Convert a string to a number (int, float) in Python

In Python, to convert a string ( str ) to a number, use int() for integers and float() for floating point numbers.

Convert strings to int : int()

Convert strings to float : float(), convert binary, octal, and hexadecimal strings to int, convert scientific notation strings to float, for cases with bases as powers of 2, set the limit.

Use str() to convert a number to a string.

  • Built-in Functions - str() — Python 3.12.1 documentation

To format numbers or strings into various styles like zero-padding, binary, octal, hexadecimal, or scientific notation, use the format() function or the format() method on string objects.

  • Format strings and numbers with format() in Python

You can also convert a list of strings to a list of numbers.

  • Convert a list of strings and a list of numbers to each other in Python

int() converts a string to an integer ( int ).

  • Built-in Functions - int() — Python 3.12.1 documentation

Strings with . or , will raise an error in int() .

To convert a comma-separated string, replace commas with an empty string ( '' ) using replace() .

For more about replace() , refer to the following article.

  • Replace strings in Python (replace, translate, re.sub, re.subn)

In versions released after September 7, 2022 (Python 3.11, 3.10.7, 3.9.14, 3.8.14, 3.7.14, and later), integer-string conversion is limited to 4300 digits by default. More details later.

float() converts a string to a floating point number ( float ).

  • Built-in Functions - float() — Python 3.12.1 documentation

Strings with only a fractional part and those representing integers can be converted to floating point numbers using float() .

By specifying a base as the second argument in int() , strings in binary, octal, or hexadecimal notation can be converted to integers.

The base defaults to 10 , treating the string as a decimal.

Setting the base to 0 allows the string's prefix ( 0b , 0o , 0x , 0B , 0O , 0X ) to determine the conversion.

Both uppercase and lowercase are acceptable for prefixes and hexadecimal letters.

For binary, octal, and hexadecimal conversion details, see the following article.

  • Convert binary, octal, decimal, and hexadecimal in Python

Strings in scientific notation can be converted to floating point numbers using float() .

Both lowercase e and uppercase E are acceptable.

Integer string conversion length limitation

In versions released after September 7, 2022 (Python 3.11, 3.10.7, 3.9.14, 3.8.14, 3.7.14, and later), integer-string conversion is limited to 4300 digits by default.

  • Integer string conversion length limitation — Python 3.12.1 documentation

This limitation aims to prevent DoS attacks that exploit the O(n^2) complexity of integer-string conversions.

  • CVE-2020-10735: Prevent DoS by large int<->str conversions · Issue #95778 · python/cpython

Exceeding 4300 digits in int() and str() results in ValueError .

Note that this also affects internal string conversions in functions like print() and repr() .

As introduced in the next section, conversions with bases that are powers of 2 (binary, octal, hexadecimal, etc.) are unlimited. For affected APIs, refer to the official documentation.

  • Integer string conversion length limitation - Affected APIs — Python 3.12.1 documentation

Conversions where the base is a power of 2, such as binary, octal, or hexadecimal, are not limited.

For example, conversions using int(string, base) with bases such as 2 , 4 , 8 , 16 , 32 , as well as conversions from integers to strings using bin() , oct() , or hex(), do not result in errors, even for values exceeding 4300 digits.

The digit limit can be set using sys.set_int_max_str_digits() . Setting it to 0 removes the limit.

Additionally, the limit can be configured using the environment variable, PYTHONINTMAXSTRDIGITS , or the command-line option, -X int_max_str_digits . For more details, see the official documentation.

  • Integer string conversion length limitation - Configuring the limit — Python 3.12.1 documentation

As stated, this limit is for security reasons, and should be modified with caution, especially in applications handling external input.

Related Categories

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6 Ways to Convert String to Float in Python

  • Aug 31, 2021
  • 7 Minutes Read
  • Why Trust Us We uphold a strict editorial policy that emphasizes factual accuracy, relevance, and impartiality. Our content is crafted by top technical writers with deep knowledge in the fields of computer science and data science, ensuring each piece is meticulously reviewed by a team of seasoned editors to guarantee compliance with the highest standards in educational content creation and publishing.
  • By Shivali Bhadaniya

6 Ways to Convert String to Float in Python

When you take a user input in python programming while working with terminal or file operations like reading or writing a file, the input is a string object. Even though you ask for the floating-point value, the input method in python will fetch the user input as a string object. Hence, you have to explicitly convert the string into a floating-point value so that you can perform the necessary operations on it. Before understanding the methods to convert the string to float explicitly, let us first go through the strings and float data types in python.

What are strings in python?

A string is a series of characters inside the quotes. You can use single quotes or double quotes to display the string. Also, triple quotes are used to display the multi-line quotes.

As you know, that computer does not deal with characters but instead, it works only with binary numbers. Therefore, the characters you input in the system are converted into a binary format using the encoding techniques like Unicode and ASCII. In python, the string is a sequence of Unicode characters which include every character and symbol in all languages. Square brackets are used to access the string elements along with the index position of the string character. The indexing of character in a string starts from ‘0’, and therefore, the string's first character always has the index equal to zero.

For Example

What is Float in python?

Float is one of the data types of python programming that is used to represent the floating-point number. Float is always written with the decimal points by dividing the integer and fractional parts. IEEE 754 standard represents the float as 64-bit double-precision values. Therefore you can say that the floating-point numbers are represented internally as binary(base-2) fractions. The maximum value of any floating-point number can be approximately 1.8 x 10 308 . If any number is greater than this, you can indicate them by the string ‘inf’ in Python

  

Convert String to Float in Python

Below are 6 common and simple methods used to convert a string to float in python

1) Using float() function

You can use the float() function to convert any data type into a floating-point number. This method only accepts one parameter. If you do not pass any argument, then the method returns 0.0. If the input string contains an argument outside the range of floating-point value, OverflowError will be generated.

If the input string contains anything other than a floating-point representation of a number, the output will be ValueError. Let us understand this in detail below.

2) Convert a Number String with commas into a floating-point object

Consider that the input string is ’1,0.123'. As you can see, the string contains numbers, but it also has a comma in it. Therefore, converting this kind of string into a floating-point value is very tricky. If you directly call the float() method, then the output will raise an error.

You have to remove all the commas from the string before calling the float() function to solve this issue. Take a look at the example below to understand better.

3) Convert string to float list in python

In this method, firstly, you need to initialize the string, and later, you can use the float() and split() method to convert a string into the floating-point list, as shown below in the example.

4) Convert a list of strings to float in python

The list of strings is the python list containing all elements as strings in it. To convert this list of strings into floating-point values, you have to use for loop to iterate through each item of the list. Later, you can use the float() method to convert each item into float value and then append it to the list again. Check out the below example for reference:

5) Convert String to Float using Numpy

Numpy is one of the libraries for python programming, which supports large, multi-dimensional arrays and matrices to perform high-level mathematical operations. If you want to convert a string into float using NumPy, the first step will be to import the NumPy library using “import NumPy as np.” Later, you can use the “astype” method, an in-build method used to convert the string to a floating-point value in python.

6) Convert String to Float with Specified Decimal Points

It is often necessary to bring the precision for the number of zeros after the decimal in floating-point values. In such cases, you can use the float() method to convert a string into float value and then use the format() method to specify the number of decimal points in the float value. The syntax of the format method is as given below:

“{:.Nf}”.format(float value)

Here, N displays the number of decimal points you wish to put. If the floating-point value generated has fewer decimal points than the suggested, then zeros are added at the end to round it. Take a look at the example below for a better understanding.

Conclusion 

While programming, there are many situations where you have to convert one data type into another to perform the necessary operations. This article refers to the python string and float values in detail and the explicit methods used to convert strings into floating-point values. As the input method in python accepts the string object for user input, it is necessary to learn and understand these methods to convert the string into float data type to perform different operations on user data.

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Converting strings to floats in Python

This guide covers how to convert strings to floats in Python, including the different methods available and how they can be used.

Author: Jeremy Morgan Published: December 9, 2023

Today's sponsor is Automox . They have created a big toolbox of small Bash and PowerShell scripts called "worklets" to automate your least favorite IT tasks. Here, take a look.

In Python, it is common to encounter strings that need to be converted into floating-point numbers for mathematical operations or data analysis. In this article, we will explore how to convert a string to a float in Python, including the different methods available and their applications.

Float Function

There are several ways to convert a string to a float in Python. The most common method is to use the float() function, which takes a string as an argument and returns its floating-point equivalent.

For example:

produces this output:

It’s always best to throw some checking in there:

That way if you ever get something that can’t be converted to a float:

You can handle it gracefully:

Eval Function

Another way to convert a string to a float is to use the eval() function, which evaluates an expression in a string and returns its result.

