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Vocabulary Power Unit 1 Test 11 Test: Unit 1 Circle the letter of the word that best completes each sentence. 1. After the Civil War, the _____ Southern states were ...

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Vocabulary Power Workbook - Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

GLENCOE LANGUAGE ARTS VOCABULARY POWER GRADE 8 To the Student This Vocabulary Power workbook gives you the practice you need to expand your vocabulary and improve your ability to understand what you read. Each lesson focuses on a single vocabulary concept or on a theme that ties together the list of words in the Word Bank. You then have several opportunities to learn the words by completing exercises on definitions, context clues, and word parts. You can keep track of your own progress and achievement in vocabulary study by using the Student Progress Chart, which appears on page v. With your teacher’s help, you can score your work on any lesson or test. After you know your score, use the Scoring Scale on pages vi–vii to figure your percentage. Then mark your score (or percentage correct) on the Student Progress Chart. Share your Progress Chart with your parents or guardians as your teacher directs. Glencoe/McGraw-Hill Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Send all inquiries to: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill 8787 Orion Place Columbus, Ohio 43240 ISBN 0-07-826228-3 Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 024 05 04 03 02 01 CONTENTS Student Progress Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .v Scoring Scale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .vi Unit 1 Using Synonyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Lesson 1 Using Synonyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Lesson 2 Word Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Lesson 3 Word Families . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Lesson 4 Using Reference Skills—Using a Dictionary Entry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Lesson 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Test Unit 2 Using Synonyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Lesson 6 Recognizing Base Words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Lesson 7 Prefixes That Mean “not” or “the opposite of” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17 Lesson 8 Using Reading Skills—Learning from Context: Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Lesson 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Test Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Unit 3 Using Synonyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Lesson 10 Prefixes That Tell Where . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 Lesson 11 Greek Word Roots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 Lesson 12 Suffixes That Form Nouns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 Lesson 13 Using Reference Skills—Using a Thesaurus: Synonyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 Lesson 14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 Test Unit 4 Using Synonyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 Lesson 15 Using Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 Lesson 16 Prefixes That Tell When . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 Lesson 17 Using Reading Skills—Learning from Context: Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41 Lesson 18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43 Test Unit 5 Using Context Clues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 Lesson 19 Using Synonyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47 Lesson 20 Latin Word Roots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49 Lesson 21 Suffixes That Form Adjectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51 Lesson 22 Using Reading Skills—Learning from Context: Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53 Lesson 23 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54 Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55 Test Unit 6 Using Synonyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57 Lesson 24 Words from Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59 Lesson 25 Using Synonyms and Antonyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61 Lesson 26 Number Prefixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63 Lesson 27 Using Reading Skills—Using a Dictionary: Multiple-Meaning Words . . . . . . . .65 Lesson 28 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66 Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67 Test Using Synonyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69 Unit 7 Suffixes That Form Verbs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71 Lesson 29 Compound Words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73 Lesson 30 Using Reading Skills—Learning from Context: Comparison and Contrast . . .75 Lesson 31 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76 Lesson 32 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77 Review Test Using Synonyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79 Homophones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81 Unit 8 Borrowed Words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83 Lesson 33 Using Test-Taking Skills—Analogies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85 Lesson 34 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86 Lesson 35 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87 Lesson 36 Review Test Pronunciation Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89 Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. STUDENT PROGRESS CHART Fill in the chart below with your scores, using the scoring scale on the next page. Name: ____________________________ Lesson Unit Review Unit Test Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 1 2 3 4 5 Review Test 6 7 8 9 Review Test 10 11 12 13 14 Review Test 15 16 17 18 Review Test 19 20 21 22 Review Test 23 24 25 26 27 28 Review Test 29 30 31 32 Review Test 33 34 35 36 Review Test Vocabulary Power Grade 8 v Number of ItemsSCORING SCALE Use this scale to find your score. Line up the number of items with the number correct. For example, if 15 Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. out of 16 items are correct, the score is 93.7 percent (see grayed area). Number Correct 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 1 100 2 50 100 3 33.3 66.7 100 4 25 50 75 100 5 20 40 60 80 100 6 16.7 33.3 50 66.7 83.3 100 7 14.3 28.6 42.9 57.1 71.4 85.7 100 8 12.5 25 37.5 50 62.5 75 87.5 100 9 11.1 22.2 33.3 44.4 55.6 66.7 77.8 88.9 100 10 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 11 9.1 18.1 27.2 36.3 45.4 54.5 63.6 72.7 81.8 90.9 100 12 8.3 16.7 25 33.3 41.7 50 58.3 66.7 75 83.3 91.7 100 13 7.7 15.3 23.1 30.8 38.5 46.1 53.8 61.5 69.2 76.9 84.6 92.3 100 14 7.1 14.3 21.4 28.6 35.7 42.8 50 57.1 64.3 71.4 78.5 85.7 92.8 100 15 6.7 13.3 20 26.7 33.3 40 46.6 53.3 60 66.7 73.3 80 86.7 93.3 100 16 6.3 12.5 18.8 25 31.2 37.5 43.7 50 56.2 62.5 68.7 75 81.2 87.5 93.7 100 17 5.9 11.8 17.6 23.5 29.4 35.3 41.2 47 52.9 58.8 64.7 70.6 76.5 82.3 88.2 94.1 100 18 5.6 11.1 16.7 22.2 27.8 33.3 38.9 44.4 50 55.5 61.1 66.7 72.2 77.8 83.3 88.9 94.4 100 19 5.3 10.5 15.8 21.2 26.3 31.6 36.8 42.1 47.4 52.6 57.9 63.1 68.4 73.7 78.9 84.2 89.4 94.7 100 20 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 85 80 85 90 95 100 21 4.8 9.5 14.3 19 23.8 28.6 33.3 38.1 42.8 47.6 52.3 57.1 61.9 66.7 71.4 76.1 80.9 85.7 90.5 95.2 22 4.5 9.1 13.7 18.2 22.7 27.3 31.8 36.4 40.9 45.4 50 54.5 59.1 63.6 68.1 72.7 77.2 81.8 86.4 90.9 23 4.3 8.7 13.0 17.4 21.7 26.1 30.4 34.8 39.1 43.5 47.8 52.1 56.5 60.8 65.2 69.5 73.9 78.3 82.6 86.9 24 4.7 8.3 12.5 16.7 20.8 25 29.2 33.3 37.5 41.7 45.8 50 54.2 58.3 62.5 66.7 70.8 75 79.1 83.3 25 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 26 3.8 7.7 11.5 15.4 19.2 23.1 26.9 30.4 34.6 38.5 42.3 46.2 50 53.8 57.7 61.5 65.4 69.2 73.1 76.9 27 3.7 7.4 11.1 14.8 18.5 22.2 25.9 29.6 33.3 37 40.7 44.4 48.1 51.9 55.6 59.2 63 66.7 70.4 74.1 28 3.6 7.1 10.7 14.3 17.9 21.4 25 28.6 32.1 35.7 39.3 42.9 46.4 50 53.6 57.1 60.7 64.3 67.9 71.4 29 3.4 6.9 10.3 13.8 17.2 20.7 24.1 27.6 31 34.5 37.9 41.4 44.8 48.3 51.7 55.2 58.6 62.1 65.5 69 30 3.3 6.7 10 13.3 16.7 20 23.3 26.7 30 33.3 36.7 40 43.3 46.7 50 53.3 56.7 60 63.3 66.7 31 3.2 6.5 9.7 13 16.1 19.3 22.3 25.8 29.0 32.2 35.4 38.7 41.9 45.1 48.3 51.6 54.8 58 61.2 64.5 32 3.1 6.3 9.4 12.5 15.6 18.8 21.9 25 28.1 31.3 34.4 37.5 40.6 43.8 46.9 50 53.1 56.2 59.4 62.5 33 3 6 9 12 15.1 18.1 21.2 24.2 27.2 30.3 33 36.3 39.3 42.4 45.4 48.4 51.5 54.5 57.5 60.6 34 2.9 5.9 8.8 11.8 14.7 17.6 20.6 23.5 26.5 29.4 32.4 35.3 38.2 41.2 44.1 47.1 50 52.9 55.9 58.8 35 2.9 5.7 8.6 11.4 14.3 17.1 20 22.9 25.7 28.6 31.4 34.3 37.1 40 42.9 45.7 48.6 51.4 54.3 57.1 36 2.8 5.6 8.3 11.1 13.9 16.7 19.4 22.2 25 27.8 30.6 33.3 36.1 38.9 41.7 44.4 47.2 50 52.7 55.6 37 2.7 5.4 8.1 10.8 13.5 17.1 18.9 21.6 24.3 27 29.7 32.4 35.1 37.8 40 43.2 45.9 48.6 51.4 54 38 2.6 5.3 7.9 10.5 13.2 15.8 18.4 21.1 23.7 26.3 28.9 31.6 34.2 36.8 39.5 42.1 44.7 47.4 50 52.6 39 2.6 5.3 7.7 10.3 12.8 15.4 17.9 20.5 23.1 25.6 28.2 30.8 33.3 35.9 38.5 41.0 43.6 46.2 48.7 51.3 40 2.5 5 7.5 10 12.5 15 17.5 20 22.5 25 27.5 30 32.5 35 37.5 40 42.5 45 47.5 50 vi Grade 8 Vocabulary Power Number of Items Number Correct Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 100 22 95.4 100 23 91.3 95.6 100 24 87.5 91.6 95.8 100 25 84 88 92 96 100 26 80.8 84.6 88.5 92.3 96.2 100 27 77.8 81.5 85.2 88.9 92.6 96.3 100 28 75 78.6 82.1 85.7 89.3 92.9 96.4 100 29 72.4 75.9 79.3 82.8 86.2 89.7 93.1 96.6 100 30 70 73.3 76.7 80 83.3 86.7 90 93.3 96.7 100 31 67.7 70.9 74.2 77.4 80.6 83.9 87.1 90.3 93.5 96.7 100 32 65.6 68.8 71.9 75 78.1 81.2 84.4 87.5 90.6 93.8 96.9 100 33 63.6 66.7 69.7 72.7 75.8 78.8 81.8 84.8 87.8 90.9 93.9 96.9 100 34 61.8 64.7 67.6 70.6 73.5 76.5 79.3 82.4 85.3 88.2 91.2 94.1 97.1 100 35 60 62.9 65.7 68.9 71.4 74.3 77.1 80 82.9 85.7 88.6 91.4 94.3 97.1 100 36 58.3 61.1 63.8 66.7 69.4 72.2 75 77.8 80.6 85.7 86.1 88.9 91.7 94.9 97.2 100 37 56.8 59.5 62.2 64.9 67.6 70.3 72.9 75.7 78.4 81.1 83.8 86.5 89.2 91.9 94.6 97.3 100 38 55.3 57.9 60.5 63.2 65.8 68.4 71.2 73.7 76.3 78.9 81.6 84.2 86.8 89.5 92.1 94.7 97.3 100 39 53.8 56.4 58.9 61.5 64.1 66.7 69.2 71.8 74.4 76.9 79.5 82.1 84.6 87.2 89.7 92.3 94.9 97.4 100 40 52.5 55 57.5 60 62.5 65 67.5 70 72.5 75 77.5 80 82.5 85 87.5 90 92.5 95 97.5 100 Vocabulary Power Grade 8 vii Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Lesson 1 Using Synonyms Home is a place that contains many kinds of memories—some good, some painful, some humorous, some sad. Different kinds of memories help make up our idea of home. In this lesson, you’ll learn some words to use when you want to talk about what home means to you. Word List hysteria tranquillity wholesome anonymous lurch valid woe awed perish humility Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. EXERCISE A Synonyms Synonyms are words with similar meanings. Each boldfaced word below is paired with a synonym whose meaning you probably know. Think of other words related to the synonym and write them on the line provided. Then, look up the word in a dictionary and write its meaning. 