforceable, despite the transfer of rights or benefits.
  • Assumption of Rights and Obligations: The assignee assumes the role of the assignor, adopting all associated rights and responsibilities as outlined in the original contract.
  • Requirement for Written Form: The assignment must be documented in writing, signed by the assignor, and officially communicated to the obligor (the party obligated under the contract).
  • Subject to Terms and Law: The ability to assign rights or benefits is governed by the specific terms of the contract and relevant legal statutes.

At common law, parties generally have the right to assign their contractual rights without needing consent from the other party involved in the contract. However, this does not apply if the rights are inherently personal or if the contract includes an assignment clause that restricts or modifies this general right. Many contracts contain a provision requiring the consent of the other party for an assignment to occur, ensuring that rights are not transferred without the other party’s knowledge.

Once an assignment of rights is made, the assignee gains the right to benefit from the contract and can initiate legal proceedings to enforce these rights. This enforcement can be done either independently or alongside the assignor, depending on whether the assignment is legal or equitable. It’s important to note that while rights under the contract can be assigned, the contractual obligations or burdens cannot be transferred in this manner. Therefore, the assignor remains liable for any obligations under the contract that are not yet fulfilled at the time of the assignment.

Choosing Between Assignment and Novation in a Construction Contract

Choosing between a deed of novation and an assignment agreement depends on the specific circumstances and objectives of the parties involved in a contract. Both options serve to transfer rights and obligations but in fundamentally different ways, each with its own legal implications, risks, and benefits. Understanding these differences and considering various factors can help in making an informed decision that aligns with your goals.

The choice between assignment and novation in a construction project scenario, where, for instance, an employer wishes to engage a subcontractor directly due to loss of confidence in the main contractor, hinges on several factors. These are:

  • Nature of the Contract:  The type of contract you’re dealing with (e.g., service, sales) can influence which option is more suitable. For instance, novation might be preferred for service contracts where obligations are personal and specific to the original parties.
  • Parties Involved: Consent is a key factor. Novation requires the agreement of all original and new parties, making it a viable option only when such consent is attainable. Assignment might be more feasible if obtaining consent from all parties poses a challenge.
  • Complexity of the Transaction: For transactions involving multiple parties and obligations, novation could be more appropriate as it ensures a clean transfer of all rights and obligations. Assignment might leave the original party with ongoing responsibilities.
  • Time and Cost: Consider the practical aspects, such as the time and financial cost associated with each option. Novation typically involves more complex legal processes and might be more time-consuming and costly than an assignment.

If the intention is merely to transfer the rights of the subcontractor’s work to the employer without altering the subcontractor’s obligations under a contract, an assignment might suffice. However, if the goal is to completely transfer the main contractor’s contractual role and obligations to the employer or another entity, novation would be necessary, ensuring that all parties consent to this new arrangement and the original contractor is released from their obligations.

The legal interpretations and court decisions highlight the importance of the document’s substance over its label. Even if a document is titled a “Deed of Assignment,” it could function as a novation if it transfers obligations and responsibilities and involves the consent of all parties. The key is to clearly understand and define the objective behind changing the contractual relationships and to use a deed — assignment or novation — that best achieves the desired legal and practical outcomes, ensuring the continuity and successful completion of the construction project.

Understanding the distinction between assignment deeds and novation deeds is crucial for anyone involved in contractual agreements. Novation offers a clean slate by transferring both rights and obligations to a new party, requiring the consent of all involved. Assignment, conversely, allows for the transfer of contractual benefits without altering the original contract’s obligations. Each method serves different strategic purposes, from simplifying transitions to preserving original contractual duties. The choice between novation and assignment hinges on specific legal, financial, and practical considerations unique to each situation. At PBL Law Group, we specialise in providing comprehensive legal advice and support in contract law. Our team is dedicated to helping clients understand their options and make informed decisions that align with their legal and business objectives. Let’s discuss!

Picture of Authored By<br>Raea Khan

Authored By Raea Khan

Director Lawyer, PBL Law Group

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what is deed of assignment and transfer of rights

Understanding a deed of assignment for intellectual property

A deed of transfer is used to change the ownership of intellectual property, a common occurrence in business. Explore how and when to use one.

Find out more about intellectual property basics

what is deed of assignment and transfer of rights

by   Brette Sember, J.D.

Brette is a former attorney and has been a writer and editor for more than 25 years. She is the author of more than 4...

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Updated on: November 24, 2023 · 3 min read

Understanding intellectual property in business

How to transfer intellectual property rights in business, what to include in a deed of assignment, registering new ownership, restrictions on intellectual property transfers.

Most companies have intellectual property as part of their assets, including software, product design, or copyright to white papers. Buying or selling such property is done using a document called a deed of assignment.

Illustrations and graphics surrounding the words "Intellectual Property"

A large part of what a business consists of may be tied to intellectual property . It's easy to see physical property a company owns, such as a building, office furniture, or inventory, but intellectual property can be more challenging to identify.

Most businesses have intellectual property, or works created by human minds or, in some cases, by computers. Some examples of intellectual property include architectural drawings, ad campaigns, company or product names, inventions, and source code.

Examples of when transfers of intellectual property might happen include when a company is buying another company, when you are setting up an LLC and want to transfer your intellectual property into the company, or when a business buys product rights from another company or individual.

A deed of assignment can be done in one transaction, instead of one transaction for each item of intellectual property, by transferring all ownership rights of all intellectual property detailed in the deed. The document is signed by both the buyer and seller. No payment is required for it to be valid.

A deed of assignment must be in writing and should include:

  • The names and addresses of the assignor and assignee
  • A description of the program or product for which the rights are being transferred
  • A statement that all intellectual property rights to the property are being transferred
  • Signatures of the parties and the date of the agreement execution

The deed could also include the following sections, where applicable:

  • Consideration, or payment, to be made to the original owner.
  • Warranties, or promises that the intellectual property rights being assigned don't infringe on anyone else's intellectual property rights . For example, in a deed regarding the transfer of a copyright, this section could state that the copyrighted work is original and not owned by someone else.
  • Indemnification, or promise by the seller to reimburse the assignee if there is some problem with title to the property.
  • Future assignments. For example, the agreement could be ongoing, so that anything the assignor creates in the future for this product or program is also transferred to the buyer.

Although a deed of assignment transfers ownership in intellectual property , it does not change the registration of the ownership. The assignee is responsible for handling all registration requirements.

For example, if a patent is transferred via a deed of assignment, the new owner must record the change in ownership with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Similarly, the transfer of a copyright is recorded with the U.S. Copyright Office.

Transfers of intellectual property must comply with U.S. laws. One obvious caveat is that you can't transfer property you don't own. Transfers must also comply with antitrust laws, which are set up to prevent one company from completely dominating an industry.

If intellectual property rights are being transferred overseas, the transfer must comply with Export Administration Regulations and the International Traffic in Arms Regulations , which are designed to protect national security and trade.

The deed of assignment can be a crucial part of a business deal or transaction. You can create a deed of assignment yourself, or you can work with an attorney .

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Deed of Assignment and Transfer of Rights [Parts and Template]

Deed of Assignment and Transfer of Rights (Parts and Template)

A Deed of Assignment and Transfer of Rights is a legal document used when a person or a company who originally was a party to a contract (also known as the assignor or transferor) transfers his or its rights under the contract to another party (the assignee or transferee).

Accordingly, when the Deed of Assignment and Transfer of Rights has been drafted on the basis that in the original contract there is no prohibition to or restriction on assignment, and hence signed by both parties, it can be consequently assigned without the other contracting party’s consent.

In this article, I’ll try to dissect a sample Deed of Assignment and Transfer of Rights of a St. Peter Life Plan and provide descriptions of its fundamental elements or parts. As drafting a deed requires abundant caution, presence of mind, and knowledge of property and other allied laws, I highly advise that you seek help from experts and experienced in legal transactions.

Parts of a Deed of Assignment and Transfer of Rights

[1] Title of Deed . As implied above, deeds come in different forms and types. Check if the document and the first section displays the title – Deed of Assignment and Transfer of Rights. Conventionally, the first paragraph runs:

  KNOW ALL MEN BY THESE PRESENTS:

This deed, made and entered made and entered into this 13 rd day of January 2018 at the City of Manila, by and between:

[2] Parties Involved . A Deed of Assignment and Transfer of Rights must contain accurate information about the identities of the assigning and assigned parties. Other information such as age legality, citizenship, and postal address must be included, just as seen below:

Juan De la Cruz, Filipino citizen, of legal age, married to Josefina De la Cruz, and with residence and postal address at 123 Kasiglahan Street, Karangalan Village, Dela Paz, Pasig City, Philippines, hereinafter referred to as the “ASSIGNOR/TRANSFEROR”

Sebastian Maliksi, Filipino citizen, of legal age, single, and with residence and postal address at 456 Kasimanwa Street, Karangalan Village, Dela Paz, Pasig City, Philippines, hereinafter referred to as the “ASSIGNEE/TRANSFEREE”

[3] Contract Details . A Deed of Assignment and Transfer of Rights must contain a detailed description of the contract, hence in the context here – St. Peter Traditional Life Plan (St. Anne) contract and the Life Plan Agreement (LPA) Number:

WHEREAS, the ASSIGNOR/TRANSFEROR is the owner of life / memorial plan contract which is identified as St. Peter Traditional Life Plan (St. Anne), with Life Plan Agreement No. 123456;

[4] Contract Assignment and Transfer Agreement . As one of the most important and critical parts, this specifies the terms and conditions of the agreement. See sample below:

WHEREAS, for and in consideration of the value of the plan and out of accommodation and assistance for the ASSIGNEE/TRANSFEREE, the ASSIGNOR/TRANSFEROR is assigning and transferring all his/her rights and interests over the Life Plan mentioned in the immediately preceding paragraph to the ASSIGNEE/TRANSFEREE;

NOW, therefore for and in consideration of forgoing premises, the parties hereto have agreed on the following terms and conditions, to wit;

THE ASSIGNOR/TRANSFEROR, hereby waives all his / her rights and interests in the subject life plan in favor of the ASSIGNEE/TRANSFEREE. It is understood that when the Life Plan is assigned / availed of, then all obligations of St. Peter Life Plan, Inc. are fulfilled and discharged.

As a consequence of this assignment / transfer of rights, the ASSIGNEE/TRANSFEREE hereby assumes all the obligations and accountabilities of the ASSIGNOR/TRANSFEROR to St. Peter Life Plan, Inc. in connection with the life plan contract which it issued to the latter.

The ASSIGNEE/TRANSFEREE obligates and / or undertakes to comply with and abide by the requirements which St. Peter Life Plan Inc. may impose in connection with the purchase, possession, and use of the said Life Plan particularly the requirement that it should be fully paid before the memorial service could be availed of pursuant to the Life Plan.

[5] Execution . Once the Deed of Assignment and Transfer of Rights is drafted, the parties involved shall execute it by affixing their signatures. Other than the assigning and assigned parties, witnesses should also sign all the pages of the document. In addition, the deed shall be acknowledged and notarized by a legal practitioner.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF the parties have hereunto set their hands on the date and place first above written.

[  Assignor/Transferor]                           [Assignee/Transferee]

SIGNED IN THE PRESENCE OF:

[Witness]                                                    [Witness]

Disclaimer: Although much effort has been exerted in the creation of this article, the author disclaims any legal expertise and does not guarantee the accuracy and legitimacy of any or all of the information. Hence, it is advised that you consult with professionals such as insurance brokers and lawyers before engaging in legal transactions.    