Produces identical output to float:

Again it’s good practice to wrap this in some error handling:

The eval() function can be dangerous if used with untrusted input, as it can execute any Python code contained in the string. Therefore, it is recommended to use the float() function for converting strings to floats whenever possible.

Advanced Usage

In addition to converting a single string to a float, there are several other ways to convert multiple strings or even entire files of data into floating-point numbers in Python. Here are a few examples:

Converting Multiple Strings with map()

If you have a list of strings that need to be converted to floats, you can use the map() function to apply the float() function to each string in the list.

And here’s the output:

This is a good way to convert multiple values. And again we should do some error checking:

By putting this in a method and doing some type checking we can make sure this is a safe way to convert the values.

Converting an Entire File of Data with numpy.loadtxt()

If you have a file containing data that needs to be converted to floats, you can use the numpy.loadtxt() function to read the file and convert its contents to floating-point numbers. \

Heres the output:

and of course we want to get into good habits:

This is a great way to load a test file and convert the values. Something you’ll surely need to do at some point.

In this article, we covered the basics of converting strings to floats in Python, including the float() function and its use cases. We also explored more advanced usage of converting multiple strings or entire files of data into floating-point numbers using other methods such as map() and numpy.loadtxt() . These are several ways to attack the problem.

Remember don’t use Eval unless you have to.

Happy Coding!

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Convert a String to a Float in Python: 3 Easy Methods

Python script converting a string to a float emphasized with numeric conversion symbols and float icons symbolizing precision

Are you wrestling with the task of converting strings to floats in Python? Python, akin to a proficient mathematician, is fully equipped to convert strings into floating-point numbers effortlessly.

This comprehensive guide will walk you through the process, introducing you to both basic and advanced techniques. By the end of this article, you’ll be able to handle this common Python task with confidence and ease.

So, let’s dive into to String conversion in Python!

TL;DR: How Do I Convert a Python String to Float?

You can convert a string to a float in Python using the float() function and the syntax, number = float(data) .

Here’s a quick example to illustrate this:

In this example, we have a string '123.45' that we want to convert into a float. By passing this string into the float() function, Python returns the floating-point number 123.45 . We then print the result to confirm our conversion.

If you’re interested in diving deeper into the topic, understanding potential pitfalls and learning about more advanced scenarios, we encourage you to continue reading.

Table of Contents

The Basics: Strings to Floats

Handling exceptions with conversion, alternative conversion methods, solving errors within conversions, explained: string and float data types, practical uses: strings to floats, recap: convert python strings to float.

The float() function in Python is a built-in function that converts a number or a string to a floating-point number. Let’s break down how it works with strings.

In the above example, the string '456.78' is passed into the float() function. Python then converts this string into the floating-point number 456.78 . The result is printed to confirm our conversion.

The float() function is straightforward and easy to use, making it the go-to method for converting strings to floats in Python. However, it’s important to be aware of its limitations.

If you try to convert a string that doesn’t represent a valid floating-point number, Python will throw a ValueError .

In this case, the string 'Hello, World!' is not a valid floating-point number, causing Python to raise a ValueError .

When using the float() function, it’s crucial to ensure that the string you’re trying to convert is a valid representation of a floating-point number.

As we progress in Python, we often encounter strings that may not directly convert into floats using the float() function. This is where error handling comes into play.

We can use a try-except block to handle potential ValueError exceptions that might arise when a string cannot be converted to a float.

In this example, we attempt to convert the string 'Hello, World!' to a float. Since this string does not represent a valid floating-point number, a ValueError is raised. However, our try-except block catches this error and prints a custom error message instead.

Localized Formats

In addition to handling exceptions, it’s also important to consider different formats when converting strings to floats.

For instance, some locales use a comma as a decimal separator instead of a period. In such cases, we can replace the comma with a period before converting the string.

In this example, we replace the comma in the string '123,45' with a period, resulting in the string '123.45' . We can then convert this string to a float using the float() function.

By understanding how to handle exceptions and different formats, you can convert strings to floats in Python more effectively and avoid common pitfalls.

While the float() function is the most straightforward way to convert strings to floats in Python, there are alternative methods that you can use, especially when dealing with more complex scenarios or larger datasets.

Let’s explore a few of these alternatives.

Using Pandas Library

The Pandas library is a powerful tool for data manipulation in Python and can be used to convert strings to floats across an entire DataFrame or Series.

In this example, we create a Pandas Series with strings representing floating-point numbers. We then use the pd.to_numeric() function to convert these strings to floats.

This function is particularly useful when dealing with large datasets, as it can convert all strings to floats in one go.

The downside of using Pandas is that it’s a heavy library and might be overkill for simple tasks. It also requires you to handle NaN values and decide how to deal with strings that cannot be converted to floats.

Using Numpy Library

Numpy is another popular library in Python that can be used for numerical operations. The numpy.float() function can be used to convert strings to floats.

In this example, we use the numpy.float() function to convert the string '123.45' to a float.

Numpy is a lightweight library compared to Pandas and is a good choice for numerical computations. However, like the float() function, it will raise a ValueError if the string cannot be converted to a float.

While the float() function is the most direct way to convert strings to floats in Python, libraries like Pandas and Numpy offer alternative methods that might be more suitable depending on your specific needs and the complexity of your data.

When converting strings to floats in Python, you might encounter a few common issues. Let’s discuss these problems and their solutions, and delve into some practical examples.

Handling ‘ValueError’

One of the most common errors you might come across is the ValueError . This error is raised when you try to convert a string that doesn’t represent a valid floating-point number.

In this example, we tried to convert the string 'Hello, Python!' to a float, which resulted in a ValueError . To handle this error, we used a try-except block to catch the ValueError and print a custom error message.

Dealing with Different Formats

Another issue you might face is dealing with strings in different formats. For instance, some locales use a comma as a decimal separator instead of a period. In such cases, you can replace the comma with a period before converting the string.

In this example, we replaced the comma in the string '123,45' with a period, resulting in the string '123.45' . We could then convert this string to a float using the float() function.

By understanding these common issues and their solutions, you can effectively convert strings to floats in Python and avoid potential pitfalls.

To fully grasp the process of converting strings to floats in Python, it’s essential to understand the fundamental concepts of strings and floats.

Python Strings

In Python, a string is a sequence of characters. It is an immutable data type, which means that once a string is created, it cannot be changed.

Strings in Python can be created by enclosing characters in quotes. Python treats single quotes the same as double quotes.

In the above code, '123.45' is a string. We can confirm this by using the type() function, which returns <class 'str'> , indicating that the data type is a string.

Python Floats

A float, or floating-point number, is a number with a decimal point. Floats are used in Python to represent numbers that aren’t integers. The float() function in Python converts a specified value into a floating-point number.

In this example, we converted the string '123.45' to a float using the float() function. We can confirm the conversion by using the type() function, which returns <class 'float'> , indicating that the data type is a float.

The ability to convert strings to floats in Python extends beyond simple scripts or exercises. It plays a significant role in real-world applications, particularly in data processing and machine learning.

In data processing, datasets often contain numerical values represented as strings. Converting these strings to floats is a crucial step in preparing your data for analysis.

Similarly, in machine learning, you might need to convert strings to floats to feed your data into a model, as many machine learning algorithms require numerical input.

In this example, we have a DataFrame with a column of strings representing floating-point numbers. Using the pd.to_numeric() function, we convert these strings to floats to prepare our data for analysis.

Further Resources for Python Strings

While this guide focused on converting strings to floats, Python offers a wide range of data type conversions. You might find it useful to explore related concepts such as converting strings to integers or lists to tuples. Additionally, understanding error handling in Python can help you write more robust code.

If you’re interested in learning more, here are a few resources that you might find helpful:

  • Python Strings: Tips for Efficient Text Handling : Gain insights into efficient text handling with Python strings, learning tips and methods to improve your code’s performance.

Guide on Concatenating Strings in Python : This guide by IOFlood explores various techniques for concatenating strings in Python, including using the + operator, the str.join() method, and f-strings.

Tutorial on Python Docstrings : This IOFlood tutorial focuses on Python docstrings, explaining what they are and how to use them effectively for documenting.

Python Tutorials : W3Schools provides beginner-friendly tutorials for learning Python.

Python Official Documentation : The official documentation is a comprehensive resource that covers all aspects of the Python programming language.

Python Convert String to Float: A Practical Guide : This practical guide on DigitalOcean explains how to convert a string to a float in Python, covering various scenarios and providing examples to illustrate the conversion process.