1. perish : die Dictionary definition 2. woe : sadness Dictionary definition 3. tranquillity : peacefulness Dictionary definition 4. lurch : stagger Dictionary definition 5. hysteria : uncontrollable emotion Dictionary definition 6. humility : lack of pride Dictionary definition 7. anonymous : unknown Dictionary definition 8. awed : admiring Dictionary definition Vocabulary Power Unit 1, Lesson 1 1 Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. continued 9. wholesome : healthy Dictionary definition 10. valid : proper Dictionary definition EXERCISE B Sentence Completion Write the vocabulary word that best completes each sentence. 1. Despite her impressive accomplishments, the scientist kept her attitude of ________________. 2. We were definitely ________________ the first time we visited the Capitol Building in Washington, D.C. 3. “My heart is broken,” sighed the heroine of the drama, “and I know I shall ________________ before the sun rises.” 4. Anyone who wishes to try out for the soccer team must have a(n) ________________ certificate of good health from a doctor. 5. The Bosnian people suffered much ________________ in the brutal war. 6. As the asteroid approached Earth, the people’s ________________ grew. 7. The engine started at last and the moped began to ________________ forward. 8. The person who donated $10,000 wished to remain ________________. 9. It’s important that the food you eat is ________________ and fresh. 10. After an especially busy day, I enjoy the ________________ of lying on my bed listening to some quiet music. 2 Unit 1, Lesson 1 Vocabulary Power Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Lesson 2 Using Synonyms As Dorothy learned in The Wizard of Oz, there really is no place like home. One of the reasons each home is unique is that each person who helps create a home is unique. The words in this lesson relate to the special place we call home. Word List indifference simultaneous urban alliance meager taunt varied alternative portray commence Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. EXERCISE A Synonyms Each boldfaced word below is paired with a synonym whose meaning you probably know. Think of other words related to the synonym and write them on the line provided. Then, look up the word in a dictionary and write its meaning. 1. taunt : tease Dictionary definition 2. indifference : lack of preference Dictionary definition 3. commence : begin Dictionary definition 4. meager : thin Dictionary definition 5. simultaneous : at the same time Dictionary definition 6. urban : city Dictionary definition 7. varied : different Dictionary definition 8. alliance : association Dictionary definition Vocabulary Power Unit 1, Lesson 2 3 Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. continued 9. alternative : choice Dictionary definition 10. portray : picture Dictionary definition EXERCISE B Sentence Completion Write the vocabulary word that best completes the sentence. 1. Because the two soccer games were ________________, we could not watch them both. 2. “What time does the movie ________________?” Jason asked, worried about being late. 3. Whether Shawna comes to the party is a matter of complete ________________ to most of the club members. 4. The two countries formed a secret ________________ to defend each other in case of military attack. 5. The menu choices were extremely ________________. I found several things I wanted to order. EXERCISE C Usage Answer the questions based on your understanding of the boldfaced word. 1. Do you think a meager meal would satisfy you if you were very hungry? Why or why not? 2. What are some advantages to living in an urban setting? What are some disadvantages? 3. How would you respond if someone were to taunt you at school? 4. Name a film, TV show, or book that you feel accurately portrays teenage life. Why did you choose this particular film, TV show, or book? 5. What do you feel is a good alternative to settling disputes with violence? Explain your answer. 4 Unit 1, Lesson 2 Vocabulary Power Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Lesson 3 Word Parts The main meaning of a word is contained in its root or base word. Base words are roots that are com- plete words. Prefixes can be affixed to the beginning and suffixes to the end of the root to change its meaning. Knowing the meanings of word roots, prefixes, and suffixes can help you make an educated guess about the meaning of a new word. In this lesson, you’ll identify some common roots, prefixes, and suffixes and learn how they work together to give meaning to words. Word List dramatize mutation precedence adjourn monotonous perception secluded anthropology mutate circumnavigate EXERCISE A Word Association Read the clues. Then, answer the question. 1. The root of mutation comes from mutare, the Latin word for “change.” If you add the noun suffix -ion to this root, what might be the word’s meaning? 2. Certain suffixes can change the part of speech of a word root. For example, -ate placed at the end of a root forms a verb. How would you define mutate? Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 3. The suffix -ion makes a root a noun. To perceive is “to observe.” If you add the suffix -ion, what might perception mean? 4. Prefixes can be affixed to the beginning of roots to change their meanings. The root jour/journ means “day.” Adding the Latin prefix ad-, meaning “to” or “toward,” creates the word adjourn, which probably means 5. Some words are formed without prefixes or suffixes by combining two roots. The Greek root anthrop/anthropo means “human being.” The root logy comes from the Greek word for “word” and now means “study” or “science.” What is anthropology? Vocabulary Power Unit 1, Lesson 3 5 Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. continued 6. The prefix mono- means “one.” The Greek root ton means “tone” or “sound.” The suffix -ous forms an adjective. If someone’s speech is monotonous, how might you describe it? 7. The Latin word for boat is navis. Adding a verb suffix to this root forms the word navigate. If the Latin prefix circum- means “around,” what might you be doing if you circumnavigate the world? 8. Some words have both prefixes and suffixes added to roots. The root cede/cess comes from the Latin for “go.” Pre- is a prefix meaning “before,” while -ence is a noun suffix. What might the word precedence mean? 9. Another verb suffix is -ize. Our word root drama means the same as the Greek word drama, which comes from the word for “do” or “act.” What would you do if you were to dramatize a story? 10. The root clude comes from the Latin word for “close.” The prefix se- means “apart” or “away from.” If a cabin is secluded, what other words could you use to describe it? EXERCISE B Word Webs Choose a root, prefix, and suffix from those you learned about in this lesson. On a separate sheet of paper, draw three word webs like the one shown below. In the first, write the root. In the next two webs, write the prefix and suffix. Fill in the “rays” with as many words as you can that contain that root, prefix, or suffix. Then, exchange webs with a partner and discuss the meanings of the words you have listed. 6 Unit 1, Lesson 3 Vocabulary Power Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Lesson 4 Word Families Word families are groups of words that contain the same roots or base words. Base words are roots that are complete words. The root or base word gives a word its main meaning. A prefix or suffix com- bined with the root or base word gives it a different meaning. In this lesson, you’ll learn words in the same word families. Word List document itinerary levity belligerent impulsive levitate rebellious compel initiative doctrine Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. EXERCISE A Base Words and Word Roots Look up each boldfaced word in a dictionary and write its meaning. Then, use the information in the dictionary entry to underline the root or base word. 1. rebellious 2. belligerent 3. doctrine 4. document 5. levity 6. levitate 7. initiative 8. itinerary 9. impulsive 10. compel EXERCISE B Sentence Completion Write the vocabulary word that best completes the sentence. 1. Ms. Jackson said she was proud of the class for taking the ________________ in solving the problem of litter around the school building and sports fields. 2. The clowns’ performance ended the evening on a note of ________________, very different from the show’s sober beginning. Vocabulary Power Unit 1, Lesson 4 7 Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. continued 3. The television program was about the Truman ________________, President Harry Truman’s belief that the United States had to oppose the Soviet Union following World War II. 4. You can lead a horse to water, but you certainly can’t ________________ it to drink! 5. The government soldiers had a difficult time defeating the ________________ forces in battle because they often disappeared into the jungle. 6. “For my final trick, I shall make my assistant ________________ in the air above the audience!” announced the magician. 7. You will never convince the judge unless you are able to ________________ your charges, proving that they are true. 8. Will the Grand Canyon be on your ________________ for your camping trip? 9. We all felt that Rebecca was ________________ when she volunteered for the committee without even knowing what she would have to do. 10. I could tell the dog was very ________________ by the way it barked viciously at everyone who walked by its yard. EXERCISE C Answer each question based on your understanding of the boldfaced vocabulary word. 1. What are some situations when levity is out of place? 