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Drafting a Deed of Assignment

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Note: Want to skip the guide and go straight to the free templates? No problem - scroll to the bottom. Also note: This is not legal advice.

Introduction

A Deed of Assignment is a vital legal document used to transfer rights, interests or assets between parties. It is regularly used in business transactions, and often regarding real estate or intellectual property. A well-crafted deed of assignment can protect both sides from potential legal disputes, ensuring that everyone involved understands their obligations and responsibilities.

The Genie AI team has seen many instances where having a valid deed of assignment can make all the difference - without it businesses could be exposed to considerable risk. That’s why we offer free templates and step-by-step guides to help those wishing to draft their own deed.

When creating a Deed of Assignment it is important to take the specific circumstances into account - any changes or additions should be accurately documented and agreed by all involved parties beforehand. Furthermore, it is essential that the terms are clearly written out in an unambiguous way so every party knows exactly what they have signed up for. Beyond protecting both sides’ interests, this type of agreement can also be used for copyright assignments, leases, debt transfers and trusts.

Before signing on the dotted line it’s also critical that executing such documentation is done properly - all parties must sign in the presence of a witness who will also affix their signature and date the document accordingly. Once this process has been completed filings must then be made with any relevant government authorities whenever necessary (especially in cases involving real estate or intellectual property transfers).

In summary, drafting a Deed of Assignment not only safeguards everyone’s best interests but also provides additional benefits depending on its use case - reading through our step-by-step guidance below should provide you with more information on how to access our template library today and start benefitting from its advantages without needing to sign up for an account with Genie AI first!

Definitions (feel free to skip)

Legal Binding: When a legally binding document is used, it means that all parties involved are legally obligated to follow the terms and conditions set forth in the document.

Assignor: The assignor is the person who is transferring rights, interests or assets to someone else.

Assignee: The assignee is the person who is receiving the rights, interests or assets from the assignor.

Witness: A witness is an independent third-party who is present when a document is signed, in order to ensure that the process is completed in a secure and legally binding manner.

Stamp: A stamp is an official seal or mark that is used to verify and authenticate a document.

Tax: A tax is a sum of money that is paid to a government or public authority.

Duty: Duty is an obligation or responsibility assigned to someone.

Defining the Deed of Assignment

What is a deed of assignment and what is its purpose, parties involved, who needs to be involved in the making of a deed of assignment, drafting the deed, determine what kind of deed of assignment needs to be drafted, consider the subject matter to be assigned in the deed, research the legal requirements for the kind of deed to be drafted, draft the deed of assignment in accordance with the legal requirements, executing the deed, check that the parties to the deed are correctly identified, confirm that the deed is correctly signed and dated by all parties, confirm that the deed is witnessed by an independent third party, have the deed of assignment properly executed by all parties, registration, determine whether the deed of assignment needs to be registered, if registration is necessary, confirm the registration procedures, take necessary steps to register the deed of assignment, considerations, consider any applicable tax or stamp duty implications of the deed of assignment, consider any restrictions or limitations on the rights being assigned, consider whether the deed of assignment needs to be registered in any public records, common mistakes, not accurately identifying all of the parties to the deed, not having the deed properly executed by all parties, not having the deed witnessed by an independent third party, not considering any applicable tax or stamp duty implications, not considering any applicable restrictions or limitations on the rights being assigned, record keeping, ensure that the original deed of assignment is securely stored, create a digital copy of the deed and store it in a secure manner, review the deed of assignment to ensure accuracy, confirm that all steps have been completed correctly, seek advice from legal professionals if necessary, get started.

  • Establish the parties involved in the Deed of Assignment
  • Identify the property or service being assigned
  • Specify the terms of the assignment
  • Ensure the Deed of Assignment is properly witnessed
  • Check that all signatures are valid

When you have completed the steps above, you will have successfully defined the Deed of Assignment and can proceed to the next step.

  • A deed of assignment is a legal document that is used to transfer the rights and responsibilities of one party (the assignor) to another party (the assignee)
  • It is used to transfer contractual rights and obligations between parties
  • It should include information such as the names of the parties, the date of the assignment, and the description of the rights transferred
  • You will know that you have completed this step when you have an understanding of what a deed of assignment is and why it is used.
  • Identify the party transferring their rights (the assignor) and the party receiving the rights (the assignee)
  • Draft the deed in the name of both parties, including full names and contact details
  • Ensure the deed is signed by both the assignor and assignee
  • Once the deed is signed, the parties should exchange copies of the document

Once the assignor and assignee have been identified and the deed has been drafted and signed, you can check this step off your list and move on to the next step.

  • Identify the parties involved in the Deed of Assignment. This would typically include the assignor (the party transferring their rights or interest) and the assignee (the party receiving the rights or interest).
  • Ensure that all parties involved have the legal capacity to enter into a contract.
  • When all parties have been identified and their legal capacity has been verified, you can check this step off your list and move on to drafting the Deed.
  • Read the applicable laws in your jurisdiction to determine the required language and structure of the Deed of Assignment
  • Gather the necessary information on the parties, the asset being assigned, and other relevant details
  • Draft the Deed of Assignment, taking into account all the necessary details
  • Make sure the language is clear and unambiguous
  • Have the Deed of Assignment reviewed by a legal professional
  • When the Deed of Assignment has been drafted and reviewed, you can move on to the next step.
  • Identify the type of assignment that needs to be drafted and the legal requirements that need to be satisfied
  • Consider the purpose of the Deed and the rights and obligations of the parties to the Deed
  • Determine if the Deed is for an absolute or conditional assignment
  • Consider if the Deed should be an express or implied assignment
  • Determine if the Deed needs to be in writing or if it can be oral
  • Check the applicable laws in your jurisdiction to ensure that you are drafting a valid Deed
  • Check if there are any additional requirements that need to be included in the Deed

When you can check this off your list: Once you have identified the type of assignment and the relevant legal requirements, you can move on to considering the subject matter to be assigned in the Deed.

  • Identify the subject matter of the Deed of Assignment, such as a patent, trademark, copyright, or other intellectual property
  • Assess the value of the subject matter and any associated liabilities
  • Understand the relationship between the assignor and assignee
  • Have all necessary documents, such as a purchase agreement, to provide more detail about the assignment

Once you have identified the subject matter of the Deed of Assignment, assessed its value, understand the relationship between the assignor and assignee, and gathered any additional documents, you can move onto the next step of researching the legal requirements for the kind of Deed to be drafted.

  • Research the relevant legislation, case law, and other materials related to the Deed of Assignment to be drafted
  • Consult with a lawyer familiar with the relevant law to understand the requirements
  • Take detailed notes on the legal requirements that must be adhered to in the Deed of Assignment
  • Once you have all the necessary information, double-check that you understand the requirements before moving on to the next step.
  • Prepare the text of the Deed, ensuring that all relevant information regarding the parties, the subject matter, and the consideration is included
  • Check to make sure the language conforms with relevant laws and regulations
  • Have the Deed reviewed by a solicitor to ensure that it complies with all legal requirements
  • Once the Deed has been approved by a solicitor, have the parties sign the document
  • Once the Deed has been signed by both parties, make multiple copies and ensure each party has a copy
  • This step is complete once the Deed has been signed and each party has a copy of the document.
  • Ensure both parties sign the Deed of Assignment in the presence of two witnesses who are over the age of 18 and not parties to the Deed
  • Have both parties sign the deed in the presence of two witnesses and have the witnesses sign the deed to attest to witnessing the signature of the parties
  • Check that the parties have signed the Deed in the presence of the witnesses by noting the signatures and the dates of signature in the execution clause of the Deed
  • Once the Deed has been executed, have the parties date and keep a copy of the Deed in a secure place
  • You will know that you have completed this step when the Deed has been properly executed by the parties in the presence of two witnesses.
  • Identify all parties to the Deed and verify that their details are correct.
  • Ensure that all parties to the Deed are identified in the document and that the details of each party are accurate and up-to-date.
  • Check that the names, addresses and contact details of each party are correct.
  • Once you have verified that the parties and their details are correctly identified, you can move on to the next step.
  • Check that all parties have signed the Deed in the correct place, and that the date of signature is correct
  • Ensure that each party has signed the Deed in the presence of an independent witness
  • Check that all parties have signed the Deed with their full name and title, if applicable
  • Confirm that the date of signature is correct and that all parties have signed on the same date
  • Once you have verified that all parties have correctly signed and dated the Deed, you can proceed to the next step.
  • Ensure that the Deed is witnessed by an independent third party who is not a party to the Deed.
  • Ask the third party to sign the Deed and provide their name, address, occupation and date of signing.
  • Check that the third party has signed and dated the Deed.
  • Once the above is complete, you can check this step off your list and move on to the next step.
  • Obtain signatures from all parties on the deed of assignment, ensuring that each party signs in the presence of a witness
  • Have an independent third party witness each party’s signature
  • Ensure that all parties have a valid form of identification, such as a driver’s license or passport, available for inspection by the witness
  • Ensure that all parties sign the deed of assignment in the presence of the witness
  • Obtain the witness’ signature, confirming that all parties signed in the presence of the witness
  • You will know this step is completed once all parties have signed the deed of assignment and the witness has signed confirming they were present during the signing.
  • Obtain a copy of the executed Deed of Assignment from all parties
  • Contact the relevant state or territory office to determine whether the Deed of Assignment needs to be registered
  • If registration is required, complete the necessary forms, pay the registration fee, and submit the required documents
  • Once the Deed of Assignment is registered, the registrar will issue a certificate of registration
  • Check off this step when you have received and reviewed the certificate of registration.
  • Research the applicable laws and regulations in the relevant jurisdiction to decide if the Deed of Assignment needs to be registered
  • Consult a legal professional if unsure
  • When you have the answer, you can move on to the next step.
  • Confirm what type of Deed of Assignment requires registration with the relevant government agency or registry.
  • Research the registration procedures and the requirements you must meet in order to register the Deed of Assignment.
  • Obtain any fees or additional documents that are necessary to complete the registration process.
  • Ensure that all parties to the Deed of Assignment understand the registration process and the requirements for completing it.

You can check off this step once you have researched and confirmed the registration procedures for the Deed of Assignment.

  • Gather the necessary documents for registration, such as the Deed of Assignment, supporting documents, and the applicable fee
  • Visit the registration office to register the Deed of Assignment
  • Submit the necessary documents to the registration office
  • Pay the applicable fee
  • Obtain a copy of the registered Deed of Assignment
  • Upon completion of the above steps, you can check this off your list and move on to the next step.
  • Review and understand the nature of the rights and obligations being assigned
  • Determine if there are any restrictions or limitations in the assignment
  • Assess if any approvals are needed from third parties before the assignment is valid
  • Confirm that the assignor has the right to assign the interest being transferred
  • Check to see if the assignee has the necessary capacity to accept the assignment
  • Analyze if the assignment is subject to any applicable laws or regulations
  • Determine if any additional documentation is needed to support the assignment
  • Once you have considered all of the above, you can proceed with drafting the Deed of Assignment.
  • Check with your local taxation authority or a qualified tax professional to see if the Deed of Assignment is subject to any taxes or stamp duty.
  • Ensure that the Deed of Assignment includes any required taxes or stamp duty payments.
  • Check to see if the tax or stamp duty implications vary by jurisdiction.
  • Once you’ve considered the tax or stamp duty implications, you can move on to the next step.
  • Identify any restrictions or limitations that could affect the transfer of rights in the Deed of Assignment
  • Consider whether there are any legal restrictions that must be observed in the transfer of the rights being assigned
  • Research any relevant industry standards or regulations to ensure that the restrictions or limitations on the rights being assigned are compliant
  • Ensure that the Deed of Assignment clearly outlines the restrictions or limitations of the rights being assigned
  • When all restrictions or limitations on the rights being assigned are taken into consideration, checked for compliance and outlined in the Deed of Assignment, this step is complete.
  • Consider whether the Deed of Assignment needs to be registered with any government or public agencies.
  • Determine if any registration is required or optional.
  • Research the relevant regulations and laws to ensure that the assignments are properly recorded.
  • Check any local requirements or restrictions.
  • Once you have determined that the Deed of Assignment does or does not need to be registered, you can move on to the next step in the process.