In this in-depth guide, we’ve explored the conversion of strings to floats in Python, a task that might seem simple at first but can present challenges in different contexts.

We’ve seen how the float() function can be used to convert strings to floats and discussed potential pitfalls, such as the ValueError that arises when trying to convert a string that doesn’t represent a valid floating-point number.

Beyond the float() function, we’ve also discussed alternative approaches, such as using the Pandas and Numpy libraries. While these libraries can be more suitable for complex scenarios or large datasets, they come with their own considerations, such as handling NaN values in Pandas or the lightweight nature of Numpy.

Here’s a comparison of the methods we’ve discussed:

MethodUse CaseConsiderations
Simple conversionsRaises for invalid strings
Pandas Large datasetsRequires handling of NaN values
Numpy Numerical computationsLightweight but raises for invalid strings

The ability to convert strings to floats in Python is a fundamental skill that plays a significant role in data processing and machine learning. By understanding the basics, handling common issues, and exploring alternative approaches, you can effectively convert strings to floats in Python and apply this knowledge in your coding journey.

Remember to keep exploring, keep practicing, and keep coding!

About Author

Gabriel Ramuglia

Gabriel Ramuglia

Gabriel is the owner and founder of IOFLOOD.com , an unmanaged dedicated server hosting company operating since 2010.Gabriel loves all things servers, bandwidth, and computer programming and enjoys sharing his experience on these topics with readers of the IOFLOOD blog.

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How to convert string to float in Python

convert string to float in Python-min

Transforming one kind of data type to another kind in Python involves the use of various functions. This article aims to provide details on how to convert a string to a float. The float() function in Python can be used to convert a string to a float. It’s a built-in feature for converting a floating-point number to an entity. Internally, the float() function calls the flo at( ) function of the defined item.

A string is a one- or more-character sequence (letters, numbers, symbols). Strings are a common type of data in computer programs. We need to convert strings to numbers or numbers to strings regularly, especially when dealing with user-generated data.

A function in Python converts a number string to a floating-point number.

Floats, integer, or string are extremely useful. Generally, it has to be in the correct decimal format if it’s a string. As a result, it gives you a floating object.

ValueError is raised on the off chance that the given string has something other than a floating-point representation of a number. But, if no argument is given, 0.0 is returned. On the other hand, Overflow Error is raised if the given statement is beyond the float range.

How to convert a string to float in Python

Let’s look at a basic Python example of converting a string to a float.

How to convert a string to float in Python

What is the purpose of converting a string to a float?

If we get a float value from user input through the terminal or reading it from a file, they are string objects. As a result, we must precisely convert them to float to perform required operations such as addition, multiplication, and so on.

get a float value from user input through the terminal

The float () function

You can convert virtually any data type to a floating-point number using this function. The syntax is as follows:

Only one parameter is accepted by the method. However, it is optional. If no argument is given, the resultant value from this method is 0.0.

Example 1: convert string to float

Example 1: convert string to float

Example 2: convert string to float

Example 2: convert string to float

Float number conversion from a decimal string

The float class can be used to convert a decimal string to a float number. As an example, consider the following:

The following is the code for transforming a string using float:

Float number conversion from a decimal string

Note that attempting to use the int here would result in an error.

converting a decimal list to a float in for list objects

Similarly, instead of int, you can use float to convert a list of decimal number strings. Here’s an example:

Example 1: converting a decimal list to a float in for list objects

Example 1: converting a decimal list to a float in for list objects

Example 2: converting a decimal list to a float in for list objects

Example 2: converting a decimal list to a float in for list objects

Example 3: converting a decimal list to a float in for list objects

Example 3: converting a decimal list to a float in for list objects

Convert a comma-separated number string to a floating object

Let’s say we have a string called “10,974.76,” which includes the number and commas. Converting this type of string to float is somewhat tricky. We will get an error whenever we make attempts to transfer it to the function float() directly. As an example,

error when converting a string which includes the number and commas to a float

float() returned an error since the string contained characters other than digits. So, before passing the string to the float() function, we need to delete all the extra commas. As an example,

conversion of a string value with a comma to float value

conversion of a string value with a comma to float value

Method to ascertain if a string is a floating

When the above method is run for each of the following string values, the results are represented below.

String valueStatusDescription
“.1”Truemantissa only
“123.E4”TrueExponential notation
“-iNF”TrueNegative infinity
“NaNanananaBATMAN”FalseI am Batman
“NaN”TrueNot a number
“\t\n12\r\n”Truewhitespace ignored
” -127 “TrueSpaces trimmed
“”FalseBlank string
“127”TruePassed string
TrueTruePure sweet Truth
“123.456”TrueDecimal
FalseTrueSo false it becomes true
“True”FalseVile contemptible lie
“(1)”FalseParenthesis is bad
“-+1”FalseMake up your mind
“+1e1.3”FalseNo decimals in exponent
“+1e1^5”FalseFancy exponent not interpreted
“+1e1”TruePlus is OK with exponent
“-5e-5”TrueRaise to a negative number
0**0True0___0 Exponentiation
“0E0”TrueExponential, move dot 0 places
“1,234”FalseCommas gtfo
u’\x30′TrueUnicode is fine.
“NULL”FalseNull is not special
0x3fadeTrueHexadecimal
“6e7777777777777”TrueShrunk to infinity
“1.797693e+308”TrueThis is max value
“infinity”TrueSame as inf
“infinityandBEYOND”FalseExtra characters wreck it
“12.34.56”FalseOnly one dot allowed
u’四’FalseJapanese ‘4’ is not a float.
“#56”FalsePound Sign
“56%”FalsePercent of what?

fastnumbers

fastnumbers is a module with three goals in decreasing order of importance as to why the module was created:

Provide a set of utility functions that wrap the above int and float replacements and provide error handling that is simple, concise, efficient, quick, and versatile.

Provide a collection of functions for quickly determining if an input can be converted to an int or a float.

Provide drop-in replacements for Python’s built-in int and float up to 2 times faster on average. Except for a few unique corner-cases specified in the API documentation for those functions, these functions should behave exactly like the Python built-ins.

fastnumbers

In a Pandas DataFrame, how do you convert strings to floats?

To convert strings to floats in a Pandas DataFrame, you can use one of the two methods below, depending on the situation:

(1) astype(float)

(2) to_numeric

Here, you’ll learn how to convert strings to floats in three different ways:

  • For a column containing both numeric and non-numeric values
  • For a complete DataFrame

Converting Strings to Floats in Pandas DataFrame Scenarios

Scenario 1: strings are used to store numerical values.

Let’s make a DataFrame with just two columns to keep things simple.

The code for creating the DataFrame in Python is shown below. Herein, the ‘Cost’ column values are stored as strings (with single quotes around them). Notice that the same principles would apply if double quotes were used instead of single quotes):

Scenario 1: Strings are used to store numerical values

The aim is to make floats out of the values in the ‘Cost’ column.

The conversion into floats can then be done using the astype(float) method:

The ‘Cost’ column is the ‘DataFrame Column’ in the sense of our example. As a result, the complete code to convert the values to floats is:

Scenario 1: Cost converted to float

Scenario 2: Numeric and non-numeric values

Build a new DataFrame with two columns (‘Item’ and ‘Cost’). This time, however, the values in the ‘Cost’ column will include both numeric and non-numeric data:

In Python, this is how the DataFrame will look:

Scenario 2: Numeric and non-numeric values before conversion

The data form for the ‘Cost’ column is the same as before: Object. After that, you can use the to_numeric method to convert the values in the ‘Cost’ column to floats as follows:

You can convert non-numeric values to NaN by setting errors=’coerce’.

For your convenience, below is the complete code:

Scenario 2: Numeric and non-numeric values before conversion

To go even further, you can use df.replace to replace the ‘NaN’ values with ‘0’ values.

Scenario 2: Numeric and non-numeric values  and replace after conversion

Scenario 3: Convert Strings to Floats, Under the Entire DataFrame

Let’s make a DataFrame with three columns in which all of the values are stored as strings (in single quotes) for the final scenario:

Scenario 3:  Convert Strings to Floats, Under the Entire DataFrame

From what you have observed, the entirety of the columns in the DataFrame have the same data type: object.

You can then use the following syntax to convert all of the values in the DataFrame to floats:

As a result, the complete Python code for performing the conversion will be as follows:

convert all of the values in the DataFrame to floats using df.dastype()

Final Thoughts

This article has shown how to use built-in methods to convert a string native data type to a float data type. In Python, being able to transform data types gives you more flexibility when writing programs. We learned how to change a string value to a float in this tutorial. If we’re not sure what the receiving values are, it’s a good coding practice to convert them first.