2. What places would be on the itinerary for your dream vacation? 3. What might be a reason some people are belligerent? 4. Describe the last time you did something impulsive. 5. What steps would you take to document a case against a factory for polluting a nearby stream? 8 Unit 1, Lesson 4 Vocabulary Power Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Lesson 5 Using Reference Skills Using a Dictionary Entry A word and the information given in a dictionary about the word is called an entry. Look at the sample entry below. Guidewords preadaptation/precipitator Pronunciation spelling precipitate (pri si’ p ta¯ t’) v. 1. to throw violently, hurl: She addressed the difficult morale situation into which genetic engineering has precipitated modern society. 2. to bring about: Entry He precipitated a riot that led to the arrest of dozens of people. 3. to cause to separate from a solution: The scientist precipitated the salt from the fluid. 4. to condense from a vapor and fall as rain or snow: I hope the water in the clouds will soon precipitate as rain. Definition(s) Sample phrase or sentence EXERCISE Use the sample entry to answer each question. 1. Which entry would you find on this page—preach, precious, or precisely? Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2. Which meaning of precipitate is being used in the following sentence? The fiery speech of the rebel leader precipitated the attack on the palace. 3. On which syllable does the primary accent fall in the word precipitate? 4. Use the first meaning of precipitate in a sentence of your own. 5. Use the fourth meaning of precipitate in a sentence of your own. Vocabulary Power Unit 1, Lesson 5 9 Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Review: Unit 1 EXERCISE Circle the letter of the word that best completes each sentence. 1. The committee voted to ______ the meeting until after the tornado alert had passed. a. adjourn b. perish c. taunt d. lurch 2. The need to rebuild some of the nation’s ______ slums will be an important part of the candidate’s election campaign. c. urban d. belligerent a. anonymous b. secluded 3. Kristin’s ______ for Washington, D.C., included the White House, the Capitol, and the Supreme Court Building. a. precedence b. itinerary c. humility d. alliance 4. It’s a shame this poem is ______ because I would love to know who wrote it. a. secluded b. anonymous c. urban d. belligerent 5. “The needs of my children take ______ over every other demand on my time,” explained the employee. b. document c. indifference d. precedence a. humility 6. No matter how much they ______ Brian about his project, they cannot make him angry. a. portray b. circumnavigate c. taunt d. compel 7. Although the businessman has been very successful, his complete lack of ______ has made Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. many people dislike him. a. indifference b. perception c. humility d. initiative 8. Ms. Dean had to ______ many of her successes in her application for the Master Teacher Award. a. document b. compel c. adjourn d. commence 9. Watch how the opossums ______ forward and then fall when they are pretending to be dead. a. perish b. lurch c. adjourn d. levitate 10. “I predict that the cells of the insect will ______ after its exposure to radiation,” said the scientist in the film. a. adjourn b. dramatize c. levitate d. mutate 10 Unit 1 Review Vocabulary Power Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Test: Unit 1 PART A Circle the letter of the word that best completes each sentence. 1. After the Civil War, the ______ Southern states were welcomed back into the Union. a. alternative b. rebellious c. varied d. simultaneous 2. Do you know which actor will ______ President Lincoln in the new film biography? a. portray b. document c. commence d. compel 3. Although Woodbridge Middle School’s players were much taller than we were, our volleyball team was not ______ by them. a. secluded b. awed c. varied d. valid 4. The novelist had been asked to ______ her most recent best-seller, Hope in the Dawn, for a television movie. a. adjourn b. taunt c. dramatize d. lurch 5. I found the speeches so ______ that I couldn’t help yawning every two minutes! a. impulsive b. mutant c. wholesome d. monotonous 6. Ola expressed ______ when we asked her which ride we should go on first, so we decided without her. a. humility b. initiative c. indifference d. tranquillity Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 7. Because the two comments were ______, I couldn’t understand either one. a. simultaneous b. anonymous c. monotonous d. impulsive 8. After the young children giggled during the ceremony, their parents spoke to them about their inappropriate moment of ______. a. hysteria b. precedence c. humility d. levity 9. “There’s no way you can ______ me to reveal the location of the secret meeting place,” thundered the hero to his captors. a. perish b. compel c. taunt d. commence 10. The commission wrote that no ______ to the automobile was likely to be developed over the next twenty-five years. a. alternative b. itinerary c. alliance d. precedence Vocabulary Power Unit 1 Test 11 Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ continued PART B For each group of words, circle the letter of the vocabulary word that best fits. 1. slim, insufficient, sparse, ______ a. varied b. meager c. secluded d. impulsive 2. rise, float, lift, ______ a. levitate b. portray c. compel d. perish 3. good, official, approved, ______ c. valid d. meager a. simultaneous b. belligerent 4. calm, peacefulness, order, ______ a. doctrine b. alliance c. hysteria d. tranquillity 5. transformation, change, alteration, ______ a. initiative b. mutation c. precedence d. itinerary PART C Circle the number of the word that is most nearly the opposite of the boldfaced word. 1. thoughtful b. anonymous c. meager d. impulsive a. rebellious 2. happiness b. tranquillity c. humility d. levity a. woe 3. laziness b. alternative c. indifference d. levity Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. a. initiative 4. identical c. secluded d. meager a. monotonous b. varied 5. finish b. taunt c. commence d. compel a. mutate 12 Unit 1 Test Vocabulary Power Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Lesson 6 Using Synonyms Even the sturdiest trees sometimes lean. We are like trees—sometimes harsh winds blow and force us to lean on other people for support. This lesson provides us with words to use when exploring the ways we depend on each other. Word List intimate resolve uncomprehendingly absurd persistently scowl vivid arrogant postpone competently Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. EXERCISE A Synonyms Each boldfaced vocabulary word below is paired with a synonym whose meaning you probably know. Think of other words related to the synonym and write your ideas on the line provided. Then, look up the word in a dictionary and write its meaning. 1. intimate : close Dictionary definition 2. scowl : frown Dictionary definition 3. arrogant : conceited Dictionary definition 4. resolve : decide Dictionary definition 5. uncomprehendingly : without understanding Dictionary definition 6. postpone : delay Dictionary definition 7. persistently : stubbornly Dictionary definition 8. absurd : foolish Dictionary definition Vocabulary Power Unit 2, Lesson 6 13 Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. continued 9. competently : adequately Dictionary definition 10. vivid : brilliant Dictionary definition EXERCISE B Multiple-Meaning Words Many words in English have more than one meaning. Each meaning, however, is based on the meaning of the word root. The word resolve, for example, is from the Latin root resolvere meaning “to loosen,” “to dissolve,” or “to release.” A dictionary entry for resolve lists many different meanings, but all of them are related to the root meaning, “to loosen.” Use a dictionary to help you write the precise definition of resolve as it is used in each sentence below. 1. The instructor urged her students to resolve the mathematics problem into simple elements. 2. The negotiator tried unsuccessfully to resolve the dispute between management and labor. 3. Medical researchers are trying to resolve the chemical imbalance that triggers addictions. 4. As the debate continued, her resolve to support the “pro” side began to weaken. EXERCISE C Word Association For each group of words, write the vocabulary word that best fits. 1. proud, conceited, boastful ________________ 2. delay, cancel, suspend ________________ 3. skillfully, with ability, capably ________________ 4. realistic, lifelike, bright ________________ 5. determine, decide, settle ________________ 14 Unit 2, Lesson 6 Vocabulary Power Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Lesson 7 Recognizing Base Words Words are often made up of different parts. The main meaning of a word is contained in its root or base word. Base words are roots that are complete words. Words that have the same root or base word are in the same word family. In this lesson, you’ll learn to identify some common base words and explore how adding prefixes and suffixes can change the meaning of words. Word List hospitality rehabilitate significant acknowledge longevity reserve unseemly combatant neutralize defraud EXERCISE A Word Association Read the clues. Then, answer the question. 1. To habilitate something is to prepare it, outfit it, or get it ready for a certain function. The word habilitate comes from a family of Latin words meaning “ability.” What is the purpose of an institu- tion designed to rehabilitate criminals? 2. What is the meaning of the word neutralize, which is created by adding the verb suffix -ize, mean- ing “to engage in a (specified) activity,” to the adjective neutral? Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 3. Seemly behavior is conduct that is suitable, appropriate, in good taste, and pleasant. Our word comes from the Viking word for fitting. What are some synonyms for unseemly? 4. The noun suffix -ant usually means “a person who engages in this activity.” Name a famous com- batant from U.S. history. 5. Synonyms of the word fraud include trickery, deception, and cheating. De- is a prefix that often creates a verb from a noun. What are some words that mean about the same as defraud? 