• Read over the Deed of Assignment twice to make sure you’re accurately identifying all of the parties to the Deed. Make sure you include the full names and addresses of the assignor and assignee, as well as any other relevant parties. • Check that the legal description of the subject property is accurate. • Ensure that the consideration (the amount being exchanged for the assignment) is stated clearly and accurately. • Make sure that the names of the initial parties to the Deed are also included in the recitals. • Ensure that the recitals and the express terms of the Deed are consistent with one another. • Make sure that the Deed is signed, notarized, and delivered in accordance with state law.

Once you’ve completed the above steps, you can check off this task and move on to the next step in the guide.

  • Identify the assignor and assignee. The assignor is the party transferring their rights and the assignee is the party receiving the rights.
  • Check all of the details are correct. This includes the names, addresses and other contact information for both parties.
  • Draft the deed to ensure that the assignor and assignee are accurately identified.
  • You can check this off your list and move on to the next step once you have confirmed that the assignor and assignee have been accurately identified in the deed.
  • Ensure that all parties to the Deed have read, understood and agreed to the terms and conditions of the agreement.
  • Have all parties affix their signature to the Deed and the accompanying documents.
  • Check that all the signatures are dated and in the presence of a witness.
  • When all parties have properly executed the Deed, you can move on to the next step.
  • Ensure all parties have signed the Deed in the presence of a witness.
  • The witness must be an independent third party who is not a party to the Deed.
  • The witness must sign each page of the Deed that contains a party’s signature.
  • The witness must also include their full name, address and occupation on the Deed.
  • Once all of the above requirements are met, then you can check this off your list and move on to the next step.
  • Determine the applicable taxes or stamp duty implications for the Deed of Assignment.
  • Research any applicable taxes or stamp duty fees for the Deed of Assignment.
  • Calculate the applicable taxes or stamp duty fees for the Deed of Assignment.
  • Make sure to include the applicable taxes or stamp duty fees in the Deed of Assignment.

Once you have determined the applicable taxes or stamp duty implications for the Deed of Assignment, and included them in the Deed of Assignment, you can move on to the next step.

  • Determine the rights that you are assigning and review any applicable laws or regulations to ensure that the assignment of such rights is permitted.
  • Consider any applicable contractual restrictions or limitations on the rights being assigned, such as any applicable confidentiality obligations or restrictions on the transfer of rights.
  • Once you have determined that the assignment of the rights is permitted and there are no applicable restrictions or limitations, you can proceed to the next step of recording keeping.
  • Create a record of the Deed of Assignment, including the date it was executed, by each party
  • Maintain a copy of the Deed of Assignment in a secure place
  • Record any additional related documents, such as any security documents, release documents, or other agreements
  • When all of the above have been done, you can check this off your list and move on to the next step.
  • Obtain a physical copy of the original Deed of Assignment
  • Ensure the original Deed is signed by both parties
  • Keep the original Deed in a safe and secure place, such as a locked filing cabinet or safe
  • Make sure the document is stored in a location that is accessible to both parties
  • Ensure that the original Deed is not destroyed or tampered with in any way

You can check this off your list and move on to the next step once the original Deed of Assignment is safely stored in a secure location.

  • Scan or take a digital photo of the original Deed of Assignment and save it to a secure location.
  • Ensure that the digital copy is readable and clearly displays all of the information contained in the original document.
  • Ensure that the digital copy is stored in a secure location, preferably on a cloud-based storage system or other secure server.
  • Make sure that only authorized personnel have access to the digital copy of the Deed.
  • When finished, you will have created a digital copy of the Deed and stored it in a secure manner.
  • Read over the Deed of Assignment to ensure accuracy
  • Make sure all details are correct, and all parties are named
  • Verify that all signatures are complete and accurate
  • Make sure the date of the assignment is correct
  • Check that the document is formatted and laid out correctly
  • Once you are satisfied with the accuracy of the Deed of Assignment, you can move on to the next step.
  • Read through the entire document to make sure all the information is correct
  • Double check that the names and details of the parties involved are spelled correctly
  • Ensure that all the dates are accurate, and that any and all parties have signed the deed in the right places
  • Check that the terms and conditions in the deed are consistent with the agreement between the parties
  • When you have verified all the details, you can check this off your list and move on to the next step.
  • Check the Deed of Assignment to ensure that all required elements are present, including accurate information and signatures of all parties.
  • Verify that any and all attachments to the Deed of Assignment are included and accurate.
  • Ensure that all dates, signatures, and other pieces of information are accurate and up-to-date.
  • Once you’ve confirmed that all of the steps have been completed correctly, you can move on to the next step.
  • Seek professional advice from a lawyer or other legal professional to ensure that the deed of assignment is legally binding and enforceable.
  • Request that the legal professional checks that all steps have been completed correctly, and that the deed of assignment meets all requirements under local law.
  • Ask the legal professional to provide you with written advice on any changes or revisions that may be necessary to make the deed of assignment valid and enforceable.
  • Once the legal professional has confirmed that the deed is legally sound, you can check off this step and proceed with the next one.
  • Research legal professionals who are able to provide advice and assistance with the drafting of a deed of assignment
  • Contact the legal professionals to discuss the specific requirements and details of the deed of assignment
  • Ask the legal professionals if they are able to provide advice and assistance with the deed of assignment
  • Receive advice from the legal professionals and make changes to the deed of assignment accordingly
  • Once you are satisfied with the changes to the deed of assignment, you can move on to the next step.

Q: Does a Deed of Assignment need to be signed?

Asked by John on April 23rd 2022. A: Yes, a Deed of Assignment needs to be signed by both the assignor and the assignee in order for it to be legally binding. The signatures should be witnessed and dated, and should be in front of an independent witness who is not related to either party. It is also important to include the relevant clauses and provisions in the deed, as these will set out the rights and obligations of each party.

Q: What is the difference between an assignment and a novation?

Asked by Sarah on July 29th 2022. A: An assignment is a transfer of rights or obligations from one party to another, while a novation is a transfer of rights or obligations from one party to another with the consent of all parties involved. An assignment does not necessarily require the consent of all parties, while a novation always requires the consent of all parties. Additionally, an assignment can transfer rights or obligations without necessarily extinguishing any pre-existing agreements, while a novation extinguishes any pre-existing agreements.

Q: Is a Deed of Assignment legally binding in different jurisdictions?

Asked by Tyler on October 17th 2022. A: Yes, a Deed of Assignment can be legally binding in different jurisdictions, though the exact requirements for validity may differ from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. In general, however, a Deed of Assignment needs to be signed by both parties and witnessed by an independent third party in order for it to be legally binding. Additionally, the deed should include all relevant clauses and provisions that are applicable in each jurisdiction.

Q: Are there any tax implications when drafting a Deed of Assignment?

Asked by Emma on January 15th 2022. A: Yes, there are tax implications that need to be taken into account when drafting a Deed of Assignment. Depending on the jurisdiction and specific tax laws, there may be tax implications for both parties if they are transferring rights or obligations under the deed. It is important to seek professional tax advice before entering into any agreement that involves transferring rights or obligations between parties as this could have significant financial implications for all involved.

Q: Do I need legal advice when drafting a Deed of Assignment?

Asked by Jacob on June 5th 2022. A: While it is not necessary to seek legal advice when drafting a Deed of Assignment, it is generally recommended in order to ensure that all relevant legal requirements are satisfied and that all involved parties are aware of their rights and obligations under the deed. It is also important to make sure that all language used in the deed is clear and unambiguous so that it can easily be understood by all parties involved.

Q: How can I ensure that my Deed of Assignment is valid?

Asked by Michael on August 28th 2022. A: In order for your Deed of Assignment to be valid, it must meet certain legal requirements which vary between jurisdictions. Generally speaking, your deed should include all relevant clauses and provisions applicable in your jurisdiction as well as signatures from both parties which should be witnessed by an independent third party who is not related to either party involved. Additionally, any language used within the document should be clear and unambiguous so that it can easily be understood by all involved parties.

Q: What information do I need to provide when drafting a Deed of Assignment?

Asked by Ashley on November 10th 2022. A: When drafting a Deed of Assignment, you will need to provide information about both parties involved such as their names, addresses, contact details and any other relevant information required under applicable laws in your jurisdiction. Additionally, you will need to include any relevant clauses or provisions applicable in your jurisdiction which will set out the rights and obligations of each party under the deed as well as any other information required for the document to be legally binding.

Q: What are common mistakes made when drafting a Deed of Assignment?

Asked by Joshua on February 20th 2022. A: One common mistake made when drafting a Deed of Assignment is failing to include all relevant clauses or provisions applicable in your jurisdiction which set out the rights and obligations of each party involved in the agreement. Additionally, failing to have the document signed by both parties or witnessed by an independent third party can render the document invalid or unenforceable under applicable law in some jurisdictions. Moreover, using ambiguous language within the document can also lead to misunderstandings and disputes further down the line which could be avoided if clear language was used throughout the document instead.

Example dispute

Lawsuit referencing a deed of assignment.

  • The plaintiff may raise a lawsuit if they have been wronged by the defendant in a way that is outlined in the deed of assignment.
  • For example, the deed of assignment may outline that the defendant is responsible for paying a certain amount of money to the plaintiff, and the defendant has failed to do so.
  • The plaintiff may also raise a lawsuit if the defendant has failed to adhere to any other obligations laid out in the deed of assignment.
  • The plaintiff would need to prove that the defendant has breached the deed of assignment in order to win the lawsuit.
  • If successful, the plaintiff may be able to obtain a judgment in their favor, which may require the defendant to pay the plaintiff the money they are owed.
  • In addition, the plaintiff may be able to seek other damages, such as punitive damages, if the breach of the deed of assignment was particularly egregious.
  • Depending on the severity of the breach, the plaintiff may also be able to seek an injunction to prevent the defendant from continuing to breach the deed of assignment.
  • Settlement of the dispute may also be possible, wherein the defendant agrees to pay a certain amount of money to the plaintiff, or agrees to adhere to the obligations laid out in the deed of assignment.

Templates available (free to use)

Deed Of Assignment For Rent Deposits Occupation Lease Deed Of Assignment Of Benefit Of Claim For The Freehold Or Extended Lease House Under Section 8 Or Section 14 Deed Of Assignment Of Equitable Interest In Residential Land Deed Of Assignment Of Goodwill And Intellectual Property Rights Transfer Of A General Partnership To An Llp Deed Of Assignment Of Property Sale Benefits [Section 42 Deed Of A

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DEED OF ASSIGNMENT: EVERYTHING YOU NEED TO KNOW.