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5 Best Ways to Convert Python String to Float Format

💡 Problem Formulation: In Python, converting a string to a float is a common task, especially when dealing with numerical data in text format. For instance, if you have a string ‘3.14’ and need to perform arithmetic operations, you would require it to be in float format. The input is a numeric string, and the desired output is a float: '3.14' -> 3.14 .

Method 1: Using the float() Function

The float() function in Python is the most straightforward method to convert a string into a float. This built-in function takes a single string argument that represents a number and returns its float value. However, it will raise a ValueError if the string does not contain a valid number.

Here’s an example:

Output: 123.456

This code snippet converts the string '123.456' into a floating-point number using the float() function and then prints it out. It’s a simple and effective way to handle string-to-float conversion.

Method 2: Using Decimal Module

The Decimal module offers a Decimal data type for decimal floating-point arithmetic. Using the Decimal constructor can convert strings to Decimal objects which can be beneficial when precise arithmetic is necessary, like in financial applications.

In the snippet, Decimal() is used to convert the string into a Decimal object, providing more precision than a standard float conversion for scenarios where that’s required.

Method 3: Using ast.literal_eval()

The ast module’s literal_eval() method can be used to safely evaluate a string containing a Python literal or container display. It can parse strings into floats, integers, lists, tuples, and dictionaries.

This code leverages ast.literal_eval() to parse the string and convert it into a float. It’s a safe alternative to the built-in eval() function, protecting against arbitrary code execution.

Method 4: Using locale.atof() with locale setting

The locale module’s atof() function can convert a string to a float according to locale settings, which is helpful if the string uses a decimal separator other than the period.

Output: 1234.56

After setting the locale to ‘en_US.UTF-8’, locale.atof() converts the string to a float, respecting the numeric formatting conventions of the specified locale, such as the comma as a thousands separator.

Bonus One-Liner Method 5: Using eval() with Caution

While generally not recommended due to security risks, eval() will parse a string as a Python expression, which can include converting a string to a float.

This one-liner uses eval() to evaluate the string as a Python expression, resulting in a float object. This method should be used with extreme caution as it can execute arbitrary code, making it a security risk if used with untrusted input.

Summary/Discussion

  • Method 1: float() Function. Most common and straightforward. Not suited for locale-specific formats.
  • Method 2: Decimal Module. Offers precision for financial calculations. May not be necessary for all use cases.
  • Method 3: ast.literal_eval(). Safe method for evaluating Python literals. Slightly more complex and limited to certain formats.
  • Method 4: locale.atof(). Respects locale-specific number formats. Requires locale settings to be set appropriately.
  • Method 5: eval(). A one-liner with major security implications. Adequate for quick tests with trusted data, not for production.

Emily Rosemary Collins is a tech enthusiast with a strong background in computer science, always staying up-to-date with the latest trends and innovations. Apart from her love for technology, Emily enjoys exploring the great outdoors, participating in local community events, and dedicating her free time to painting and photography. Her interests and passion for personal growth make her an engaging conversationalist and a reliable source of knowledge in the ever-evolving world of technology.

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Programming Tutorials

Convert string to float in python

In this article, we will discuss how to convert a number string to a float object.

Table of Contents

Syntax of float() function

  • Convert string to float object

Convert number string with commas to float object

Python provides a function to convert a number string into a floating-point number.

  • It can be an int, float, or string.
  • If it is a string, then it must be of correct decimal format.
  • If the provided string contains anything other than a floating-point representation of a number, then it will raise ValueError
  • If no argument is provided, then it returns 0.0
  • If the given argument is outside the range of float, it raises overflow Error.

Let’s see some examples, where we will use the float() function to convert string to a float object.

Convert string to float object in python in python

Suppose we have a string ‘181.23’ as a Str object. To convert this to a floating-point number, i.e., float object, we will pass the string to the float() function. Which converts this string to a float and returns the float object. For example,

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Suppose we have a string ‘10,181.23’, it contains the number but also has some extra commas. To convert this kind of string to float is a little tricky. If we directly pass this to the float() function, then it will raise an error. For example,

As string had characters other than digits, so float() raised an error. So, we need to remove all the extra commas from the string before passing it to the float() function. For example,

We can convert a number in a string object to a float object using the float() function.

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Python String to float, float to String

Python String To Float, Float To String

In this article, we will be dealing with the conversion of Python String to float and vice-versa. In the daily programming practices, many times we come across scenarios wherein we feel the need to convert the type of data we are dealing with.

  • Python String to float

Python provides us with the built-in float() method to convert the data type of input from String to float.

Python NumPy String to float

NumPy module has got astype() method to convert the type of data.

The astype() method converts the type of the input data to the data type specified in the parameter.

Pandas String to float

Pandas module also uses astype() function to convert the data type of a particular field of the data set to the specified type.

Input csv file:

Input csv file

Python float to String

Python String has built-in str() method to convert the input data of any type to the String form.

Python NumPy float to String

List Comprehension can be used to convert Python NumPy float array to an array of String elements.

In the above snippet of code, “ %.2f ” will give me precision up to two decimals in the output array.

In this article, we have understood the conversion of data from String to float form and vice-versa with Python Data structures.

  • NumPy string to float
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Java Program to Convert String to Float Value

Given a string “str” in Java, the task is to convert this string to float type.

This can be done by two methods as listed below:

  • Using parseFloat() Method 
  • Using valueOf() Method 

Let us discuss above two ways of implementing the methods to get a fair understanding of the conversion of string to float values.

Method 1: Using parseFloat()

The parseFloat() metho d in Float Class is a built-in method in Java that returns a new float initialized to the value represented by the specified String, as done by the valueOf method of class Float.

Parameters : It accepts a single mandatory parameter s which specifies the string to be parsed.

Return type: It returns e float value represented by the string argument.

Exceptions:

  • NullPointerException: When the string parsed is null
  • NumberFormatException: When the string parsed does not contain a parsable float

Example 2: To show unsuccessful conversion 

string change float

Method 2: Using valueof() method 

The valueOf() method of the Float class converts data from its internal form into human-readable form. The valueOf() method converts data from its internal form into a human-readable form. It is a static method that is overloaded within a string for all of Java’s buil t -in types so that each type can be converted properly into a string.  

It is called when a string representation of some other type data is needed-for example during concatenation operation.you can call this method with any data type and get a reasonable String representation valueOf() returns java.lang.Integer, which is the object representative of the integer Few forms of valueOf()

Returns:  

  • It returns string representation of given value
  • valueOf(iNum); // Returns the string representation of int iNum.
  • String.valueOf(sta); // Returns the string representation of the boolean argument.
  • String.valueOf(fNum); // Returns the string representation of the float fnum.
  • String.valueOf(data, 0, 15); // Returns the string representation of a specific subarray of the chararray argument.
  • String.valueOf(data, 0, 5); // Returns the string of charArray 0 to 5
  • String.valueOf(data, 7, 9); // Returns the string of charArray starting index 7 and total count from 7 is 9.

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C++ String to int and vice versa

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C++ float and double

C++ String to float/double and vice-versa

  • C++ string to float and double Conversion

The easiest way to convert a string to a floating-point number is by using these C++11 functions:

  • std::stof() - convert string to float
  • std::stod() - convert string to double
  • std::stold() - convert string to long double .

These functions are defined in the string header file.

Example 1: C++ string to float and double

Example 2: c++ char array to double.

We can convert a char array to double by using the std::atof() function.

C++ float and double to string Conversion

We can convert float and double to string using the C++11 std::to_string() function. For the older C++ compilers, we can use std::stringstream objects.

Example 3: float and double to string Using to_string()

Example 4: float and double to string using stringstream.

Recommended Reading: C++ string to int .

Table of Contents

  • String to float and double
  • Char Array to double
  • float and double to string
  • float and double to string Using to_string()
  • float and double to string Using stringstream

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Python Float: Working With Floating-Point Numbers

Besides integers, consisting of whole numbers without fractions, Python also offers us the float type. Perhaps you’ve already seen floats without realizing it. After all, when you divide two integers in Python, the result of that division is often of type float.

In this article, I’ll explain what floats are and how to use them. We’ll also look at an important limitation of floats that you need to be aware of.

Table of Contents

  • 1 What is a Python float?
  • 2 Creating floating point numbers
  • 3 Working with Python floats
  • 4 The Python float has limited precision
  • 5 Converting floats to other data types

What is a Python float?

a Python float is a numerical data type that represents a floating-point number. A floating-point number is a number with a decimal point or exponent notation, indicating that a number is a certain number of digits before and after the decimal point or exponent. For example, the number 1.23 is a floating-point number with one digit before the decimal point and two digits after the decimal point.