6. Our modern word hospital comes from the Latin word meaning “guest.” Hospital was used in ear- lier times to mean a place where travelers could sleep and eat. What things might you do to show hospitality to a guest in your home? Vocabulary Power Unit 2, Lesson 7 15 Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ continued 7. We use the common word long to describe both distance and length of time something exists. What comes to your mind when you add the noun suffix -ity to long to create longevity? 8. The word reserve is based on the Latin word reservare, meaning “to keep.” What items, such as foods, would you reserve for an emergency such as a flood? 9. Many English words originate in the Latin base word signum, meaning “sign.” Name some syn- onyms of the adjective form significant. 10. Unlike many modern English words, knowledge does not come from Latin. This base word comes from cnawan, the Old English word for know. An Old English verb form of this root is oncnawan. What are some synonyms for our word acknowledge, which comes from this Old English verb? EXERCISE B Dictionary Definitions Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Look up each boldfaced word in a dictionary and write the meaning. Using the information in a dictionary, underline the base word. 1. rehabilitate 2. neutralize 3. unseemly 4. combatant 5. defraud 6. hospitality 7. longevity 8. reserve 9. significant 10. acknowledge EXERCISE C Crossword Puzzle On a separate sheet of paper, create a crossword puzzle using at least eight of the vocabulary words. Then, exchange puzzles with a partner and complete the puzzle you receive. 16 Unit 2, Lesson 7 Vocabulary Power Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Lesson 8 Prefixes That Mean “not” or “the opposite of” Knowing the meaning of prefixes can help you discover the meanings of unknown words. A large num- ber of prefixes mean “not” or “the opposite of.” Some of these prefixes are non-, ir-, ig-, un-, mal-, anti-, counter-, contra-, de-, dis-, in-, im-, op-, and il-. Be careful, though. Not all words that begin with these letter combinations have the meaning of the prefix. When in doubt, look up the word in the dictionary. Word List ignoble irreversible nondescript contradiction improbable malodorous unabashed deflate inhumane dismantle EXERCISE A Dictionary Definitions Underline the prefix in each of the boldfaced words below. Base your answers on the clues. Check the definition of each vocabulary word by looking it up in a dictionary and writing its meaning. 1. unabashed: If you abash someone, you destroy the person’s self-confidence or cause embarrass- ment. How might you describe someone who is unabashed? Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Dictionary definition 2. dismantle: A mantle was a kind of cloak worn during the seventeenth century, often as a symbol of authority or power. The Middle French word desmanteler meant “to remove a mantle.” Today we use the English word dismantle in a general sense to mean what? Dictionary definition 3. ignoble: History shows us many examples of noble people. Name some historical figures you consider to be ignoble. Dictionary definition 4. contradiction: The Latin root dict means “to tell,” and our English word contradict means “to tell or speak against.” Adding the noun suffix -ion gives what meaning to the word contradiction? Dictionary definition Vocabulary Power Unit 2, Lesson 8 17 Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ continued 5. improbable: Most people agree that it is probable the sun will rise tomorrow morning. What is an event you consider to be improbable? Dictionary definition 6. malodorous: Something that is odorous has a strong smell, either pleasant or unpleasant. The prefix mal- means “bad.” What are some things that you consider malodorous? Dictionary definition 7. deflate: When you inflate a basketball or tire, you blow air into it. Describe what happens when you deflate a basketball or tire. In what way can a person be deflated? Dictionary definition 8. nondescript: Describe and description are based on the Latin root describere (“to describe”). On the basis of the meanings of describe and description, what might the adjective nondescript mean? Dictionary definition 9. irreversible: Many processes in life and science are reversible. Can you name some that are irreversible? Dictionary definition Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 10. inhumane: Do you have a Humane Society in your community? Many people believe that we should treat animals in a humane manner. To what inhumane practices might members of the Humane Society be reacting? Dictionary definition EXERCISE B Words that begin with prefixes meaning “not” or “the opposite of” appear often in newspapers and magazines. Read an article. Then, on a separate sheet of paper, make a list of words containing the prefixes discussed in this lesson. After each word, use your vocabulary skills to make an educated guess about its meaning. Then, write the dictionary definition of the word. 18 Unit 2, Lesson 8 Vocabulary Power Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Lesson 9 Using Reading Skills Learning from Context: Definitions The context of a word is the environment, or the other words in the sentence. You can use the context to discover the meaning of an unknown word. Look for key words and even definitions elsewhere in the sentence to help you define the unknown word. EXERCISE Read each sentence and use context clues to determine the meaning of the boldfaced word. Underline key words in the sentence that help you define the word. Then, write its probable meaning on the line. 1. I never dreamed that Tanya could be so vindictive; her demand for revenge took us by surprise. 2. Tyler is adept at coordinating group projects; he can unify members around a common goal. 3. I’m afraid that tired, old, familiar story about the farmer is very trite. 4. Grandmother was a bastion of strength and inspiration, a rock against all the storms of misfortune. 5. Hasidism is considered one of the many different branches or sects of Judaism. 6. Their criticism did not denigrate us; they couldn’t discount our project. 7. The National Guard was called in to quell the violent demonstration and restore order to the city. 8. The cheerleaders tried to galvanize the passive crowd by their lively actions and chants. 9. The prestigious statue, standing on its black marble pedestal, overlooked the park. 10. The editorial was a lampoon, harshly satirizing the candidate’s homely features and awkward manner. Vocabulary Power Unit 2, Lesson 9 19 Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Review: Unit 2 EXERCISE A For each group of words, circle the letter of the vocabulary word that belongs. 1. clear, bright, sharp, ______ a. absurd b. vivid c. improbable d. trite 2. retain, keep, book, ______ a. reserve b. neutralize c. resolve d. quell 3. dull, boring, uninteresting, ______ a. absurd b. nondescript c. unabashed d. adept 4. cruel, mean, vicious, ______ a. arrogant b. unabashed c. inhumane d. unseemly 5. cheat, swindle, steal, ______ a. postpone b. reserve c. dismantle d. defraud EXERCISE B Circle the letter of the word that best completes the sentence. 1. The league was forced to ______ all games because of the heat wave. a. rehabilitate b. deflate c. galvanize d. postpone 2. Our basketball coach hoped that our smaller, faster players would ______ the other team’s Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. taller players. a. neutralize b. resolve c. lampoon d. defraud 3. Alan felt that he would first have to ______ the lawnmower to understand how it worked. a. acknowledge b. rehabilitate c. dismantle d. galvanize 4. Sean argued so ______ for going to the movie that I finally agreed to go. a. improbably b. unseemly c. persistently d. uncomprehendingly 5. The prison program tried to ______ criminals and prepare them for life outside of prison. a. denigrate b. rehabilitate c. postpone d. deflate 20 Unit 2 Review Vocabulary Power Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Test: Unit 2 PART A Circle the letter of the word that best fits. 1. Which word would describe the way you’d feel if you found yourself in a ridiculous situation? a. absurd b. vivid c. nondescript d. vindictive 2. How would someone probably respond if you called him or her an unflattering name? a. resolve b. defraud you c. scowl at you d. reserve you 3. Up the down stairs, cool heat, and going under an overpass are examples of ______. a. hospitality b. combatants c. longevity d. contradiction 4. How would you be doing a task if you had no idea how to proceed? a. persistently c. competently b. uncomprehendingly d. improbably 5. A tortoise that lives for one hundred years is an example of ______. a. longevity b. hospitality c. a pedestal d. a contradiction 6. You would probably ______a meeting if not enough people could show up for it. a. rehabilitate b. dismantle c. postpone d. lampoon 7. Stealing, lying, and cheating are examples of what kind of conduct? a. trite b. arrogant c. irreversible d. ignoble Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 8. To what kind of friend would you tell a special secret? a. an unseemly one c. an inhumane one b. a vindictive one d. an intimate one 9. What would you expect when you check into an expensive resort hotel? a. a bastion b. hospitality c. longevity d. a scowl 10. You would most likely remember a ______ dream. d. trite a. nondescript b. malodorous c. vivid 11. How would someone who is well trained in lifesaving techniques perform the job of lifeguard? a. uncomprehendingly c. competently b. persistently d. improbably 12. Which word is an antonym for, or the opposite of, “blow up”? a. quell b. deflate c. dismantle d. reserve Vocabulary Power Unit 2 Test 21 Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ continued 13. Which of the following words describes the way a barnyard probably smells to most people? a. absurd b. nondescript c. unabashed d. malodorous 14. Having your appendix taken out is a procedure like this. a. irreversible b. unseemly c. inhumane d. trite 15. Society will gain if it can ______ people sent to prison for committing crimes. a. dismantle b. intimate c. neutralize d. rehabilitate PART B Circle the letter of the word that best fits with the others. 