A Deed of Assignment refers to a legal document in which an assignor states his willingness to assign the ownership of his property to the assignee. The Deed of Assignment is required to effect a transfer of property and to show the legal right to possess it. It is always a subject of debate whether Deed of Assignment is a contract; a Deed of Assignment is actually a contract where the owner (the “assignor”) transfers ownership over certain property to another person (the “assignee”) by way of assignment. As a result of the assignment, the assignee steps into the shoes of the assignor and assumes all the rights and obligations pertaining to the property.

In Nigeria, a Deed of Assignment is one of the legal documents that transfer authentic legal ownership in a property. There are several other documents like a deed of gifts, Assent, etc. However, this article focuses on the deed of assignment.

It is the written proof of ownership that stipulates the kind of rights or interests being transferred to the buyer which is a legal interest.

Read Also: DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TRANSFER OF PROPERTY THROUGH WILLS AND DEED OF GIFT

CONTENTS OF A DEED OF ASSIGNMENT

Content of a Deed of Assignment matters a lot to the transaction and special skill is needed for a hitch-free transaction. The contents of a deed of assignment can be divided into 3 namely; the introductory part, the second (usually the operative part), and the concluding part.

  • THE INTRODUCTORY PART: This part enumerates the preliminary matters such as the commencement date, parties in the transaction, and recitals. The parties mentioned in the deed must be legal persons which can consist of natural persons and entities with corporate personality, the name, address, and status of the parties must be included. The proper descriptions of the parties are the assignor (seller) and assignee (buyer). The Recitals give the material facts constituting the background to the current transaction in chronological order.
  • THE SECOND PART (USUALLY THE OPERATIVE PART): This is the part where the interest or title in the property is actually transferred from the assignor to the assignee. It is more like the engine room of the deed of assignment. The operative part usually starts with testatum and it provides for other important clauses such as the consideration (price) of the property, the accepted receipt by the assignor, the description of the property, and the terms and conditions of the transaction.
  • The testimonium : this shows that all the parties are involved in the execution of the deed.
  • Execution : this means signing. The capacity of the parties (either individual, corporate bodies, illiterates) is of great essence in the mode of execution.  It is important to note that the type of parties involved determines how they will sign. Example 2 directors or a director/secretary will sign if a company is involved. In the same way, if an association, couple, individual, illiterate, family land (omonile), firm, unregistered association, etc. is involved the format of signature would be different.
  • Attestation : this refers to the witnessing of the execution of the deed by witnesses.

For a Deed of Assignment to be effective, it must include a column for the Governor of the state or a representative of the Government where the property is, to sign/consent to the transaction. By virtue of Sec. 22 of the Land Use Act, and Sec. 10 Land Instrument Registration Law, the Governor must consent to the transaction.

Do you have any further questions? feel free to call Ibejulekkilawyer on 08034869295 or send a mail to [email protected] and we shall respond accordingly.

Disclaimer: The above is for information purposes only and should not be construed as legal advice. Ibejulekkilawyer.com (blog) shall not be liable to any person(s) for any damage or liability arising whatsoever following the reliance of the information contained herein. Consult us or your legal practitioner for legal advice.

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Deed Transfer

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A deed transfer, also known as an assignment deed, is a legal document containing imparted, immovable, existing property from one party to another. This means that when the owner of the company changes from one person to another, the deed transfer acts as a formal accord for recording the change. The property seller is known as the grantor , while the entity on the receiving end is termed the grantee. Although transfer deeds are legally binding, they must meet specific legal requirements to be valid and constitutional.

How to Create a Deed Transfer

Drafting a deed transfer should be done carefully as it's an important document to enforce. Below are the steps for creating a deed transfer:

  • Provide the Names of the Current and the New Owner. Names of the current and the new owner are required as they go on to form an integral part of the deed transfer legal document.
  • Give the Description of the Immovable Asset. A proper description of the immovable asset and its features, further emphasizing its noteworthy features, is necessary for providing clarity to the present grantee. As a result, this increases the confidence of the grantee and interest on the property.
  • Obtain the Signature of the Current Owner. The signature of the current owner is a must as it provides legal validation concerning the deed transfer and guarantees a lawful guarantee to the grantee to undertake any project, thus practicing free will.
  • Require Two Witnesses. Two witnesses are required to gain the final form of validation for the deed transfer. The first includes an unofficial witness, which may include anyone, and the second, the notary public, thus making the deed transfer valid.
  • Demand Transfer Tax Form. A PT-61 form is an excise tax involving the sale of real property where the title of the property is transferred from the seller to the buyer, and a deed transfer must have this, thus strengthening its lawful ground.
  • Record Deed in Country Real Estate Records. Recording the deed in country real estate records is essential as it justifies the legal backup of the property concerned and ensures the smooth operation of any future project.

Essential Features of a Deed Transfer

A Deed transfer is a popular form of property ownership that essentially confirms its legal bindings. It comes with several paramount features, which include:

  • Must be in Writing: The deed transfer must be in writing, as writing is one of the many specialized forms of communication. This, in turn, leads a lawyer to express their views over an issue, gradually being eligible to seek to persuade others on behalf of their client. The writing is usually clear, concise, and accurate, thus casting away any dispute that might arise in the future.
  • Proper Description of the Property: A proper description of the property must be present in the deed transfer document as it leads the grantee to know about the contents of the asset, thus bringing forth its noteworthy features.
  • Cooperation Between the Grantor and the Grantee: Strong cooperation and feeling valued boosts the morale of both the party, thus building strong cooperation between the grantor and the grantee. The smoother the grantee-grantor relationship, the better the engagement in the grant management process.
  • Signatures are Mandatory: Seeking signatures over the deed transfer document is a necessity as it confirms the cooperation between the grantor and the grantee. Along with it, this also displays its present owner lawfully, thus putting forward clarity.
  • Public Record: Bringing documents out for public record and registering them under the City Register Office is mandatory. This is because the city office registers records and maintains New York City real property except for Staten Island.

what is deed of assignment and transfer of rights

Benefits of a Deed Transfer

  • Provides Evidence: As a transfer, the deed is a legal document; it provides legal evidence about its existence and helps solve a lot of problems arising from fraudulent activities. It also provides clarity to the partners in association with the transferred property and gains clarity about the present owner of the immovable property.
  • Protects Legally: A deed transfer provides legal protection to the property, the grantee, and the grantor involved. As the document contains written records and the signatures of the required witnesses, it acts as a symbol of enhanced legal protection.
  • Outlines Assurance: The deed transfer helps the grantor outline the assurance and the confidence it owes to the grantee. This plays a vital role in building and managing a positive reputation of the grantor on mutual grounds backed by legal assistance.
  • Clarifies Quick Transfer of Rights: A deed transfer clarifies the quick transfer of rights from the grantor to the grantee, thus confirming the legal permission that the grantee desires to bring in the asset. This also includes the grantor or any party's inability to prohibit any future projects, thus providing confidence to the grantee.
  • Has Low Chances of Contested Ownership: A deed transfer closes off the chances of contested ownership, thus rubbing off disputes that might occur. Contested ownership is defined as inconsistent claim forms, and possessing a deed transfer document closes off the probability of such a situation from arising.

Risks Associated with a Deed Transfer

Deed transfer documents provide innumerable benefits, thus clarifying legal protection to both the grantee and the grantor. Here is a list of certain risks that must be prevented to avert issues, thus providing safety.

  • Experiencing Loss of Control: A deed transfer displays the loss of ownership of the grantee, further bringing in a loss of control, which strikes out the grantee’s will to want to make changes in the property.
  • Not Citing Proper Reason for Transferring Property: The risks of a deed transfer may level up if the reason behind transferring the property is not reasonable enough, which is why proper reason must be enlisted.
  • Flaws in the Title May Diminish the Actual Price of the Property: Proper efforts must be made to display the noteworthy features of the immovable property, therefore reducing the chances of diminishing the property’s price.
  • Overstating the Grantor's Interest in the Property: Overstating the grantor's interest in the property may lead to not finding an eligible consumer for the property.
  • Past Unethical Records: Past unethical records may lead a future consumer or an investor to turn away from purchasing the asset. Therefore, make sure that the immovable asset has legal backing.

Key Terms for a Deed Transfer

  • Deed: A legal document that transfers ownership of an asset to a new owner.
  • Title: A legal document indicating legal real estate or asset ownership.
  • Escrow: It is a financial instrument where two or more two parties deposit assets with an independent third party known as an escrow agent .
  • Closing: Closing is defined as the zenith of a deal, contract, or transaction.
  • Extensive Burden: A mortgage or other claims on a property that may affect its transferability through judgments, mortgages, and easements .

Final Thoughts on a Deed Transfer

A deed transfer contains much more than a grantor and a grantee may think of it to consist of. Thus, for a deed transfer legal document to be in its best form and provide added clarity to the grantor along with the grantee, taking notes of its essentialities and implementing them is a must.

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Assignment is a legal term whereby an individual, the “assignor,” transfers rights, property, or other benefits to another known as the “ assignee .”   This concept is used in both contract and property law.  The term can refer to either the act of transfer or the rights /property/benefits being transferred.

Contract Law   

Under contract law, assignment of a contract is both: (1) an assignment of rights; and (2) a delegation of duties , in the absence of evidence otherwise.  For example, if A contracts with B to teach B guitar for $50, A can assign this contract to C.  That is, this assignment is both: (1) an assignment of A’s rights under the contract to the $50; and (2) a delegation of A’s duty to teach guitar to C.  In this example, A is both the “assignor” and the “delegee” who d elegates the duties to another (C), C is known as the “ obligor ” who must perform the obligations to the assignee , and B is the “ assignee ” who is owed duties and is liable to the “ obligor ”.

(1) Assignment of Rights/Duties Under Contract Law

There are a few notable rules regarding assignments under contract law.  First, if an individual has not yet secured the contract to perform duties to another, he/she cannot assign his/her future right to an assignee .  That is, if A has not yet contracted with B to teach B guitar, A cannot assign his/her rights to C.  Second, rights cannot be assigned when they materially change the obligor ’s duty and rights.  Third, the obligor can sue the assignee directly if the assignee does not pay him/her.  Following the previous example, this means that C ( obligor ) can sue B ( assignee ) if C teaches guitar to B, but B does not pay C $50 in return.

            (2) Delegation of Duties

If the promised performance requires a rare genius or skill, then the delegee cannot delegate it to the obligor.  It can only be delegated if the promised performance is more commonplace.  Further, an obligee can sue if the assignee does not perform.  However, the delegee is secondarily liable unless there has been an express release of the delegee.  That is, if B does want C to teach guitar but C refuses to, then B can sue C.  If C still refuses to perform, then B can compel A to fulfill the duties under secondary liability.

Lastly, a related concept is novation , which is when a new obligor substitutes and releases an old obligor.  If novation occurs, then the original obligor’s duties are wiped out. However, novation requires an original obligee’s consent .  

Property Law

Under property law, assignment typically arises in landlord-tenant situations.  For example, A might be renting from landlord B but wants to another party (C) to take over the property.   In this scenario, A might be able to choose between assigning and subleasing the property to C.  If assigning , A would be giving C the entire balance of the term, with no reversion to anyone whereas if subleasing , A would be giving C for a limited period of the remaining term.  Significantly, under assignment C would have privity of estate with the landlord while under a sublease, C would not. 