Creating floating point numbers

There are multiple ways to create floating-point numbers in Python. Most of the time, you will simply enter the number as-is:

But you may want to convert a number or a string to a float using the float() function. The variable f will become 2.0 in all cases below:

You can also use scientific notation:

Working with Python floats

Working with floats is not much different from working with integers . You can do the usual addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.

Round, floor, and upper

With floats, we often need to round numbers. For this, Python has the round function. The round function accepts two arguments: the number itself and an optional precision (the number of decimals). The default for this last number is 0, meaning that it will round to whole integers. Some examples:

While round is available without importing, we need to do an import from the math library to floor and ceil a number.

The floor function rounds a float down to the nearest integer while the ceil function rounds a float up to the nearest integer. Here’s an example of how you can import and use these functions:

Comparisons

Just like other types of numbers, floats can be compared using comparison operators such as == , != , > , < , >= , and <= . For example, the following code uses the == operator to check if the float 1.23 is equal to the float 4.56 :

The Python float has limited precision

Let’s do a little experiment. For extra dramatic effect, try this for yourself first:

Did you expect the output to be 0.3 like any normal person would? I don’t blame you, but you’re wrong! The output is actually 0.30000000000000004 . As absurd as this might seem, there’s an explanation.

First of all, some fractional numbers are endless. E.g., when you divide 1 by 3, you can round the result to 0.33, 0.333333333, or 0.333333333333333333. No matter what precision you choose, there will always be more 3’s. Since there’s a limited number of bits to store a float number, many numbers are a best-effort approximation. So floating-point numbers have limited precision because they are stored in a finite amount of memory, sometimes leading to unexpected results when performing arithmetic operations on floating-point numbers.

Solving the limited precision

The limited precision of floats is a fundamental property of how floats are represented in computer memory. Therefore, it is not possible to completely eliminate the issue of limited precision when working with floats.

However, there are a few ways that you can mitigate the effects of limited precision when working with floats in Python:

  • Use the decimal module: The decimal module in the Python standard library provides support for decimal floating-point arithmetic. This allows you to work with decimal numbers that have fixed precision, which can be useful for applications that require more precise calculations than what is possible with regular floats. The downside is that floats are much faster than using the decimal package.
  • Use NumPy : The numpy module is a popular scientific computing library for Python that supports working with arrays of numbers. The numpy module provides a data type called numpy.float128 that allows you to work with higher-precision floating-point numbers than regular floats.
  • Round your floats: As mentioned earlier, you can use the round function to round a float to a specified number of decimal places. Limiting the number of decimal places used in your calculations can help reduce the strange effects of limited precision, but this method makes your calculations even more imprecise.

Converting floats to other data types

You can convert a float to other data types, such as int or str , using the built-in functions int() and str() . For example, the following code converts the float 1.23 to an integer and a string:

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Python float to string Conversion Using 10 Different Methods

Python float to string

Hello geeks and welcome in this article, we will cover Python float to string conversion. We will look at different methods through which we can perform this conversion. To do so, we will look at various examples involving different methods. But before moving that ahead, let us try to get a brief overview of the 2 data types.

First, let us look at the float ; this kind of data type returns floating-point numbers like- 3.45,8.9, etc. This data type also returns the value for a string of numbers such as “8”, “6”, etc. Now coming to the other data type, which is a string . String data type we can understand it as an array of byte-like Unicode characters . The next section will start looking at different methods to perform the conversion.

Ways to Convert float to string in Python

  • Basic float to string conversion
  • Python float to string using list comprehension
  • Using list comprehension + join() + str()
  • Converting float to string using join() + map() + str()
  • Using NumPy
  • By using the format()
  • Using String formatting
  • Python float to string by repr()
  • Using list() + map()

Let’s see each of them in-depth with the help of examples.

1. Basic float to string conversion

Above, we have performed a very basic float to string conversion . Here we can notice that 1st we have defined a variable ‘a’ . To check its data type , we have used a print statement with a type tag. The output confirms our data type is float . We have used the str tag to change the data type to a string . Once again, we have used the type tag to find the data type. Here the output confirms that we have successfully performed the conversion.

2. list comprehension

This method is preferably used to convert the NumPy float array to an array of string elements. In general, list comprehension can be understood as less code more effective. Let us look at how it is done. Then we will look at the detailed explanation of the process. But at first, let us look at the syntax for it.

Above, we can see that we can perform a successful conversion. Here to do so, we have imported the NumPy library. After which, we have declared an array of float type . Then for the conversion purpose, we have used our syntax. Finally, we have used the print statement, which verifies the conversion.

3. list comprehension + join() + str()

In this particular method, the floating numbers are first converted to a list . After which, they are converted to a string . This method requires a combination of different methods, as mentioned in the heading.

Here we have performed another successful conversion. We can also notice that the conversion follows the list as stated above “Float -> List -> String.” Here the str method is used to convert to the string data type. The join method takes all the methods in iterable and joins them to make a string.

4. join() + map() + str()

To perform this process this operation, the following methods are used. In this process, first, the float is converted to a string. After which, it is converted into a master string.

We will have used the same problem as in the list comprehension + str() + join(). We can also see the sequence “Float-> str->Master str.”

5. Using NumPy

Here we can see that we have performed the conversion using the NumPy module. To do so, we have used the format_float_positional function. What it does is that converts a floating-point scalar as a decimal string.

6. Using format()

Here, we have successfully performed the conversion using the format() method. The format is a string formatting method of Python. This method helps us by linking elements within a string through positional formatting.

7.Using String formatting

We can also perform the conversion using the string formatting method. Python uses a string formatting format similar to the C language, and It is more of an old method.

See again; we have performed a successful conversion. Here we have used the “%f ” format specifier to instruct where to substitute the value of x.

8. Using repr()

Here we have used the repr() method. The general syntax for this method is repr(obj) . On completion of the program, this method returns a printable representational string.

9. Using list() + map()

A few methods involved list and map methods separately, as we have already discussed. This method collectively requires the application of 2.

10.Using f-strings

The basic idea behind this method is to make string interpolation simpler. This is a modern method and easy to use. let us see how it is executed

  • How to Convert int to float in Python Implicitly and Explicitly
  • Python map Function Explanation and Examples
  • Python Round off Techniques | Python round() Function
  • How to solve Type error: a byte-like object is required not ‘str’

In this article, we covered Python float to string conversion . We looked at 9 four different methods to use to do so. As per your need and choice, you can use any 9 methods.

I  hope this article was able to clear all doubts. But in case you have any unsolved queries feel free to write them below in the comment section. Done Reading this, why not read about Type error next.

guest

You forgot the most modern and most convenient way: f-strings f”{a:.2f}” . Once you are used to calling variables directly in the string, you never want to go back to C-style percentage signs.

Rohit Kumar

Thanks for pointing out my mistake. I have added the f-strings method in the article.

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Dominica is a Caribbean island paradise for nature lovers.

Drop all your expectations about a Caribbean vacation. Dominica is an island unlike any other in the region. It’s a nature lover’s paradise for travelers seeking adventure, sustainability, untouched landscapes, and rainbows painting the sky almost every day—and that’s what makes it so special.

From its dense rainforests and dramatic volcanic scenery to its thriving marine life and secluded resorts committed to both sustainability and luxury, Dominica will show you a different side of the Caribbean. Here’s what to expect on a visit to the “Nature Island.”

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Trafalgar Falls in Dominica

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Guides here can hook you up with an inner tube then help you float through the impossibly narrow gap between two stone walls, where a secret waterfall awaits you. The postcard-worthy cascade makes an amazing spot to snap photos and relish the rush of standing beneath the rushing water. On your way back out, look up and marvel at the lush foliage that drapes the gorge, adding to the enchanting atmosphere.

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If you’re looking for an adventurous hike in Dominica, Syndicate Falls should be at the top of your list. Located at the base of Morne Diablotin, Dominica’s tallest mountain, Syndicate Falls is a hidden gem that’s as memorable to get to as it is to see up close.

The hike to the falls takes you through one of Dominica’s national parks and requires several river crossings, where you'll need to tightrope walk across cables strung just over the water—a thrilling yet manageable challenge that adds to the adventure. A pair of grippy water shoes (like these ones from Xero Shoes ) and a dose of confidence should be enough to get you through the 20-minute hike.

Don’t worry if you get splashed on your way to Syndicate Falls, though. You’ll get soaked when you wade into the refreshing water and feel the power of the glorious 100-foot-tall waterfall as it fills the swimming hole.