1. decide, determine, conclude, ______ a. postpone b. resolve c. defraud d. quell d. pedestal 2. soldier, sailor, marine, ______ d. unseemly d. nondescript a. sect b. contradiction c. combatant d. significant 3. improper, impolite, unsuitable, ______ a. improbable b. inhumane c. arrogant 4. poised, unashamed, confident, ______ a. unabashed b. intimate c. ignoble 5. conceited, proud, stuck-up, ______ a. absurd b. arrogant c. unabashed Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 22 Unit 2 Test Vocabulary Power Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Lesson 10 Using Synonyms Sometimes it’s easy to tell when you reach an important turning point. Other times you may not know you have arrived at a crossroad until later. Either way, the choices people make always have conse- quences. Taking one road always leads to a destination, even if you’re not sure where you’re going. In this lesson, you’ll learn words that relate to making decisions. Word List lapse serene testimony abundant loiter summon verbal complex plight enclose EXERCISE A Synonyms Each boldfaced word below is paired with a synonym whose meaning you probably know. Think of other words related to the synonym and write your ideas on the line provided. Then, look up the boldfaced word in a dictionary and write its meaning. 1. lapse : decline Dictionary definition 2. serene : calm Dictionary definition 3. summon : call Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Dictionary definition 4. plight : predicament Dictionary definition 5. complex : complicated Dictionary definition 6. abundant : plentiful Dictionary definition 7. enclose : surround Dictionary definition 8. verbal : associated with words Dictionary definition Unit 3, Lesson 10 23 Vocabulary Power Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. continued 9. testimony : statement Dictionary definition 10. loiter : stand around Dictionary definition EXERCISE B Word Association Cross out the word that does not belong with the others. 1. plight, problem, testimony, jam 2. knotty, complex, complicated, abundant 3. summon, trap, coop, enclose 4. written, verbal, serene, spoken 5. linger, lapse, delay, loiter EXERCISE C Context Clues Answer each question, based on your knowledge of the boldfaced word. 1. In what plight might travelers in the desert find themselves? 2. What is one technique you use to stay serene before a stressful event? 3. Why might store owners not like people to loiter around their entrances? 4. What is the most complex meal you have ever prepared? What made it so complex? 5. Describe a time when you had a lapse of concentration. What happened as a result? 24 Unit 3, Lesson 10 Vocabulary Power Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Lesson 11 Prefixes That Tell Where Knowing the meaning of prefixes can help you discover the meanings of unknown words. A number of prefixes tell “where” and provide a meaning that relates to location. Some of these prefixes are ab-, ad-, de-, ex-, in-, inter-, intra-, per-, sub-, and trans-. In this lesson, you’ll learn words that use five of these “where” prefixes. Be careful, though. Not all words that begin with these letter combinations have the meaning of the prefix. When in doubt, look up the word in a dictionary. Word List intervention perforate transfix abdicate intramural perpetual transmission abduction intravenous intermediate EXERCISE A Word Association Underline the prefix in each of the boldfaced words. Answer the question. Then, check the definition of the boldfaced word in a dictionary and write its meaning. 1. transmission: The prefix trans- is a “where” prefix that means “across” or “through.” The Latin root miss means “send.” What might be the meaning of these two word elements when combined with the noun suffix -ion? Why is this word also used to name an important part of an automobile? Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Dictionary definition 2. transfix: The root fix comes from the Latin word meaning to “fasten” or “pierce.” If you experience something that has the power to transfix you, what words could you use to describe the experience? Dictionary definition 3. abdicate: Another prefix that relates to location is ab-, which means “from.” The root dic, the same one used in such words as dictate, diction, and predict, means “tell.” What would a king be doing if he were to abdicate his throne? Dictionary definition 4. abduction: Another common Latin root, duc, means “to lead” and is used in words like conduct and conductor. If police are investigating the abduction of a child, what is another word for this crime? Dictionary definition Unit 3, Lesson 11 25 Vocabulary Power Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ continued 5. perpetual: The “where” prefix per- has the meaning of “through” or “throughout.” The prefix can be combined with a root that means “to go to.” What might be the meaning of the adjective per- petual formed by this root and prefix? Dictionary definition 6. perforate: The Latin root forare means “to bore” or “to drill.” If a machine is designed to perforate something, what is it probably doing? Dictionary definition 7. intermediate: The Latin prefix inter- means “between,” while the root med, medi means “middle.” If something is located in an intermediate position, where would you find it? Dictionary definition 8. intervention: The root ven/veni comes from the Latin word for “come.” What are some situations in which a police officer might take part in an intervention? Dictionary definition Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 9. intramural: A similar prefix, intra-, means “within,” “during,” or “inside of.” Mur is a Latin root meaning “wall.” When you play an intramural sport, whom are you playing against? How does this kind of activity differ from interscholastic sports? Dictionary definition 10. intravenous: The English word vein comes from the Latin word vena. Venous is the adjective form. If you receive an intravenous injection rather than a shot in a muscle or just under your skin, where does the needle go? Dictionary definition EXERCISE B Finding “Where” Prefixes Words that begin with prefixes that tell “where” appear often in newspapers and magazines. Read a newspaper or magazine article. Then, on a separate sheet of paper, make a list of the words you find containing the prefixes discussed in this lesson. After each word, use your vocabulary skills to make an educated guess about its meaning. Then, use a dictionary to write its definition. 26 Unit 3, Lesson 11 Vocabulary Power Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Lesson 12 Greek Word Roots In this lesson, you’ll learn ten useful English words based on Greek roots. Knowing the meanings of Greek roots can help you make an educated guess about the meaning of a new word. Sometimes, however, the exact meaning of the new word isn’t clear from the root. It’s always safer to look up new words in a dictionary. Word List hydrophobia phobia phonograph apathetic pathos phonetics sophisticated autonomous philosophical autopsy EXERCISE A Word Association Read the clues and answer the question. Then, look up the boldfaced word’s definition in a dictionary and write the definition on the second line. 1. Phon, phono is a common Greek root that means “sound,” “speech,” or “voice.” Adding a suffix to this root creates the word phonetics. What subject do you think is studied in the science of phonetics? Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Dictionary definition 2. Sometimes words are formed by joining two roots and their meanings, rather than by adding a prefix or suffix to a root. What is the literal meaning of phonograph, a word created by joining the Greek root graph “write” to phono? What is another name for this machine? Dictionary definition 3. Since the Greek root aut/auto means “self” or “same” and nomos means “law,” what is an autonomous country? Dictionary definition 4. Opt, a root that comes from the Greek word for “sight,” is used in our words optical and optician. The word autopsy is formed by adding the prefix auto- to the root opt. Why might a doctor perform an autopsy on a dead body? Dictionary definition 5. Phobia is a Greek root that means “fear.” We use the same word in English to describe a certain kind of feeling about a specific object or idea. How would you describe this feeling? Dictionary definition Unit 3, Lesson 12 27 Vocabulary Power Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. continued 6. You probably know the Greek root hydr/hydro from such words as hydraulic, hydrogen, hydro- electric, and hydrant. From what special fear does someone with hydrophobia suffer? Dictionary definition 7. “Suffering” or “feeling” is the meaning of the Greek root path/patho. If a work of art like a painting, poem, or play creates pathos in the people who experience it, what might they be feeling? Dictionary definition 8. The meaning of the root and the part of speech may be changed by the addition of different prefixes and suffixes. The prefix a- is a negative prefix, while the suffix -ic forms an adjective. How might you describe someone who is apathetic? Dictionary definition 9. The Greek root soph means “wise.” In what way is someone who is sophisticated also wise? Dictionary definition 10. Phil/philo is a Greek root meaning “loving” or “having a special fondness or interest in.” When the roots philo and soph are combined, the new word philosophical is formed. What does a philosophical person love? Dictionary definition EXERCISE B Sentence Completion Write the word that best completes the sentence. 1. It’s very hard to get students to serve on committees because so many people are ________________ about school issues. 2. Darcie’s mom let us play some of the old ________________ records she has kept from the 1960s. 3. All of my conversations with Scott are very ________________ — we’re both voracious readers. 4. A special tutor helped Jason overcome his ________________ of mathematics and attain a B+ on the exam. 5. The representative from the territory argued that his people deserved to be a(n) ________________ nation. 