[Last updated in May of 2020 by the Wex Definitions Team ]

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Assignments: The Basic Law

The assignment of a right or obligation is a common contractual event under the law and the right to assign (or prohibition against assignments) is found in the majority of agreements, leases and business structural documents created in the United States.

As with many terms commonly used, people are familiar with the term but often are not aware or fully aware of what the terms entail. The concept of assignment of rights and obligations is one of those simple concepts with wide ranging ramifications in the contractual and business context and the law imposes severe restrictions on the validity and effect of assignment in many instances. Clear contractual provisions concerning assignments and rights should be in every document and structure created and this article will outline why such drafting is essential for the creation of appropriate and effective contracts and structures.

The reader should first read the article on Limited Liability Entities in the United States and Contracts since the information in those articles will be assumed in this article.

Basic Definitions and Concepts:

An assignment is the transfer of rights held by one party called the “assignor” to another party called the “assignee.” The legal nature of the assignment and the contractual terms of the agreement between the parties determines some additional rights and liabilities that accompany the assignment. The assignment of rights under a contract usually completely transfers the rights to the assignee to receive the benefits accruing under the contract. Ordinarily, the term assignment is limited to the transfer of rights that are intangible, like contractual rights and rights connected with property. Merchants Service Co. v. Small Claims Court , 35 Cal. 2d 109, 113-114 (Cal. 1950).

An assignment will generally be permitted under the law unless there is an express prohibition against assignment in the underlying contract or lease. Where assignments are permitted, the assignor need not consult the other party to the contract but may merely assign the rights at that time. However, an assignment cannot have any adverse effect on the duties of the other party to the contract, nor can it diminish the chance of the other party receiving complete performance. The assignor normally remains liable unless there is an agreement to the contrary by the other party to the contract.

The effect of a valid assignment is to remove privity between the assignor and the obligor and create privity between the obligor and the assignee. Privity is usually defined as a direct and immediate contractual relationship. See Merchants case above.

Further, for the assignment to be effective in most jurisdictions, it must occur in the present. One does not normally assign a future right; the assignment vests immediate rights and obligations.

No specific language is required to create an assignment so long as the assignor makes clear his/her intent to assign identified contractual rights to the assignee. Since expensive litigation can erupt from ambiguous or vague language, obtaining the correct verbiage is vital. An agreement must manifest the intent to transfer rights and can either be oral or in writing and the rights assigned must be certain.

Note that an assignment of an interest is the transfer of some identifiable property, claim, or right from the assignor to the assignee. The assignment operates to transfer to the assignee all of the rights, title, or interest of the assignor in the thing assigned. A transfer of all rights, title, and interests conveys everything that the assignor owned in the thing assigned and the assignee stands in the shoes of the assignor. Knott v. McDonald’s Corp ., 985 F. Supp. 1222 (N.D. Cal. 1997)

The parties must intend to effectuate an assignment at the time of the transfer, although no particular language or procedure is necessary. As long ago as the case of National Reserve Co. v. Metropolitan Trust Co ., 17 Cal. 2d 827 (Cal. 1941), the court held that in determining what rights or interests pass under an assignment, the intention of the parties as manifested in the instrument is controlling.

The intent of the parties to an assignment is a question of fact to be derived not only from the instrument executed by the parties but also from the surrounding circumstances. When there is no writing to evidence the intention to transfer some identifiable property, claim, or right, it is necessary to scrutinize the surrounding circumstances and parties’ acts to ascertain their intentions. Strosberg v. Brauvin Realty Servs., 295 Ill. App. 3d 17 (Ill. App. Ct. 1st Dist. 1998)

The general rule applicable to assignments of choses in action is that an assignment, unless there is a contract to the contrary, carries with it all securities held by the assignor as collateral to the claim and all rights incidental thereto and vests in the assignee the equitable title to such collateral securities and incidental rights. An unqualified assignment of a contract or chose in action, however, with no indication of the intent of the parties, vests in the assignee the assigned contract or chose and all rights and remedies incidental thereto.

More examples: In Strosberg v. Brauvin Realty Servs ., 295 Ill. App. 3d 17 (Ill. App. Ct. 1st Dist. 1998), the court held that the assignee of a party to a subordination agreement is entitled to the benefits and is subject to the burdens of the agreement. In Florida E. C. R. Co. v. Eno , 99 Fla. 887 (Fla. 1930), the court held that the mere assignment of all sums due in and of itself creates no different or other liability of the owner to the assignee than that which existed from the owner to the assignor.

And note that even though an assignment vests in the assignee all rights, remedies, and contingent benefits which are incidental to the thing assigned, those which are personal to the assignor and for his sole benefit are not assigned. Rasp v. Hidden Valley Lake, Inc ., 519 N.E.2d 153, 158 (Ind. Ct. App. 1988). Thus, if the underlying agreement provides that a service can only be provided to X, X cannot assign that right to Y.

Novation Compared to Assignment:

Although the difference between a novation and an assignment may appear narrow, it is an essential one. “Novation is a act whereby one party transfers all its obligations and benefits under a contract to a third party.” In a novation, a third party successfully substitutes the original party as a party to the contract. “When a contract is novated, the other contracting party must be left in the same position he was in prior to the novation being made.”

A sublease is the transfer when a tenant retains some right of reentry onto the leased premises. However, if the tenant transfers the entire leasehold estate, retaining no right of reentry or other reversionary interest, then the transfer is an assignment. The assignor is normally also removed from liability to the landlord only if the landlord consents or allowed that right in the lease. In a sublease, the original tenant is not released from the obligations of the original lease.

Equitable Assignments:

An equitable assignment is one in which one has a future interest and is not valid at law but valid in a court of equity. In National Bank of Republic v. United Sec. Life Ins. & Trust Co. , 17 App. D.C. 112 (D.C. Cir. 1900), the court held that to constitute an equitable assignment of a chose in action, the following has to occur generally: anything said written or done, in pursuance of an agreement and for valuable consideration, or in consideration of an antecedent debt, to place a chose in action or fund out of the control of the owner, and appropriate it to or in favor of another person, amounts to an equitable assignment. Thus, an agreement, between a debtor and a creditor, that the debt shall be paid out of a specific fund going to the debtor may operate as an equitable assignment.

In Egyptian Navigation Co. v. Baker Invs. Corp. , 2008 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 30804 (S.D.N.Y. Apr. 14, 2008), the court stated that an equitable assignment occurs under English law when an assignor, with an intent to transfer his/her right to a chose in action, informs the assignee about the right so transferred.

An executory agreement or a declaration of trust are also equitable assignments if unenforceable as assignments by a court of law but enforceable by a court of equity exercising sound discretion according to the circumstances of the case. Since California combines courts of equity and courts of law, the same court would hear arguments as to whether an equitable assignment had occurred. Quite often, such relief is granted to avoid fraud or unjust enrichment.

Note that obtaining an assignment through fraudulent means invalidates the assignment. Fraud destroys the validity of everything into which it enters. It vitiates the most solemn contracts, documents, and even judgments. Walker v. Rich , 79 Cal. App. 139 (Cal. App. 1926). If an assignment is made with the fraudulent intent to delay, hinder, and defraud creditors, then it is void as fraudulent in fact. See our article on Transfers to Defraud Creditors .

But note that the motives that prompted an assignor to make the transfer will be considered as immaterial and will constitute no defense to an action by the assignee, if an assignment is considered as valid in all other respects.

Enforceability of Assignments:

Whether a right under a contract is capable of being transferred is determined by the law of the place where the contract was entered into. The validity and effect of an assignment is determined by the law of the place of assignment. The validity of an assignment of a contractual right is governed by the law of the state with the most significant relationship to the assignment and the parties.

In some jurisdictions, the traditional conflict of laws rules governing assignments has been rejected and the law of the place having the most significant contacts with the assignment applies. In Downs v. American Mut. Liability Ins. Co ., 14 N.Y.2d 266 (N.Y. 1964), a wife and her husband separated and the wife obtained a judgment of separation from the husband in New York. The judgment required the husband to pay a certain yearly sum to the wife. The husband assigned 50 percent of his future salary, wages, and earnings to the wife. The agreement authorized the employer to make such payments to the wife.

After the husband moved from New York, the wife learned that he was employed by an employer in Massachusetts. She sent the proper notice and demanded payment under the agreement. The employer refused and the wife brought an action for enforcement. The court observed that Massachusetts did not prohibit assignment of the husband’s wages. Moreover, Massachusetts law was not controlling because New York had the most significant relationship with the assignment. Therefore, the court ruled in favor of the wife.

Therefore, the validity of an assignment is determined by looking to the law of the forum with the most significant relationship to the assignment itself. To determine the applicable law of assignments, the court must look to the law of the state which is most significantly related to the principal issue before it.

Assignment of Contractual Rights:

Generally, the law allows the assignment of a contractual right unless the substitution of rights would materially change the duty of the obligor, materially increase the burden or risk imposed on the obligor by the contract, materially impair the chance of obtaining return performance, or materially reduce the value of the performance to the obligor. Restat 2d of Contracts, § 317(2)(a). This presumes that the underlying agreement is silent on the right to assign.

If the contract specifically precludes assignment, the contractual right is not assignable. Whether a contract is assignable is a matter of contractual intent and one must look to the language used by the parties to discern that intent.

In the absence of an express provision to the contrary, the rights and duties under a bilateral executory contract that does not involve personal skill, trust, or confidence may be assigned without the consent of the other party. But note that an assignment is invalid if it would materially alter the other party’s duties and responsibilities. Once an assignment is effective, the assignee stands in the shoes of the assignor and assumes all of assignor’s rights. Hence, after a valid assignment, the assignor’s right to performance is extinguished, transferred to assignee, and the assignee possesses the same rights, benefits, and remedies assignor once possessed. Robert Lamb Hart Planners & Architects v. Evergreen, Ltd. , 787 F. Supp. 753 (S.D. Ohio 1992).

On the other hand, an assignee’s right against the obligor is subject to “all of the limitations of the assignor’s right, all defenses thereto, and all set-offs and counterclaims which would have been available against the assignor had there been no assignment, provided that these defenses and set-offs are based on facts existing at the time of the assignment.” See Robert Lamb , case, above.

The power of the contract to restrict assignment is broad. Usually, contractual provisions that restrict assignment of the contract without the consent of the obligor are valid and enforceable, even when there is statutory authorization for the assignment. The restriction of the power to assign is often ineffective unless the restriction is expressly and precisely stated. Anti-assignment clauses are effective only if they contain clear, unambiguous language of prohibition. Anti-assignment clauses protect only the obligor and do not affect the transaction between the assignee and assignor.

Usually, a prohibition against the assignment of a contract does not prevent an assignment of the right to receive payments due, unless circumstances indicate the contrary. Moreover, the contracting parties cannot, by a mere non-assignment provision, prevent the effectual alienation of the right to money which becomes due under the contract.

A contract provision prohibiting or restricting an assignment may be waived, or a party may so act as to be estopped from objecting to the assignment, such as by effectively ratifying the assignment. The power to void an assignment made in violation of an anti-assignment clause may be waived either before or after the assignment. See our article on Contracts.

Noncompete Clauses and Assignments:

Of critical import to most buyers of businesses is the ability to ensure that key employees of the business being purchased cannot start a competing company. Some states strictly limit such clauses, some do allow them. California does restrict noncompete clauses, only allowing them under certain circumstances. A common question in those states that do allow them is whether such rights can be assigned to a new party, such as the buyer of the buyer.