Taste one of the Caribbean’s only island-made gins

Sea Cliff Gin is distilled in Dominica.

Dominica seemed to offer everything expats Amber Oxley and Simon Morris were looking for when they moved to the island during the pandemic. It had breathtaking scenery, plenty of nature for their two sons to explore, and a community filled with kind people. But there was one thing they couldn’t find: Gin. (This is rum country, after all!)

So, they decided to start distilling their own on site at their eco-cottage property, using nine of the lush island’s botanicals, including bay leaf, cocoa, nutmeg, and cinnamon. Keeping with Dominica’s focus on sustainability, Sea Cliff Gin is powered by solar and sold in recycled bottles collected around the island.

Make an appointment for a gin tasting tour to sample the distinctively Caribbean-flavored spirit at the distillery. While there, you can also wander their garden, where you can touch, smell, and taste the plants and flowers used in the gin. Pro tip: Ask about Sea Cliff’s boozy frozen gin pops!

Support coral conservation on a dive

Conservationists fight coral disease while taking tourists on dives in Dominica.

Sperm whales might be the star attraction of Dominica’s marine life, but its pristine reefs are equally impressive. Whereas other reefs in the region have suffered from the detrimental stony coral tissue loss disease, those within Dominica’s deep bay have been largely spared thanks to the efforts of conservationists like those at Nature Island Dive . Their team tracks the health of reefs, propagates coral on artificial “trees” that can be replanted on reefs, and treats diseased coral with amoxicillin to help it heal.

They also integrate their coral disease management efforts with tourism. Book a diving or snorkeling trip with Nature Island Dive, and you might see their divemasters applying the antibiotics on the coral in real time. They always take syringes with them to make the most of their time under the sea. Diving with them is not only a fantastic way to explore Dominica’s underwater ecosystem, but it also supports the crucial efforts to preserve it.

Take a boat ride to a bush bar on the Indian River

A gentle boat ride on the Indian River in Dominica

Aquatic adventures aren’t only found in the ocean—in Dominica, they extend to the lush wetlands as well. On the Indian River Rowboat Experience with Cobra Tours , an experienced boatman will take you on a leisurely glide through a swampy riverbank, renowned for its flora and fauna. Your guide will point out giant ferns, freshwater hibiscus, towering termite nests, crabs, and birds. You can also take a brief detour to see the witch house from “Pirates of the Caribbean 2.”

Midway through your tour, you’ll stop at a hidden bush bar to sample punches made with local ingredients like gooseberry and cinnamon—the perfect tipple to enjoy before your relaxing ride back to shore at sunset.

Stay in Dominica’s secluded, sustainable resorts

One thing that sets Dominica apart from other popular Caribbean islands is its accommodations. Boutique resorts here marry luxury with sustainability and give guests a deep sense of place.

Secret Bay, Dominica

Case in point: Secret Bay . This six-star, all-villa resort perched on a serene cliff top overlooking the azure Caribbean Sea features 22 distinctive villas that offer a blend of indoor and outdoor living spaces. The villas, which range from single bedroom to three-and-a-half bedrooms, were made with sustainably-sourced tropical hardwoods and constructed using LEED standards to reduce their environmental impact. More than eco-friendly, these villas are also equipped with high-end touches to take your stay to the next level, including private plunge pools, deep tubs, outdoor rainfall showers, and high-end kitchens (complete with espresso machines). Your personal villa host can take care of the cooking, cleaning, and arrange exclusive activities (like private beach picnics).

As comfortable as the villas themselves are, you won’t want to miss the other amenities scattered across Secret Bay’s 40-plus acres, including two restaurants, two on-site beaches, water sports hut, nature walks, lap pool, and the longest funicular in the Caribbean.

Coulibri Ridge

If you want an even more off-the-grid experience, head to the southern tip of the island to find another one of the best places to stay in Dominica: Coulibri Ridge . Built on a former aloe vera plantation, this luxurious eco-retreat is powered by more than 300 solar panels and constructed from recycled and sustainable materials. All the stonework you see around the property came from the land itself.

Coulibri Ridge features just 14 spacious studios and duplex suites. Each space is decked out with large windows to offer views of both the ocean and the Sulphur Spring Valley, along with an outdoor rain shower or private plunge pool. Dim lighting and comfy furniture make it easy to feel at home. Plus, the kitchen comes stocked with plenty of healthy snacks to keep you fueled between meals at the two on-site restaurants. For deep relaxation, book a treatment at the open-air spa that overlooks the sea. It offers incredible massages that will make you feel like you’re a world away from the stresses of modern life.

Joni Sweet

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A String of Supreme Court Decisions Hits Hard at Environmental Rules

Four cases backed by conservative activists in recent years have combined to diminish the power of the Environmental Protection Agency.

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A single tree stands in a grassy field and in the background are two smokestacks blowing white smoke into the blue sky.

By Coral Davenport

A spate of decisions over the past two years by the Supreme Court has significantly impaired the Environmental Protection Agency’s authority to limit pollution in the air and water, regulate the use of toxic chemicals and reduce the greenhouse gasses that are heating the planet.

This term, the court’s conservative supermajority handed down several rulings that chip away at the power of many federal agencies.

But the environmental agency has been under particular fire, the result of a series of cases brought since 2022 by conservative activists who say that E.P.A. regulations have driven up costs for industries ranging from electric utilities to home building. Those arguments have resonated among justices skeptical of government regulation.

On Friday, the court ended the use of what is known as the Chevron doctrine, a cornerstone of administrative law for 40 years that said that courts should defer to government agencies to interpret unclear laws. That decision t hreatens the authority of many federal agencies to regulate the environment and also health care, workplace safety, telecommunications, the financial sector and more.

But more remarkable have been several decisions by the court to intervene to stop environmental regulations before they were decided by lower courts or even before they were implemented by the executive branch.

On Thursday, the court said the E.P.A. could not limit smokestack pollution that blows across state borders under a measure known as the “good neighbor rule.” In that case, the court took the surprising step of weighing in while litigation was still pending at the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit.

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Some Democrats start calling for Biden to step aside and 'throw in the towel' on 2024

Some Democrats began calling for President Joe Biden to step aside so the party can nominate another candidate after he stumbled badly in Thursday's debate against his Republican rival, former President Donald Trump.

"This was like a champion boxer who gets in the ring past his prime and needs his corner to throw in the towel," said a Democratic lawmaker, adding that he meant Biden should exit the race.

The options for a switch are limited : If the president doesn't choose to leave of his own volition, there would have to be a revolt among Democratic National Convention delegates, the vast majority of whom were elected on their pledge to nominate Biden. But that's what some Democrats were thinking after Thursday night's debate.

It's “time to talk about an open convention and a new Democratic nominee,” said a second Democratic lawmaker who has been a solid Biden supporter.

The fear among these Democrats is that the version of Biden that showed up to the debate — one bearing a likeness to the caricature Trump and his allies have portrayed of a man unequipped for the job — cannot win in November.

Even those who want a replacement candidate doubt that the party can move Biden aside, aren’t certain who could win the party’s nod in his absence and don’t know whether a substitute could beat Trump in November. Going into the debate, which was hosted by CNN, polls showed a close race between Biden and Trump.“There is a sense of shock at how he came out at the beginning of this debate. How his voice sounded. He seemed a little disoriented. ... There are going to be discussions about whether he should continue,” David Axelrod, a top adviser to former President Barack Obama, said on CNN. “Only he can decide if he’s going to continue.”

Axelrod predicted that Biden wouldn’t be inclined to leave the race, noting that “this is a guy with a lot of pride ... who believes in himself.”

The last time a president who was eligible to run for re-election didn’t appear on the November ballot was in 1968, when Lyndon Johnson, facing certain defeat in the Democratic primaries, chose not to seek a full second term.

Still, several Democrats predicted that calls for Biden to take the Johnson route would multiply in the coming days.

“The chatter of replacement is absolutely going to explode,” said a veteran Democratic strategist who has worked on presidential campaigns. “There is no coming back from this disaster.”

At the same time, top Biden allies dismissed the prospect of a change at the top of the ticket. California Gov. Gavin Newsom, a Democrat whom many in the party see as a potential Biden alternative or a future presidential candidate, said “no” when asked whether he would urge Biden to end his campaign.

“This is just bad, no matter how you spin it,” said a veteran Democratic operative. “But everyone knows it’s too late to switch. But the donors will make those decisions, as they always do. Hence why we got Biden” in 2020.