28 Unit 3, Lesson 12 Vocabulary Power Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Lesson 13 Suffixes That Form Nouns When a suffix is added to a word or root, the word’s use in the sentence is often changed. Some com- mon suffixes that change a word or root into a noun are -ant or -ent, -ate, -oid, -ory, -tude, -ite, and -an or -ian. Some noun suffixes refer to the person who performs an activity, while others mean the activity itself. For example, the verb act (“to perform”) may be changed to actor (“a person who per- forms’’) or action (“performance”). In this lesson, you’ll explore how noun suffixes are used to create different words. Word List dormitory lavatory occupant adherent gratitude mandate urbanite authoritarian humanoid certitude Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. EXERCISE Word Association Read the clues and answer the question. Then, look up the boldfaced word’s definition in a dictionary and write the definition on the second line. 1. As a noun suffix, -ate means “function,” “office,” or “rank.” Our word mandate comes from the Latin word manus, meaning “hand,” and mandare, meaning “to entrust.” If a court delivers a mandate, what is it doing? Dictionary definition 2. To adhere to something means “to follow,” “to give support to,” or “to believe in.” The noun suffix -ent, like the more common suffix -er, means “one who.” Name a religion, political party, or other belief of which you are an adherent. Dictionary definition 3. The noun suffix -ant is a variation of -ent. To occupy something is to live in it or be located in it. Who is the occupant of the desk to your right? Of the home next to yours? Dictionary definition 4. The noun suffix -ory comes from Latin and means “place for.” This suffix is used with many differ- ent words, some of which are Latin roots. The Latin root dorm means “to sleep.” What is the main purpose of a dormitory? Dictionary definition Vocabulary Power Unit 3, Lesson 13 29 Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. continued 5. The Latin root lav means “to wash.” What activity occurs in a lavatory? Dictionary definition 6. Another noun suffix you may be familiar with is -oid, which means “resembling” or “similar to.” If aliens from outer space are described as humanoid, what features might the aliens have? Dictionary definition 7. Another noun suffix is -tude, which means “the state of being” or “the condition of.” Many English words are based on the Latin root grat, meaning “thankful.” How would you define the noun gratitude? Dictionary definition 8. Words like certain, certify, and certainly are based on the Latin root cernere meaning “to decide” or “to judge.” Another word that uses this root is certitude. What might be its meaning? Dictionary definition 9. A common noun suffix is -an or -ian. It means “being one of,” “related to,” or “a member of.” The root author comes from the Latin word meaning “power.” What words might you use to describe a leader who is an authoritarian? Dictionary definition 10. One more common noun suffix is -ite. It means “someone who is a follower of” or “a resident of.” You can find this suffix attached to many different words. One word is urbanite, based on the Latin root urb, meaning “city.” In your opinion, what are some advantages and disadvantages of being an urbanite? Dictionary definition 30 Unit 3, Lesson 13 Vocabulary Power Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Lesson 14: Using Reference Skills Using a Thesaurus: Synonyms A thesaurus (from the ancient Greek word for treasure) is a useful reference work that lists synonyms (and often antonyms) for thousands of words. The synonyms vary slightly in meaning, and the listing is designed to help you choose just the right word. Some thesauruses list the words in an index. A reference number guides you to a listing in the main part of the thesaurus. This is the way the most famous the- saurus, originally compiled by Peter Roget (row-ZHAY) in the mid-nineteenth century, is organized. Other thesauruses arrange the words in alphabetical order. The entry word is followed by a list of synonyms and, sometimes, antonyms (opposites). In this lesson, you’ll get practice in using a thesaurus to find synonyms. EXERCISE Below you’ll find some entries from a thesaurus. Study the entries. Then, answer the questions. assail v. ambush, assault, attack, batter, beat, invade, raid, storm, strike, wallop, waylay demure adj. bashful, gentle, innocent, modest, quiet, reserved, shy, timid impediment n. affliction, bar, barrier, blockage, difficulty, flaw, obstacle, obstruction, snag lucid adj. clear, clear-cut, coherent, direct, easy, intelligible, logical, simple, understandable 1. Which synonyms for demure seem to you to express a positive feeling? A negative feeling? Explain your answers. 2. Which synonym for assail seems to you to be the strongest in its feeling? Which seems the mildest? 3. Suppose you are having trouble deciding whether to use “coherent” or “intelligible” as a synonym for lucid. How would you find out exactly how the two words differ in meaning? 4. Impediment appears here as a noun. The verb form of this word is impede. Based on this thesaurus entry, what might be some synonyms for the verb impede? Vocabulary Power Unit 3, Lesson 14 31 Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Review: Unit 3 EXERCISE A Circle the word that does not belong with the others. 1. follower, believer, supporter, authoritarian 2. plentiful, perpetual, in good supply, ample 3. adherent, free-standing, self-governing, independent 4. punch, drill, bore, enclose 5. problem, difficulty, mandate, jam EXERCISE B Circle the word in parentheses that best completes the sentence. 1. After losing the election, Margo lost interest in politics and became (abundant, serene, apathetic). 2. The figure skater glided in a (serene, perpetual, verbal) way across the ice. 3. Throwing pies in people’s faces is not the most (autonomous, intermediate, sophisticated) kind of comedy, but it can be funny anyway. 4. Middle or (intermediate, complex, perpetual) school comes between elementary and high school. 5. The old woman expressed (certitude, gratitude, hydrophobia) to the firefighters who had rescued her. 6. The king decided to (summon, transfix, perforate) all of the nobles in the kingdom to discuss the crisis. 7. Some coaches are relaxed and easy with their team members, while others can be quite (intramural, intermediate, authoritarian), putting in place many rules and expecting obedience. 8. The inventor claimed to have invented a(n) (perpetual, intravenous, abundant) motion machine, one that would run forever without needing a source of energy. 9. The farmer built a new corral to (perforate, enclose, summon) his sheep and goats. 10. The governor followed the (abduction, intervention, mandate) of voters and signed the bill into law. 32 Unit 3 Review Vocabulary Power Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Test: Unit 3 PART A Circle the letter of the word that best completes the sentence. 1. Troy’s score on the ______ test section was higher than that on the mathematics section. a. verbal b. intramural c. autonomous d. apathetic 2. The veterinarian gave the lamb an ______ injection of vitamins. a. intervention b. intermediate c. intravenous d. intramural 3. The advertisement was addressed to “______,” so I just tossed it in the wastebasket. a. Adherent b. Abundant c. Humanoid d. Occupant 4. Mozart’s opera ______ from the Seraglio is about an attempted kidnapping that takes place in a Turkish sultan’s palace. a. Abduction b. Intervention c. Transmission d. Plight 5. Greg lost the chess game because he had a short ______ of concentration and made a single bad move. a. plight b. lapse c. mandate d. certitude 6. The mountain sunset was so beautiful that it had the power to ______ everyone in our hiking group. a. transfix b. enclose c. perforate d. abdicate 7. A knowledge of ______ can be a great help when you try to learn a foreign language. Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. a. hydrophobia b. transmission c. certitude d. phonetics 8. I wish people wouldn’t ______ on the corner of our block. a. abdicate b. loiter c. summon d. enclose 9. The ______ of the trapped miners captured the sympathy of the entire country. a. mandate b. phobia c. lapse d. plight 10. Terence’s sprained ankle was so severe that the quick ______ of a doctor was required. a. transmission b. pathos c. intervention d. gratitude Vocabulary Power Unit 3 Test 33 Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ continued PART B Circle the letter of the word that is most nearly an antonym, or the opposite, of the boldfaced word. 1. excitable b. philosophical c. autonomous d. intravenous a. perpetual 2. doubt b. gratitude c. intervention d. certitude a. pathos 3. simple b. intermediate c. abundant d. verbal a. complex 4. keep b. loiter c. enclose d. discard a. transfix 5. affectionate b. perpetual c. autonomous d. abundant a. apathetic PART C Circle the letter of the word that best matches each clue. 1. People buy certain products when a celebrity gives one of these. a. a phonograph b. a testimony c. a mandate d. certitude 2. This is something that can happen to people only after they are dead. a. autopsy b. intervention c. abduction d. hydrophobia 3. Without this, you would not be able to drive a car anywhere. Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. a. an adherent b. a phobia c. a testimony d. a transmission 4. A New Yorker is one, and so is a Chicagoan. a. urbanite b. authoritarian c. adherent d. occupant 5. In this, you’d find many beds. a. testimony b. lavatory c. dormitory d. mandate 34 Unit 3 Test Vocabulary Power Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Lesson 15 Using Synonyms The desire to make mischief is widespread, especially among children. What do you think makes peo- ple eager to play tricks on others? The words in the list below relate to such mischief. Word List invigorating pact rogue comply invincible reckless vibrant haggle obstruction imply Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. EXERCISE A Synonyms Each boldfaced word below is paired with a synonym whose meaning you probably know. Think of other words related to the synonym and write them on the line provided. Then, look up the boldfaced word in a dictionary and write its definition. 1. pact : agreement Dictionary definition 2. vibrant : spirited Dictionary definition 3. haggle : bargain Dictionary definition 4. comply : obey Dictionary definition 5. invincible : unconquerable Dictionary definition 6. obstruction : obstacle Dictionary definition 7. rogue : rascal Dictionary definition 8. imply : suggest Dictionary definition Vocabulary Power Unit 4, Lesson 15 35 Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. continued 9. reckless : heedless Dictionary definition 10. invigorating : energizing Dictionary definition EXERCISE B Context Clues Write the vocabulary word that could describe each example. 