A covenant not to compete, also called a non-competitive clause, is a formal agreement prohibiting one party from performing similar work or business within a designated area for a specified amount of time. This type of clause is generally included in contracts between employer and employee and contracts between buyer and seller of a business.

Many workers sign a covenant not to compete as part of the paperwork required for employment. It may be a separate document similar to a non-disclosure agreement, or buried within a number of other clauses in a contract. A covenant not to compete is generally legal and enforceable, although there are some exceptions and restrictions.

Whenever a company recruits skilled employees, it invests a significant amount of time and training. For example, it often takes years before a research chemist or a design engineer develops a workable knowledge of a company’s product line, including trade secrets and highly sensitive information. Once an employee gains this knowledge and experience, however, all sorts of things can happen. The employee could work for the company until retirement, accept a better offer from a competing company or start up his or her own business.

A covenant not to compete may cover a number of potential issues between employers and former employees. Many companies spend years developing a local base of customers or clients. It is important that this customer base not fall into the hands of local competitors. When an employee signs a covenant not to compete, he or she usually agrees not to use insider knowledge of the company’s customer base to disadvantage the company. The covenant not to compete often defines a broad geographical area considered off-limits to former employees, possibly tens or hundreds of miles.

Another area of concern covered by a covenant not to compete is a potential ‘brain drain’. Some high-level former employees may seek to recruit others from the same company to create new competition. Retention of employees, especially those with unique skills or proprietary knowledge, is vital for most companies, so a covenant not to compete may spell out definite restrictions on the hiring or recruiting of employees.

A covenant not to compete may also define a specific amount of time before a former employee can seek employment in a similar field. Many companies offer a substantial severance package to make sure former employees are financially solvent until the terms of the covenant not to compete have been met.

Because the use of a covenant not to compete can be controversial, a handful of states, including California, have largely banned this type of contractual language. The legal enforcement of these agreements falls on individual states, and many have sided with the employee during arbitration or litigation. A covenant not to compete must be reasonable and specific, with defined time periods and coverage areas. If the agreement gives the company too much power over former employees or is ambiguous, state courts may declare it to be overbroad and therefore unenforceable. In such case, the employee would be free to pursue any employment opportunity, including working for a direct competitor or starting up a new company of his or her own.

It has been held that an employee’s covenant not to compete is assignable where one business is transferred to another, that a merger does not constitute an assignment of a covenant not to compete, and that a covenant not to compete is enforceable by a successor to the employer where the assignment does not create an added burden of employment or other disadvantage to the employee. However, in some states such as Hawaii, it has also been held that a covenant not to compete is not assignable and under various statutes for various reasons that such covenants are not enforceable against an employee by a successor to the employer. Hawaii v. Gannett Pac. Corp. , 99 F. Supp. 2d 1241 (D. Haw. 1999)

It is vital to obtain the relevant law of the applicable state before drafting or attempting to enforce assignment rights in this particular area.

Conclusion:

In the current business world of fast changing structures, agreements, employees and projects, the ability to assign rights and obligations is essential to allow flexibility and adjustment to new situations. Conversely, the ability to hold a contracting party into the deal may be essential for the future of a party. Thus, the law of assignments and the restriction on same is a critical aspect of every agreement and every structure. This basic provision is often glanced at by the contracting parties, or scribbled into the deal at the last minute but can easily become the most vital part of the transaction.

As an example, one client of ours came into the office outraged that his co venturer on a sizable exporting agreement, who had excellent connections in Brazil, had elected to pursue another venture instead and assigned the agreement to a party unknown to our client and without the business contacts our client considered vital. When we examined the handwritten agreement our client had drafted in a restaurant in Sao Paolo, we discovered there was no restriction on assignment whatsoever…our client had not even considered that right when drafting the agreement after a full day of work.

One choses who one does business with carefully…to ensure that one’s choice remains the party on the other side of the contract, one must master the ability to negotiate proper assignment provisions.

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Assignment of Deed

Table of contents, assignment of deed of trust.

An assignment of deed is used to show the deed of a property changing from one party to another, such as when a sale is made. It is used as the written proof to show who has rightful ownership of the property. When someone is purchasing property and decides to sell it before they have paid it off, an assignment of deed form would be used to transfer the rights and everything associated with the property over to the new owner.

When a debtor transfers real estate to a creditor, the  Assignment of Deed  is the legal document used to record this transfer. This happens when a lawsuit is filed on a property owner for a default in payment and the court’s rule in favor of the creditor; this is one example of when the deed of assignment would be put in to use. It’s used to show that the property is being transferred from the ownership of the defendant and given to the plaintiff that won the case and awarded the property.

It’s important to understand what these documents mean as they pertain to public property records as well as  personal background checks  into an individual. This could be exactly the type of information you need to help you gain a better understanding on someone or his or her history. It could also be in your own public background information if someone knows where to look for it.

Public records will always contain the history of who owns real property and the details on that property as it exchanges hands or ownership is passed. Anyone who knows how can access basic information about a deed or its assignments.

When a property owner uses an assignment of deed of trust, they are assigning ownership of the property to someone else and this is a very important document that should be kept in a safe and secure place. There are also public records kept on these types of documents and you should be able to request a copy – sometimes at a fee – should you need one.

The  Assignment of Deed  will also specify the rights the other person will receive along with the deed. As property transfers ownership like this, a recital is usually included as well which shows how many people and the identities of who has owned the property before. This allows you to see how many times the property has transferred hands over the course of its history.

Now that you know more about this particular property document, you will understand it when you use it. Whether you need it for your property or you are searching the  property records  of someone else for some reason, this information will be very beneficial to you.

We know that these types of legal matters can be confusing to the average person and that’s why we strive to make it easier to understand by giving you the basics here. Assignment of deed of trust documents do not have to confuse you anymore.

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DEED OF ASSIGNMENT AND TRANSFER OF RIGHTS

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Deed of Assignment | Assignor | Assignee

Assign your property to another with a "deed of assignment".

Transfer your property to another person

Last updated on 16 November 2023

1. What is a Deed of Assignment? 

A Deed of Assignment is a contract where the owner (the “assignor”) transfers ownership over property to another person (the “assignee”) by way of assignment. The assignee steps into the shoes of the assignor and assumes all the rights and obligations to the property.

2. When do you need a Deed of Assignment?

A Deed of Assignment is used when the owner wants to transfer ownership (and the rights and obligations) over property to another person.

3. What information do you need to create the Deed of Assignment?

To create your Deed of Assignment you’ll need the following minimum information:

  • The type of assignor (e.g. individual or business) as well as name and details (e.g. nationality and address).
  • The type of assignee (e.g. individual or business) as well as name and details (e.g. nationality and address).
  • Brief description of the property to be assigned.

4.  How much is the document?

The document costs PHP 400 for a one-time purchase. Once purchased you have unlimited use and revisions of this type of document.

You can also avail of Premium subscription at PHP 1,000 and get (a) unlimited use of our growing  library  of documents (from affidavits to contracts); and (b) unlimited use of our “ Ask an Attorney ” service, which lets you consult an expert lawyer anytime for any legal concern you have.

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Legal Templates

Home Business Assignment Agreement

Assignment Agreement Template

Use our assignment agreement to transfer contractual obligations.

Assignment Agreement Template

Updated February 1, 2024 Reviewed by Brooke Davis

An assignment agreement is a legal document that transfers rights, responsibilities, and benefits from one party (the “assignor”) to another (the “assignee”). You can use it to reassign debt, real estate, intellectual property, leases, insurance policies, and government contracts.

What Is an Assignment Agreement?

What to include in an assignment agreement, how to assign a contract, how to write an assignment agreement, assignment agreement sample.

trademark assignment agreement template

Partnership Interest

An assignment agreement effectively transfers the rights and obligations of a person or entity under an initial contract to another. The original party is the assignor, and the assignee takes on the contract’s duties and benefits.

It’s often a requirement to let the other party in the original deal know the contract is being transferred. It’s essential to create this form thoughtfully, as a poorly written assignment agreement may leave the assignor obligated to certain aspects of the deal.

The most common use of an assignment agreement occurs when the assignor no longer can or wants to continue with a contract. Instead of leaving the initial party or breaking the agreement, the assignor can transfer the contract to another individual or entity.

For example, imagine a small residential trash collection service plans to close its operations. Before it closes, the business brokers a deal to send its accounts to a curbside pickup company providing similar services. After notifying account holders, the latter company continues the service while receiving payment.

Create a thorough assignment agreement by including the following information:

  • Effective Date:  The document must indicate when the transfer of rights and obligations occurs.
  • Parties:  Include the full name and address of the assignor, assignee, and obligor (if required).
  • Assignment:  Provide details that identify the original contract being assigned.
  • Third-Party Approval: If the initial contract requires the approval of the obligor, note the date the approval was received.
  • Signatures:  Both parties must sign and date the printed assignment contract template once completed. If a notary is required, wait until you are in the presence of the official and present identification before signing. Failure to do so may result in having to redo the assignment contract.

Review the Contract Terms

Carefully review the terms of the existing contract. Some contracts may have specific provisions regarding assignment. Check for any restrictions or requirements related to assigning the contract.

Check for Anti-Assignment Clauses

Some contracts include anti-assignment clauses that prohibit or restrict the ability to assign the contract without the consent of the other party. If there’s such a clause, you may need the consent of the original parties to proceed.

Determine Assignability

Ensure that the contract is assignable. Some contracts, especially those involving personal services or unique skills, may not be assignable without the other party’s agreement.

Get Consent from the Other Party (if Required)

If the contract includes an anti-assignment clause or requires consent for assignment, seek written consent from the other party. This can often be done through a formal amendment to the contract.

Prepare an Assignment Agreement

Draft an assignment agreement that clearly outlines the transfer of rights and obligations from the assignor (the party assigning the contract) to the assignee (the party receiving the assignment). Include details such as the names of the parties, the effective date of the assignment, and the specific rights and obligations being transferred.

Include Original Contract Information

Attach a copy of the original contract or reference its key terms in the assignment agreement. This helps in clearly identifying the contract being assigned.

Execution of the Assignment Agreement

Both the assignor and assignee should sign the assignment agreement. Signatures should be notarized if required by the contract or local laws.

Notice to the Other Party

Provide notice of the assignment to the non-assigning party. This can be done formally through a letter or as specified in the contract.

File the Assignment

File the assignment agreement with the appropriate parties or entities as required. This may include filing with the original contracting party or relevant government authorities.

Communicate with Third Parties

Inform any relevant third parties, such as suppliers, customers, or service providers, about the assignment to ensure a smooth transition.

Keep Copies for Records

Keep copies of the assignment agreement, original contract, and any related communications for your records.

Here’s a list of steps on how to write an assignment agreement:

Step 1 – List the Assignor’s and Assignee’s Details

List all of the pertinent information regarding the parties involved in the transfer. This information includes their full names, addresses, phone numbers, and other relevant contact information.

This step clarifies who’s transferring the initial contract and who will take on its responsibilities.

Step 2 – Provide Original Contract Information

Describing and identifying the contract that is effectively being reassigned is essential. This step avoids any confusion after the transfer has been completed.

Step 3 – State the Consideration

Provide accurate information regarding the amount the assignee pays to assume the contract. This figure should include taxes and any relevant peripheral expenses. If the assignee will pay the consideration over a period, indicate the method and installments.

Step 4 – Provide Any Terms and Conditions

The terms and conditions of any agreement are crucial to a smooth transaction. You must cover issues such as dispute resolution, governing law, obligor approval, and any relevant clauses.