Before Thursday's debate, Trump's campaign released an ad telling voters that if they elect Biden, they will end up with Vice President Kamala Harris as president — a suggestion that the octogenarian president would die in office or have to resign. The biggest question Democrats would have to resolve if Biden dropped out of the race before the convention is whether they would nominate Harris — whose approval ratings , like Biden's, are underwater. Others who were mentioned Thursday night include Newsom, Michigan Gov. Gretchen Whitmer and Illinois Gov. J.B. Pritzker.

“I look forward to being in Chicago when Gavin Newsom is nominated from the floor,” a Democratic strategist said after the first 20 minutes of the debate, adding about Biden: “Should have gone on offense on abortion. Can’t keep his train of thought.”

A Biden departure would leave Democrats with a potentially brutal fight over whether to simply elevate Harris, the first Black vice president and first female vice president — one that could split key base constituencies at a time when the party needs to unite if it hopes to win. Still, the prospect of a bloody intraparty battle didn't stop some operatives from concluding Biden should go.

"They need to change nomination now," a Democratic operative said. "Or just put Harris on top of the ticket."

A Democratic strategist with ties to Capitol Hill said lawmakers will be reluctant to publicly call for Biden to give up his campaign.

"No one wants to be the first," the strategist said. "But everyone is brushing up on DNC rules and procedures right now."

The same strategist explained his own affection for Biden and his record, pointing to the president's responses to wars in Europe and the Middle East, his personnel appointments and his domestic record — along with Biden's 2020 victory over Trump. But the strategist also thinks Biden must exit.

"I am for the first time beginning to think calling for Biden to step aside isn't heretical; it's the only responsible thing to do," he said. "If we lose this election to Trump because we were too afraid to admit we were wrong about his age or too worried of an open convention, we can no longer call our party the defenders of democracy."

Several current and former Democratic elected officials chose to keep their powder dry when asked about Biden's showing Thursday night.

"The best thing I can do to help Joe Biden is to pretend I didn't get your text," said a third Democratic lawmaker.

string change float

Jonathan Allen is a senior national politics reporter for NBC News, based in Washington.

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IntelliJ IDEA 2024.2 EAP 7: Improved Code Completion in AI Assistant, String Variable Data Visualizers in the Debugger, And More

Maria Kosukhina

The latest IntelliJ IDEA 2024.2 EAP build brings some exciting new features and improvements. 

AI Assistant’s code completion, both single- and multi-line, has been upgraded for more accurate suggestions and a streamlined user experience. The IDE now offers convenient debugging visualizers to help you better comprehend data stored in JSON, HTML, XML, and other data formats. Additionally, the new inlay hint allows for instant application of the Change Signature refactoring.

Read on to learn more details about these and other features. To catch up on the updates introduced in previous EAP builds, browse the dedicated 2024.2 EAP section of our blog.

To try out the new features, download the IntelliJ IDEA 2024.2 EAP 7 build from our website , update directly from the IDE or via the free Toolbox App , or use snaps for Ubuntu.

Download IntelliJ IDEA 2024.2 EAP 7

Run / Debug 

String variable visualizers for json, xml, and other formats.

Debugging and browsing long string variables with complex data formats is now much easier. The updated debugger offers properly formatted visualizations for string variables with JSON, XML, HTML, JWT, and URL-encoded strings. Simply click the View hyperlink next to the variable to quickly identify the root cause of your bug – the visualizer is automatically chosen based on the contents of your variable.

Change Signature refactoring inlay hint

To make the Change Signature refactoring more accessible and intuitive, we’ve added a new inlay hint that appears near the modified code element. When you click on it and confirm the change, the IDE automatically updates all method references throughout the codebase. This ensures consistency and reduces the risk of errors, streamlining your refactoring process.

These are the most notable updates for this week. For a full list of implemented changes, refer to the release notes . 

We eagerly await your feedback in the comments section below or on X (formerly Twitter) . If you spot a bug while working with this build, please report it via our issue tracker.  

Happy developing!

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IntelliJ IDEA 2024.2 EAP 6: Streamlined Log Management, Enhanced Gradle Build Script Experience, and More

IntelliJ IDEA 2024.2 EAP 6 is out!  You can get the latest build from our website, through the free Toolbox App, or via snaps for Ubuntu.  Download IntelliJ IDEA 2024.2 EAP 6 The latest build offers a streamlined user experience with Gradle build scripts, enhanced logging support …

Maria Kosukhina

IntelliJ IDEA 2024.2 EAP 5: Jakarta Data Support, Extended JPA Support, Streamlined Cron Expressions Handling, and More

IntelliJ IDEA 2024.2 EAP 5 is now available! It brings a range of exciting updates to the IDE’s integrations with popular frameworks such as Spring, Quarkus, and Micronaut, along with Jakarta Data specification support, and more. To try them out today, download the IntelliJ IDEA 2024.2 EAP 5 buil…

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IntelliJ IDEA 2024.2 EAP 4: Enhanced Debugging Workflow for Kotlin, New Java Inspection, and More

IntelliJ IDEA 2024.2 EAP 4 is now available and introduces several new features. You can try them out now! Download this latest build from our website, update directly from the IDE via the free Toolbox App, or use snaps for Ubuntu. Download IntelliJ IDEA 2024.2 EAP 4 Let’s take a look at th…

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IntelliJ IDEA 2024.2 EAP 3: Enhanced Profiling Workflow, Math Syntax Support for Markdown, and More

The Early Access Program for IntelliJ IDEA 2024.2 continues! We have just rolled out the EAP 3 build with some cool features that you can already try out! To do so, download the new version from our website, update directly from the IDE via the free Toolbox App, or use snaps for Ubuntu. Downlo…

What the Supreme Court Chevron decision means for environmental rules

The decision could make it easier for courts to block ambitious climate and wildlife regulations.

string change float

The Supreme Court on Friday curtailed the power of federal agencies to regulate the environment, public health and other fundamental aspects of American life.

The 6-3 ruling , written by Chief Justice John G. Roberts Jr., could make it easier for courts to block regulations aimed at addressing air pollution, combating climate change and protecting endangered species, lawyers say.

Here’s what to know about the ruling and its potential impact on environmental protections in the United States:

What did the Supreme Court decide?

The pair of cases — Loper Bright Enterprises v. Raimondo and Relentless, Inc. v. Department of Commerce — challenged a federal rule that requires the herring industry to cover the costs of observers on fishing boats.

In the decision released Friday, the Supreme Court struck down the rule, issued by the National Marine Fisheries Service, finding it to be overly burdensome. Lower courts had previously upheld the rule, finding it to be a reasonable interpretation of federal law.

The decision effectively overturns a long-standing precedent known as the Chevron doctrine.

What is the Chevron doctrine?

The doctrine says that courts should defer to an agency’s interpretation of a law, as long as that interpretation is reasonable. It was established by the Supreme Court’s landmark 1984 ruling in Chevron U.S.A. v. Natural Resources Defense Council .

The 1984 decision represented a victory for the Reagan administration and a loss for environmental groups, including the Natural Resources Defense Council. Under President Ronald Reagan (R), the Environmental Protection Agency had issued a rule that allowed manufacturing plants to install or modify one piece of equipment without obtaining a federal permit.

Environmental groups had challenged the rule, saying it violated the Clean Air Act and would cause more air pollution. But in the unanimous 6-0 decision, Justice John Paul Stevens wrote that the court should defer to the EPA’s reading of the Clean Air Act, and to other agencies’ interpretations of other statutes.

At the time, Chevron was not seen as a historic ruling. But it became a major precedent once it filtered through the lower courts, and it eventually gave future administrations more power to issue stronger environmental rules than those of the Reagan era.

Supreme Court 2024 major cases

string change float

Who supported overturning Chevron?

A wide array of conservative advocacy groups have urged the court to overturn Chevron. But petrochemicals billionaire Charles Koch has played a particularly influential role.

Both cases were backed by conservative legal organizations — the Cause of Action Institute and New Civil Liberties Alliance — that have received millions of dollars from the Koch network , founded by Charles Koch and his late brother, David Koch. Charles Koch is the CEO of Koch Industries and a fierce critic of federal regulations.

Asked about this funding, Ryan Mulvey, counsel at the Cause of Action Institute, said the focus should be on the fishermen.

“Like any public interest law firm, Cause of Action Institute took this case to defend the rights of individuals who do not have the resources to challenge unconstitutional actions on their own,” Mulvey said in an emailed statement. “This case has always been about vindicating their interests.”

Who supported retaining Chevron?

Ironically, many environmental groups supported retaining Chevron , even though the original 1984 decision handed them a defeat.