1. an agreement between two countries to limit nuclear weapons ________________ 2. a person begs, causes mischief, and then skips town ________________ 3. someone running out into a busy intersection without looking ________________ 4. city streets full of people walking, talking, and having a good time ________________ 5. to follow the instructions of a boss at work ________________ 6. a brisk walk on a frosty winter morning ________________ 7. a plastic toy stuck in a drainpipe and slowing the flow of water ________________ 8. using your tone of voice to suggest that something is wrong ________________ 9. to negotiate the price of an item at a yard sale ________________ 10. how a chess player feels who has won the last hundred games he has played ________________ EXERCISE C Word Association Circle the word that does not belong with the others. 1. alive, invigorating, unresponsive, vibrant 2. embezzle, negotiate, barter, haggle 3. suggest, deduce, mean, imply 4. mighty, invincible, unconquerable, vulnerable 5. obstruction, impediment, passage, barrier EXERCISE D Description Using one or more of the vocabulary words, describe mischief or a trick you’ve experienced, observed, or read about. 36 Unit 4, Lesson 15 Vocabulary Power Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Lesson 16 Using Definitions The word fantastic means “out of this world” and comes from the Greek word phantastikos, meaning “producing mental images.” Fantastic (or fantasy) stories might take place at any time. What sets fantasy stories apart from other kinds of stories are imaginary settings or supernatural events. The words in this list relate to the fantastic. Word List gauge novel revive dumbfounded illuminate remote unsound ford jut frugal Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. EXERCISE A Definition Clues Each example below contains a clue about the meaning of the boldfaced word. Use the clue to guess the word’s likely meaning. Then, look up the word in a dictionary and write its meaning. 1. novel : making a dress out of newspaper Dictionary definition 2. remote : a cabin on a lonely mountain in Alaska Dictionary definition 3. ford : ride a horse across a stream at a shallow place Dictionary definition 4. illuminate : explain the style of a painting Dictionary definition 5. gauge : measure yesterday’s rainfall at 1.5 inches Dictionary definition 6. unsound : a floor that is rotten and has many holes Dictionary definition 7. jut : what a protruding cliff on a mountain face might do Dictionary definition 8. dumbfounded : response to unbelievable news Dictionary definition Vocabulary Power Unit 4, Lesson 16 37 Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. continued 9. frugal : person who spends money only on necessary items Dictionary definition 10. revive : bring back a midnight movie series Dictionary definition EXERCISE B Multiple-Meaning Words Many words in English have more than one meaning. Each meaning, however, is based on the meaning of the word root. The word remote, for example, is from the Latin remotus, past participle of removere, meaning “to remove.” A dictionary entry for remote lists many different meanings, all of which are related to the root meaning, “to remove.” Use a dictionary to help you write the precise definition of remote as it is used in each sentence below. 1. King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table are legendary figures from the remote past. Dictionary definition 2. We encountered the recluse in a remote cabin in the hills. Dictionary definition 3. Remote sensing equipment enables police in helicopters to spot fugitives on the run. Dictionary definition 4. An acorn is cupped in a hardened structure remote from the nut. Dictionary definition 5. Jason realized that he had only a remote possibility of winning the track meet. Dictionary definition 6. The evening-news producers inserted a remote from the hurricane area. Dictionary definition 7. We found the long-lost television remote control under the sofa cushions. Dictionary definition 38 Unit 4, Lesson 16 Vocabulary Power Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Lesson 17 Prefixes That Tell When A prefix is a word part attached at the beginning of a word or root. The prefix re-, for example, means “again” or “back”; pre- means “before” or “in front of.” Adding a prefix to a word or root modifies its meaning. For instance, the word re-create means “create again,” and the word pretreat means “treat before.” Recognizing these two prefixes that tell when can often help you figure out a word’s meaning. Word List premeditated recur regenerate precaution reconstruct refurbish reintegrate precondition recount prefix EXERCISE A Prefixes Use the meaning of the prefix and the information given about the base word or root to supply a possible meaning for each word. Then, look up the word in a dictionary and write its definition. 1. The root count means “relate.” Recount might mean Dictionary definition 2. A condition is a state of being. Precondition might mean Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Dictionary definition 3. Construct means “build.” Reconstruct might mean Dictionary definition 4. Meditate means “ponder” or “plan.” Premeditated might mean Dictionary definition 5. Fix means “stabilize” or “appoint.” Prefix might mean Dictionary definition Vocabulary Power Unit 4, Lesson 17 39 Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ continued 6. Furbish means “clean” or “polish.” Refurbish might mean Dictionary definition 7. Integrate means “unite.” Reintegrate might mean Dictionary definition 8. Caution comes from the Latin infinitive cavere, meaning “to be on guard.” Precaution might mean Dictionary definition 9. Generate means “produce.” Regenerate might mean Dictionary definition 10. The root cur comes from the Latin word for “run.” Recur might mean Dictionary definition Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. EXERCISE B Usage Complete each sentence with the correct vocabulary word. 1. Warm, sunny weather is a ________________ for hanging clothes outdoors to dry. 2. The starfish had to ________________ a leg after the eel grabbed it. 3. The punishment for a ________________ crime is usually harsher than for an unplanned crime. 4. This problem will ________________ if we don’t come up with a solution now. 5. Jason helped Mr. Corelli ________________ his old car; now it’s as good as new. 6. Max asked Ashley to ________________ what happened in the third act of the play. 7. Yolanda wears a helmet, knee pads, and elbow pads as a ________________ when she goes rollerblading. 8. After six months apart, Anita and Stan had to ________________ their lives. 9. The editor had to ________________ news assignments before the holiday. 10. Volunteers will help ________________ the Smiths’ barn, which was destroyed by a fire. 40 Unit 4, Lesson 17 Vocabulary Power Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝e e Lesson 18 Using Reading Skills e Learning from Context: Definitions Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Have you ever wondered where certain words come from? Most dictionary entries include a brief note about the word’s origin, or beginning. The note usually appears in square brackets, often toward the beginning of the entry. Several examples follow: bovine (bo–´v-in) adj. [from Latin bov-, bos ox, cow] 1. of, relating to, or resembling bovines and especially the ox or cow 2. having qualities (as placidity or dullness) characteristic of oxen or cows czar (zär) n. [from Russian tsar’, from Latin Caesar] 1. emperor, specifically the ruler of Russia until the 1917 revolution 2. one having great power or authority mecca (mek´ ) n. often cap. [Mecca, Saudi Arabia, a destination of pilgrims in the Islamic world] a center of activity sought as a goal by people sharing a common interest mesmerize (mez´ m r-iz´, mes´-) v. [from Franz Mesmer, 1734–1815, an Austrian doctor who treated disease using a form of hypnotism] 1. to subject to mesmerism, also to hypnotize 2. spellbind odyssey (od´ s–e) n. [from the Odyssey, the epic poem attributed to Homer recounting the long wanderings of Odysseus] 1. a long wandering or voyage usually marked by many changes of fortune 2. an intellectual or spiritual wandering or quest EXERCISE Use the sample entries above to answer each question about word origins. 1. Which word comes from the name of a Greek hero? What happened to this hero? 2. What is the Russian spelling of czar? From what older word and language does the Russian word come? 3. What is the origin of the word mesmerize? How does the meaning of this word relate to the word origin? 4. Which word comes from the name of a place? Describe this place. 5. How is a bovine person like a cow? Vocabulary Power Unit 4, Lesson 18 41 Name ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Date ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Class ࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝࿝ Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Review: Unit 4 EXERCISE Circle the word that best completes each sentence. 1. The landlord is planning to (relocate, recount, refurbish) several run-down apartment buildings on K Street. 2. Buyers at a flea market often try to (recount, haggle, gauge) with the sellers to get the best price. 3. The two countries had a(n) (obstruction, precondition, pact) to aid each other if an enemy invaded. 4. Fran decided on a(n) (novel, remote, invincible) costume for the party—she plans to come as a gas pump. 5. If you ask for a refund at that store, the owners will always (comply, imply, ford) with your request. 6. This chart will help to (illuminate, revive, reconstruct) the complex plan. 7. This chairperson had to (jut, reintegrate, imply) the members after the party lost the election. 8. The scientists’ task is to (gauge, imply, revive) the amount of oxygen in the icy water near the South Pole. 9. Fran decided to take her dog on a(n) (rogue, frugal, invigorating) walk in the snow. 10. Building blocks are great—I can (reintegrate, reconstruct, ford) any building I have seen. 11. The lawyer argued that since the suspect had written his plan for the crime in a letter, the act was (invincible, premeditated, remote). 12. The other teams thought the Bulls were (invincible, novel, reckless) after three undefeated seasons. 13. Some animals can actually (recount, reintegrate, regenerate) their tails or digits if they lose them! 14. Please (refurbish, recount, revive) for us what you did on your vacation. 15. Darla always has money in her savings account because of her (frugal, novel, remote) shopping habits. 42 Unit 4 Review Vocabulary Power