Step 5 – Obtain Signatures

Both parties must sign the agreement to ensure it is legally binding and that they have read and understood the contract. If a notary is required, wait to sign off in their presence.

Assignment Agreement Template

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What is a Deed of Assignment in New Zealand?

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By Emma Lindblom

Updated on January 28, 2021 Reading time: 5 minutes

This article meets our strict editorial principles. Our lawyers, experienced writers and legally trained editorial team put every effort into ensuring the information published on our website is accurate. We encourage you to seek independent legal advice. Learn more .

What is Assignment?

What is in a deed of assignment, when you would use a deed of assignment, key takeaways.

As contracts age, you may come to a point where you want to transfer your rights and benefits under a contract to another person. There are a couple of ways you can do this, one of which being through an assignment. Sometimes, your original contract will have an assignment clause detailing how you should go through the assignment process. However, not every contract has such a clause, so you can use a deed of assignment to transfer the original contract to another person. A deed of assignment is an important document you can use in a variety of situations. This article will help you understand:

  • how assignment works;
  • what is beneficial to put in your deed of assignment; and
  • some possible situations where you would use this legal document.

Assignments are a common way of transferring contracts in the commercial world. In an assignment, you, the assignor, assign the benefits and rights of the contract you hold to an assignee, a third party to your original contract. The assignee will then continue to perform the contract, and receive the benefits from doing so.

However, an assignment does not transfer your original obligations to the person you formed the contract with. You still have to perform your side of the contract.

For example, if you assign your lease to a new tenant, you still have to pay any rent you have owing. In most cases, assigning a contract does not need the consent of all parties. However, some contracts have an express clause prohibiting assignment, so it is important to check the terms of your contract.

You will want to make sure you properly draft your deed of assignment to make sure you do not leave any avenues open for legal consequences later on. Your deed will vary depending on your situation, but generally, you will want to include:

  • who the assignor is;
  • who the assignee is;
  • the signatures of both parties;
  • witness signatures, if the situation requires;
  • contact details of both parties;
  • the nature of the contract or legal device you are assigning;
  • what benefits and rights you are assigning; 
  • any payments that need to be made; and 
  • how those benefits manifest – whether that be through financial means, or service performed.

If you are unsure about what your deed needs to cover, it is a good idea to obtain legal advice.

Transferral of Creditor Rights

You can use a deed of assignment to transfer the right to be paid a debt. This means that you would transfer the benefit of that debt payment to someone else, while the original party you contracted with still performs their end of paying back the debt.

Transferring Ownership of a Trade Mark

You may be in the situation where you are transferring the copyright of a trademark to someone else’s name.

For example, if you are a graphic designer, you would design the logo, and assign the copyright of the trademark or logo you created to someone else. This would require a signed deed of assignment as the legal document proving the transfer of ownership.

Selling a Business

In the process of selling your business , you may use a deed of assignment to transfer any pre-existing commercial contracts you have with customers to whoever is buying your business . This means that the new owner can still maintain those customer relationships without having to enter into an entirely new contract.

Assignment of Lease

Deeds of assignment are often used in real estate transactions. If you are a tenant, you may wish to assign your lease to new tenants and move off of the property. You would use a deed of assignment to transfer your rights under the lease to the new tenant.

However, there are some additional requirements that you need to consider in this process. Usually, you need the permission of your landlord, and you need to make sure that the new tenant is respectable, responsible and able to fulfil any financial obligations that may arise under the lease in the future.

Making an EQC Claim

If you are buying or selling a house, and there is an already existing claim by the Earthquake Commission (EQC) investigating potential natural disaster damage on the house, transferring that claim is a part of the purchase process. You can transfer (or have transferred to you) the rights to the benefit of that claim using a deed of assignment. The deed will need to include all information about the claim, such as reference numbers and insurance information 

Assignment is the process where you, the assignor, transfer the rights and benefits under a contract to a new person, the assignee. You need to formalise this process in writing in some way, and you can use a deed of assignment to fulfil this requirement. There are a variety of situations you can use a deed of assignment in, so it is important to tailor your deed to the specifics of your case. If you want more information or help with drafting your deed of assignment, contact LegalVision’s business lawyers on 0800 005 570 or fill out the form on this page.

An assignment is when you (the Assignor) transfer your rights from a contract to someone else (the Assignee). But, you still have to fulfil any outstanding obligations you have under the contract.

A deed of assignment is the contract outlining the assignment process. This is a written record of the transfer of rights that happens in an assignment and is signed by both the Assignor and the Assignee.

In a deed of assignment, you need to outline what exactly is being assigned to the third party. Both parties need to sign the document, and also the signatures of witnesses to the document.

You can use a deed of assignment in a variety of situations. Often, you would use it as a proof of transfer of ownership of legal property. This can apply to intellectual property, such as trademarks, or real estate property, such as the lease on commercial premises of your business.

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what is deed of assignment and transfer of rights

Understanding Property Titles and Documents in Nigeria

B eing a property owner in Nigeria is a big accomplishment and a wise investment. However, managing the complexity of property ownership necessitates a thorough comprehension of papers and property titles.

These records are vital for preserving property rights since they act as official proof of ownership. This article explores the several kinds of property titles and documents that are available in Nigeria, their significance, and how they support safe real estate transactions.

Certificate of Occupancy (C of O)

A Certificate of Occupancy is perhaps the most crucial document when it comes to land ownership in Nigeria. It is issued by the state government and serves as proof of ownership and the right to use the land for a specific purpose. The process of obtaining a C of O involves the applicant applying to the state government, which then conducts due diligence to verify the legitimacy of the claim to the land. Once issued, the C of O grants the holder exclusive rights to use and develop the land.

Deed of Assignment

A Deed of Assignment is a legal document that transfers ownership of property from one party to another. It typically outlines the details of the transfer, including the names of the parties involved, a description of the property, and any conditions or considerations attached to the transfer. This document is crucial for formalizing the sale or transfer of property rights and should be duly executed and registered with the appropriate government authority to ensure its validity.

Deed of Conveyance:

Similar to a Deed of Assignment, a Deed of Conveyance is used to transfer ownership of property. However, unlike the Deed of Assignment, which is commonly used for the transfer of leasehold interests, the Deed of Conveyance is used for the transfer of freehold interests. It is typically executed between the seller (grantor) and the buyer (grantee) and includes details such as the purchase price, description of the property, and any covenants or warranties.

Survey Plan

A Survey Plan is a document that shows the accurate boundaries and measurements of a piece of land. It is prepared by a licensed surveyor and is essential for verifying the exact location and dimensions of a property. A Survey Plan is often required during the process of obtaining a C of O or when transferring property ownership to ensure that there are no boundary disputes or encroachments.

Power of Attorney

A Power of Attorney is a legal document that grants someone else the authority to act on behalf of the property owner. It is commonly used in situations where the property owner is unable to handle their affairs due to illness, absence, or other reasons. A Power of Attorney can be limited or general in scope, depending on the specific powers granted to the attorney-in-fact.

Significance of Property Titles: Safeguarding Your Investment

Legal Ownership

Property titles serve as incontrovertible evidence of legal ownership. They establish the rightful owner of the property and delineate the boundaries of their ownership rights. Without a valid title, one cannot claim ownership of a property, leaving them vulnerable to disputes and challenges regarding ownership.

Protection of Property Rights

Property titles protect encroachments and unauthorized claims to the property. They offer a legal shield against potential disputes, ensuring that the owner's rights are recognized and respected by others. With a clear title, property owners can confidently assert their ownership rights and defend against any attempts to infringe upon them.

Facilitation of Transactions

Clear and valid property titles facilitate smooth and efficient real estate transactions. When buying or selling property, a clean title assures both parties that the transaction is legitimate and free from any encumbrances or defects. It instils confidence in buyers and lenders, making it easier to secure financing and close the deal.

Legal Certainty

Property titles provide legal certainty by establishing a chain of ownership that can be traced back through time. They document the history of the property, including previous transfers of ownership, mortgages, liens, and other encumbrances. This historical record ensures transparency and clarity regarding the property's status, enabling informed decision-making by prospective buyers and lenders.

Access to Legal Remedies

In the event of a dispute or legal challenge regarding property ownership, a valid title provides the basis for seeking legal remedies and resolution. Property owners with clear titles can avail themselves of legal avenues to defend their rights and rectify any discrepancies or irregularities affecting their ownership. This access to legal recourse is essential for protecting investments and preserving property rights.

Peace of Mind

Perhaps most importantly, property titles offer peace of mind to owners, knowing that their investment is secure and their ownership rights are legally recognized. With a clear title in hand, property owners can confidently enjoy the benefits of homeownership, such as occupancy, development, and transferability, without fear of adverse claims or challenges.

Implications of Not Acquiring Property Titles in Nigeria: Risks and Consequences

Lack of Legal Ownership

One of the most significant implications of not acquiring property titles is the lack of legal ownership. Without proper documentation, individuals cannot assert their ownership rights over the property, leaving them vulnerable to claims by other parties. This lack of legal ownership can lead to disputes, litigation, and the loss of investment in the property.

Insecurity of Tenure

Property titles provide security of tenure, guaranteeing the owner's right to occupy and use the property without fear of eviction or interference. Without proper titles, individuals face uncertainty regarding their tenure, making them susceptible to arbitrary eviction or displacement by third parties claiming ownership rights. This insecurity of tenure can disrupt lives, businesses, and communities, leading to social and economic instability.

Difficulty in Transacting

Acquiring property titles is essential for facilitating real estate transactions, such as buying, selling, or leasing property. Without clear titles, individuals encounter difficulties in transacting, as potential buyers or lenders may be reluctant to engage in deals involving properties with uncertain ownership status. This can impede economic development and hinder investment in the real estate sector.

Limited Access to Credit

Property titles serve as collateral for obtaining loans and credit from financial institutions. Without proper titles, individuals have limited access to credit, as lenders are unwilling to accept properties with unclear ownership as collateral. This lack of access to credit hampers economic growth and development, as it constrains individuals' ability to invest in property development and other productive ventures.

Vulnerability to Fraud and Exploitation

In the absence of property titles, individuals are vulnerable to fraud and exploitation by unscrupulous actors seeking to exploit their lack of legal protection. Fraudulent schemes such as land grabbing, forgery of documents, and illegal sales thrive in environments where property titles are not properly established. This exposes unsuspecting individuals to financial loss and legal entanglements.

Legal and Regulatory Risks

Failure to acquire property titles exposes individuals to legal and regulatory risks, as they may violate laws and regulations governing property ownership and transactions. Government authorities may take enforcement actions against individuals occupying or developing property without proper titles, leading to fines, penalties, or even demolition of structures.

· Isong is a top realtor in Lagos.

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Sony Court of Cassation ruling of April 24, 2024: admissibility of infringement claims even for events occurring prior to registration of the assignment.

Article Patent Law | 22/05/24 | 8 min. | Grégoire Desrousseaux Geoffrey Grandjean Océane Millon de La Verteville

Registration of the assignment in the National Patent Register (NPR) enables the assignee of a patent to enforce the assigned patent against third parties in an infringement action.  However, one question was still widely debated: once the registration has taken place, which acts of infringement can the assignee obtain compensation for? Only those committed after the registration? Or also those committed between the date of the assignment and the date of registration? Or even those committed before the date of the assignment? In a ruling dated April 24, 2024 (appeal no. 22-22.999 ) , the French Supreme Court (Cour de cassation) opted for the broadest answer, no doubt prompted by the CJEU's 2016 rulings in Hassan and Phillipscases – which relate to trademarks and register designs - that a licensee may bring proceedings alleging infringement of the intellectual property which is the subject of the licence, although that licence has not been entered in the register [1] .

This ruling of the Supreme Court has been taken in appeal of a decision by the Paris Court of Appeal on 9 September 2022, in a dispute between some companies part of the Sony group, in particular the Japanese company Sony Interactive Entertainment Inc. ("Sony JP"), owner of the patents at stake, and the French company Subsonic.

The origin: the classic situation of patents assigned as part of a universal transfer of intra-group assets which included intellectual property rights, but not registered at the date when the infringement case was launched.

The defendant argued that Sony JP lacked standing to sue, on the grounds that (i) it had not provided proof of the universal transfer of assets by which it claimed to have been assigned the patents in 2010, and (ii) that in any event, the intra-group transfer alleged to have taken place as part of this universal transfer was not registered in the National Patent Register (NPR) until after the summons, and therefore the patents were unenforceable at the date when the infringement case was launched , and Sony JP was therefore inadmissible for all facts occurring prior to the registration.

This argument enabled Subsonic to dismiss all Sony’s infringement claims, since in this case, all the alleged infringing acts predated the registration of the assignment.

At first instance, the court ruled that Sony JP was inadmissible on the first ground: it had not provided proof that it was the owner of the patents [2] .

On appeal, Sony JP produced new documents, on the basis of which the court found that, contrary to the lower court, the proof of the 2010 universal transfer of assets had indeed been provided [3] . On the other hand, noting that the transfer had been registered in the NPR 18 months after the introduction of the action, the court followed the defendant's argument, holding that Sony JP was not, at the date the infringement case was launched , the owner of an IP right enforceable against third parties and was therefore not, at that date, entitled to bring an infringement action. The Court of Appeal also considered that "if, as provided for in article 126 of the French Code of Civil Procedure, a plea of inadmissibility can be regularized in the course of proceedings, such regularization can only have effect in respect of acts committed subsequent to the registration made". Sony was therefore declared inadmissible to bring an infringement action for all acts committed prior to registration, i.e. for all acts alleged to be infringing in this case.

Referring to articles L.613-9 first paragraph, and L.615-2 first paragraph, of the French Intellectual Property Code and article 126 of the French Civil Procedure Code (CPC), the Supreme Court begins by reiterating the now well-established principle that, as long as the transfer has not been registered in the NPR, the successor in title (in this case, the assignee) cannot invoke the patent rights arising from the date of the contract which transferred ownership of the patent to him, and is therefore not entitled to bring an infringement action [4] . This reaffirms the importance of registration as a precondition for action.

However, the French Supreme Court then overturned the reasoning of the Court of Appeal, which considered that from the date of registration in the NPR, the assignee was only entitled to sue for infringement committed after registration.

The French Suprem Court has ruled that, from the date of registration, the assignee is entitled to bring an infringement action for compensation (i) for the damage caused to him by acts committed since the transfer, and (ii) if the deed transferring the rights so specifies, for the damage caused to him by acts committed prior to the transfer.

It is not surprising that the assignee can act against acts committed prior to the transfer if the deed of assignment of the patent provides for an assignment of the right to act for facts prior to the assignment, in this case the assignee is subrogated to the assignor's right to act. 

On the other hand, it is more surprising that in the case of a registration made during the course of the proceedings (regularization hypothesis), the assignee is entitled to take action not only against acts committed since the registration, but also against acts committed between the date of the transfer and such registration.

In conclusion, this decision is very favorable to assignees who may have delayed registering the assignment. Nevertheless, it would seem sensible to encourage any assignee (i) to include in the assignment deed the possibility for the assignee to bring an infringement action for facts predating the assignment, and (ii) to register the deed in the NPR as soon as possible. Firstly, one does not yet know how judges will react to the Supreme Court decision. Secondly, registration is still required to request a seizure [5] (“saisie-contrefaçon”) and, as the seizure procedure is distinct from the proceedings on the merits, if the regularization takes place during the proceedings on the merits, it is only valid for the latter and not for the previous seizure procedure, which has been closed since the decision which allowed the seizure. Lastly, counterfeiters could argue, by analogy with the foreclosure referred to in paragraph 2 of article 126 of the CPC, that only the registration in the RNB (and not the summons) interrupts the statute of limitations.

[1] CJEU, Feb. 4, 2016, case C-613/15 and CJEU, June 22, 2016, Case C-419/15

[2] TJ Paris 3.2, Sept. 4, 2020, RG1701825

[3] CA Paris 5.2, Sept. 9, 2022, RG20/12901

[4] See in particular Cass Com 10 Jul 2007, pourvoi 06-12056

[5] Cass. com., Oct. 31, 2006, no. 05-11.149

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what is deed of assignment and transfer of rights

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  1. Deed of Assignment

    The deed of assignment is the main document between the seller and buyer that proves ownership in favor of the seller. The party who is transferring his or her rights to the property is known as the "assignor," while the party who is receiving the rights is called the "assignee.". A deed of assignment is required in many different ...

  2. Deed of Assignment: Everything You Need to Know

    4 min. In the realm of intellectual property, a Deed of Assignment is a formal legal document used to transfer all rights, title, and interest in intellectual property from the assignor (original owner) to the assignee (new owner). This is crucial for the correct transfer of patents, copyrights, trademarks, and other IP rights.

  3. Assignment or Novation: Key Differences and Legal Implications

    A deed of assignment is a legal document that facilitates the transfer of a specific right or benefit from one party (the assignor) to another (the assignee). This process allows the assignee to step into the assignor's position, taking over both the rights and obligations under the original contract.

  4. Understanding a deed of assignment for intellectual property

    A deed of assignment must be in writing and should include: The names and addresses of the assignor and assignee. A description of the program or product for which the rights are being transferred. A statement that all intellectual property rights to the property are being transferred.

  5. Deed of Assignment and Transfer of Rights [Parts and Template]

    A Deed of Assignment and Transfer of Rights is a legal document used when a person or a company who originally was a party to a contract (also known as the assignor or transferor) transfers his or its rights under the contract to another party (the assignee or transferee). Accordingly, when the Deed of Assignment and Transfer of Rights has been ...

  6. Assignment Of Rights Agreement: Definition & Sample

    An assignment of rights agreement is a written document in which one party, the assignor, assigns to another party all or part of their rights under an existing contract. The most common example of this would be when someone wants to sell their shares of stock in a company. When you buy shares from someone else (the seller), they agree to ...

  7. Drafting a Deed of Assignment

    A Deed of Assignment is a vital legal document used to transfer rights, interests or assets between parties. It is regularly used in business transactions, and often regarding real estate or intellectual property.

  8. Deed of Assignment: Everything You Need to Know

    A Deed of Assignment refers to a legal document in which an assignor states his willingness to assign the ownership of his property to the assignee. The Deed of Assignment is required to effect a transfer of property and to show the legal right to possess it. It is always a subject of debate whether Deed of Assignment is a contract; a Deed of ...

  9. Deed Transfer: What You Need To Know

    A deed transfer, also known as an assignment deed, is a legal document containing imparted, immovable, existing property from one party to another. This means that when the owner of the company changes from one person to another, the deed transfer acts as a formal accord for recording the change. The property seller is known as the grantor ...

  10. assignment

    Assignment is a legal term whereby an individual, the "assignor," transfers rights, property, or other benefits to another known as the " assignee .". This concept is used in both contract and property law. The term can refer to either the act of transfer or the rights /property/benefits being transferred.

  11. Assignments: The Basic Law

    Ordinarily, the term assignment is limited to the transfer of rights that are intangible, like contractual rights and rights connected with property. Merchants Service Co. v. Small Claims Court, 35 Cal. 2d 109, 113-114 (Cal. 1950). An assignment will generally be permitted under the law unless there is an express prohibition against assignment ...

  12. What is an Assignment of Deed & How Does it Work

    An assignment of deed is used to show the deed of a property changing from one party to another, such as when a sale is made. It is used as the written proof to show who has rightful ownership of the property. When someone is purchasing property and decides to sell it before they have paid it off, an assignment of deed form would be used to transfer the rights and everything associated with ...

  13. What Is A Deed of Assignment, Anyway?

    A Deed of Assignment is a legal document that transfers or assigns the legal rights and obligations to another party. And it varies depending on your situation. For example, an assignment could work for simple things like intellectual property. When a graphic designer creates a logo for you, you might want to make sure that logo is owned by you.

  14. Transfer of Rights

    Transfer of Rights Last Will & Testament: Legal Form Note: This is a free sample of a deed of Assignment and Transfer of Rights of a real estate property. You may highlight the whole document - copy & paste on Microsoft Word. The names, dates, addresses and details of this Transfer of Rights Form should be changed to suit the parties in the ...

  15. DEED OF ASSIGNMENT AND TRANSFER OF RIGHTS

    Deed of Assignment and Transfer of Rights. KNOW ALL MEN BY THIS PRESENTS: This deed, made and entered into this 23rd of July 2019 at the City of Cebu, Philippines, by and between: (NAME OF ASSIGNOR), Filipino, of legal age, single/married to (Name of Spouse, if any) and a resident of (Address of Residence), hereinafter referred to as the ...

  16. Assign your property to another with a "Deed of Assignment"

    A Deed of Assignment is a contract where the owner (the "assignor") transfers ownership over property to another person (the "assignee") by way of assignment. The assignee steps into the shoes of the assignor and assumes all the rights and obligations to the property. 2. When do you need a Deed of Assignment?

  17. What Is A Deed of Assignment, Anyway?

    A Deed of Assignment is a legal document that transfers or assigns the legal rights and obligations to another party. And it varies depending on your situation. For example, an assignment could work for simple things like intellectual property. When a graphic designer creates a logo for you, you might want to make sure that logo is owned by you.

  18. Free Assignment Agreement Template

    Assignment Agreement Template. Use our assignment agreement to transfer contractual obligations. An assignment agreement is a legal document that transfers rights, responsibilities, and benefits from one party (the "assignor") to another (the "assignee"). You can use it to reassign debt, real estate, intellectual property, leases ...

  19. What is a Deed of Assignment in New Zealand?

    Assignment is the process where you, the assignor, transfer the rights and benefits under a contract to a new person, the assignee. You need to formalise this process in writing in some way, and you can use a deed of assignment to fulfil this requirement. There are a variety of situations you can use a deed of assignment in, so it is important ...

  20. Understanding Property Titles and Documents in Nigeria

    Deed of Assignment. A Deed of Assignment is a legal document that transfers ownership of property from one party to another. It typically outlines the details of the transfer, including the names ...

  21. Sony Court of Cassation ruling of April 24, 2024: admissibility of

    The French Suprem Court has ruled that, from the date of registration, the assignee is entitled to bring an infringement action for compensation (i) for the damage caused to him by acts committed since the transfer, and (ii) if the deed transferring the rights so specifies, for the damage caused to him by acts committed prior to the transfer ...

  22. State Authorities Superannuation (Ex-Snowy Mountains Hydro-Electric

    (2) On the transfer of assets, rights or liabilities referred to in subclause (1) (c), the following provisions have effect— (a) the assets vest in STC by virtue of this clause and without the need for any further conveyance, transfer, assignment or assurance, (b) the rights or liabilities become by virtue of this clause the rights or ...