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Vocabulary workshop level c unit 3 answers.

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  • perspective
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Synonyms Answer Key  

  • devoid (of)
  • comply (with)
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Antonyms Answer Key  

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Vocabulary Workbook for Grade 3

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Third Grade Vocabulary Worksheets

Vocabulary and word usage worksheets for grade 3.

These worksheets will help your child practice and improve vocabulary and word usage. These vocabulary exercises are at a third grade level and cover vocabulary acquisition, tricky words, affixes, compound words, idioms, similes, synonyms and antonyms.

The meanings of words

Words and their meanings : circle the word that matches the definition

Word definitions : select the correct definition for each word

Match phrases : make meaningful sentences by connecting phrases

Context clues : figure out the meaning of words using cross sentence clues

Shades of meaning : order similar words by their relative strength

Sentences and paragraphs

Improving sentences : replace words in sentences with better words

Paragraphs : fill in the missing words in a short text

Homonyms, homophones and tricky words

Multiple meaning words : match homonyms to their definitions

Homophones : identify the correct sound-alike word in each sentence

Its or it's?

There, they're or their?

Your or you're?

Word practice

Word search : search for the hidden words

Jumbled words : unscramble the jumbled words using word clues

Crosswords : solve the crossword which has definitions as clues

Word links : combine the two halves of each word

Affixes and compound words

Prefixes and suffixes : identify root words and meanings of prefix/suffix words

Write with prefixes and suffixes : write sentences with prefix/suffix words

Compound words : match words to make compound words

Idioms and similes

Idioms : match each idiom to its figurative meaning

Similes : circle the similes in each sentence

Simile sentences : write similes

Synonyms and antonyms

Synonyms : match words with similar meanings

Synonym crosswords : solve these crosswords with synonyms

Antonyms : choose the word with the "opposite" meaning

Alphabetizing

Circle the word that comes first in alphabetical order

Write 10 words in alphabetical order

vocabulary lesson 3 answer key

Sample grade 3 vocabulary worksheet

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  1. PDF SAT Vocabulary Lesson and Practice: Lesson 3

    SAT Vocabulary Lesson and Practice: Lesson 3 (cont'd) Synonyms: In the space provided, write the word from the list above that means the same or about the ... SAT Vocabulary Lesson and Practice: Lesson 3 Answer Key Synonyms 55.1. inconceivable 2. 28.placid 3. hindrance 30.4. spurious 5. aghast 6. aberration 7. rectitude 8. notorious 9. detest

  2. Vocabulary Power Plus for the New SAT: Book 3

    Find step-by-step solutions and answers to Vocabulary Power Plus for the New SAT: Book 3 - 9781580492553, as well as thousands of textbooks so you can move forward with confidence. ... Chapter 3:Lesson 3. Page 38: Words in Context. Page 40: Sentence Completion. Page 41: Roots, Prefixes, and Suffixes. Page 42: Inference. Page 45: Writing ...

  3. PDF Vocabulary Power Plus • Level Three

    vocabulary power plus • level three - lesson 3 vocabulary crosswo rd puzzle. vocabulary crosswo rd puzzle answer key o 1 g 2 p 3 a r o c h i 4 a l l e 5 t m m 6 o d 7 e v i a t e p a w a 8 i m e 9 p h e m e r a l m f u b 10 l a 11 n d l r b y m d i s r 12 e c t i f y v m t a 13 g b 14 p 15 e d e s t r i a n u f 16

  4. Vocabulary Power Workbook

    Explain your answer. 4 Unit 1, Lesson 2 Vocabulary Power ... 6 Unit 1, Lesson 3 Vocabulary Power ... key words in the sentence that help you define the word. Then, write its probable meaning on the line. 1. I never dreamed that Tanya could be so vindictive; her demand for revenge took us by surprise. ...

  5. Vocabulary Power Plus: Book H

    Find step-by-step solutions and answers to Vocabulary Power Plus: Book H - 9781580492676, as well as thousands of textbooks so you can move forward with confidence. ... Chapter 3:Lesson 3. Page 39: Words in Context. Page 41: Sentence Completion. Page 42: Prefixes and Suffixes. Page 44: Improving Paragraphs. Page 45: Inferences. Page 46: Related ...

  6. PDF Key to Vocab Lessons

    Lesson 5 5A Finding Meanings 1. c—a 5. c—b 8. 9. 5B Just the Right Word c—a permanent indifferent respite toil administered p. p. p. p. 44

  7. Vocabulary Power Plus Classic Level 10

    Find step-by-step solutions and answers to Vocabulary Power Plus Classic Level 10 - 9781580492546, as well as thousands of textbooks so you can move forward with confidence. ... Lesson 3. Page 30: Words in Context. Page 31: Sentence Completion. Page 32: Roots, Prefixes, and Suffixes. Page 32: Inference. Page 35: Improving Paragraphs. Exercise 1 ...

  8. Lesson 3

    Match. Spell. Level 12. for College and Career Readiness. Prepare for the Common Core PARCC and Smarter Balanced assessments as well as the SAT and ACT. Learn. Flashcards. Match. Spell.

  9. Student Answer Keys

    Answer Key - Chapter 25 (31.0K) Answer Key - Chapter 26 (36.0K) To learn more about the book this website supports, please visit its Information Center .

  10. PDF SAT Vocabulary Lesson and Practice: Lesson 4

    SAT Vocabulary Lesson and Practice: Lesson 4 (cont'd) ... SAT Vocabulary Lesson and Practice: Lesson 4 Answer Key Synonyms 28.1. alcove 29.2. luminous 3. diaphanous 4. peerless 5. contrite 6. hustle 7. stupendous 8. indigent 9. aboveboard 10. decipher Antonyms 11. 38.clandestine

  11. PDF Vocabulary Worksheet

    Vocabulary Worksheet | Grade 3 Answer Key | Lesson 3 A. 1. N 2. N 3. Y 4. N 5. Y B. 1. Cycles have pedals on them. 2. Travelling usually makes people tired. 3. Good students never cheat. 4. We live in homes. 5. We walk with our legs.

  12. Vocabulary Workshop Level C Unit 3 Answers

    New Reading Passages open each Unit of VOCABULARY WORKSHOP. At least 15 of the the 20 Unit vocabulary words appear in each Passage. Students read the words in context in informational texts to activate prior knowledge and then apply what they learn throughout the Unit, providing practice in critical-reading skills.

  13. Grade 3 Vocabulary Worksheets

    K5 Learning offers free worksheets, flashcards and inexpensive workbooks for kids in kindergarten to grade 5. Become a member to access additional content and skip ads. Grade 3 vocabulary worksheets including meanings of words, phrases, context clues, sentences and paragraphs, word lists, synonyms and antonyms and alphabetizing.

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