Two heavyweights in the environmental movement — the Environmental Defense Fund and the Natural Resources Defense Council — both submitted amicus briefs urging the justices not to overturn Chevron . The environmental law firm Earthjustice also filed a joint brief in defense of the doctrine on behalf of Conservation Law Foundation, Ocean Conservancy and Save the Sound.

Additional support for Chevron came from a wide range of other individuals and groups, including Democratic senators , the American Cancer Society and the Lawyers’ Committee for Civil Rights Under Law .

Will this affect efforts to combat climate change?

That’s according to David Doniger, senior strategic director of the climate and clean energy program at the Natural Resources Defense Council, who argued the Chevron case. Doniger said the ruling released Friday could prevent agencies from using older environmental laws to tackle newer environmental problems — such as climate change — as they arise.

“The real goal of the interest groups on the right that are backing this litigation is to enfeeble the federal government’s ability to deal with the problems that the modern world throws at us,” Doniger said. “We could end up with a weaker federal government, and that would mean that interest groups would be freer to pollute without restraint.”

Still, President Biden ’s signature climate law gave the EPA more authority to curb planet-warming emissions, Doniger said. For the first time, the climate law, known as the Inflation Reduction Act , defined greenhouse gases as air pollutants that the EPA can regulate under the Clean Air Act.

Will this affect efforts to protect endangered species?

In litigation over protections for vulnerable plants and animals, courts have often deferred to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s interpretation of the Endangered Species Act. That could change in response to Friday’s ruling, said Damien Schiff, a senior attorney at the Pacific Legal Foundation, a conservative public interest law firm that supported overturning Chevron .

“ Chevron has been invoked to justify a very broad level of discretion for how endangered species are protected,” Schiff said.

Will this affect efforts to regulate toxic chemicals?

Probably not.

The EPA assesses the health risks posed by specific chemicals by interpreting scientific studies, not by interpreting ambiguous statutes, said Madeleine Boyer, a principal at the firm Beveridge & Diamond who represents clients in the chemical industry.

Chevron “isn’t intended to address the deference that should be given to an agency’s interpretation of its own facts and science,” Boyer said.

What will be the near-term impact of the ruling?

There could be a spike in lawsuits over actions by federal agencies — not only environmental agencies such as the EPA, but also the Departments of Education, Labor and Health and Human Services. It could take years for this litigation to play out.

In the meantime, the ruling could prompt Republican lawmakers on Capitol Hill to intensify their oversight of the Biden administration’s environmental rules, staff for the House Republican Study Committee wrote in a memo released Monday.

“If Chevron is rolled back or overturned, this will be a landmark decision which could open the door to Congress ... rolling back Biden’s woke and weaponized administrative agenda," the memo says.

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How to format a floating number to fixed width in Python

How do I format a floating number to a fixed width with the following requirements:

  • Leading zero if n < 1
  • Add trailing decimal zero(s) to fill up fixed width
  • Truncate decimal digits past fixed width
  • Align all decimal points

For example:

The output would be like

  • number-formatting

hobbes3's user avatar

11 Answers 11

The format specifier inside the curly braces follows the Python format string syntax . Specifically, in this case, it consists of the following parts:

  • The empty string before the colon means "take the next provided argument to format() " – in this case the x as the only argument.
  • The 10.4f part after the colon is the format specification .
  • The f denotes fixed-point notation.
  • The 10 is the total width of the field being printed, lefted-padded by spaces.
  • The 4 is the number of digits after the decimal point.

Nico Schlömer's user avatar

  • 13 So I understand that the 4f represents limiting the decimals to 4 (with trailing zeros), but what does the 10 mean? Does that mean this formatting won't work with integers greater than 9999999999 (ten 9's)? Just curious. –  hobbes3 Commented Jan 16, 2012 at 20:17
  • 66 10.4 means a width of 10 characters and a precision of 4 decimal places. –  MRAB Commented Jan 16, 2012 at 20:27
  • 15 @hobbes3: 10 is the minimum field width, i.e. the minimum length of the printed string. Numbers are by default right-aligned and padded with spaces -- see the documentation for more details. –  Sven Marnach Commented Jan 16, 2012 at 20:27
  • 9 For Pythons prior to 2.7: ("%0.4f" % x).rjust(10) –  Steven Rumbalski Commented Jan 16, 2012 at 21:26
  • 23 @StevenRumbalski: Or simply "%10.4f" % x . In Python 2.6, you can also use "{0:10.4f}".format(x) . –  Sven Marnach Commented Jan 16, 2012 at 21:33

It has been a few years since this was answered, but as of Python 3.6 ( PEP498 ) you could use the new f-strings :

Ryabchenko Alexander's user avatar

  • 10 Note that the width also includes dot character. So if you specify 9 to be width, 1 will be used for printing the dot, the other 8 will be for printing digits and spaces. –  offchan Commented Jun 8, 2019 at 20:32
  • A very large number may still result in a string longer than otherwise, so this isn't truly "fixed width" (depending on your interpretation of the term). –  Vladimir Panteleev Commented Dec 14, 2023 at 15:14

In python3 the following works:

Scott Roberts's user avatar

  • 3 This has changed in the last 4 years, now % formatting is the oldest method of formatting. For several reasons using str.format or f-strings is preferred over % . Previously when it was only str.format , people had some reasons but f-strings fixed that hole. format mini-language docs , str.format examples from docs and f-string literals examples in docs –  ninMonkey Commented Oct 1, 2019 at 16:29

Using f-string literals :

The 10.4f after the colon : is the format specification , with 10 being the width in characters of the whole number (including spaces), and the second number 4 being the number of decimal places, and the f standing for floating-point number.

It's also possible to use variables instead of hard-coding the width and the number of decimal places:

Flimm's user avatar

  • Is there any reason why "print(f"{number:5f}")" doesn't work as expected? It outputs 9 symbols ("12.340000"). Looks like 9 is the smallest width? But why? At the same time, adding the number of digits after decimal separator (5.2f) prints a string of 5 symbols as expected. –  Roman Commented Nov 25, 2023 at 22:06
  • 1 @Roman According to the documentation for the f type, "With no precision given, uses a precision of 6 digits after the decimal point for float,". So print(f"number:99f") will print a number that is at least 99 spaces wide, defaulting to six decimal places, since no precision was given, only width. –  Flimm Commented Nov 26, 2023 at 9:06
  • +1 for variables. I can see the use case when dealing with larger applications that might need a uniform number format that a user can specify from a settings menu. –  artomason Commented May 28 at 20:59

You can also left pad with zeros. For example if you want number to have 9 characters length, left padded with zeros use:

print('{:09.3f}'.format(number))

Thus, if number = 4.656 , the output is: 00004.656

For your example the output will look like this:

One example where this may be useful is when you want to properly list filenames in alphabetical order. I noticed in some linux systems, the number is: 1,10,11,..2,20,21,...

Thus if you want to enforce the necessary numeric order in filenames, you need to left pad with the appropriate number of zeros.

elcymon's user avatar

See Python 3.x format string syntax :

approxiblue's user avatar

This will print 76.66 :

Jimothy's user avatar

In Python 3.

6.1f means after the dots 1 digits show if you print 2 digits after the dots you should only %6.2f such that %6.3f 3 digits print after the point.

Dawny33's user avatar

I needed something similar for arrays. That helped me

David Buck's user avatar

Note that most answers here can return a string longer than the indicated width, if the number is still very large.

If you absolutely need the resulting string to be exactly a certain number of characters, because e.g. you want to display it in a fixed-width font in a table or other context where the number of characters is critical, I don't think there is something built-in for this. A custom function which switches over to scientific notation to save space is possible, i.e. something like the following:

(This is a draft so leaving this as a community wiki to allow future improvement.)

I tried all the options like

  • pd.options.display.float_format = '{:.4f}'.format
  • pd.set_option('display.float_format', str)
  • pd.set_option('display.float_format', lambda x: f'%.{len(str(x%1))-2}f' % x)
  • pd.set_option('display.float_format', lambda x: '%.3f' % x)

but nothing worked for me.

so while assigning the variable/value ( var1 ) to a variable (say num1 ) I used round(val,5) like

This is a crude method as you have to use this round function in each assignment. But this ensures you control on how it happens and get what you want.

Shekhar Mahajan's user avatar

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string change float

COMMENTS

  1. How do I parse a string to a float or int?

    Localization and commas. You should consider the possibility of commas in the string representation of a number, for cases like float("545,545.2222") which throws an exception. Instead, use methods in locale to convert the strings to numbers and interpret commas correctly. The locale.atof method converts to a float in one step once the locale has been set for the desired number convention.

  2. Convert String to Float in Python

    This article is aimed at providing information about converting the string to float. In Python, we can use float () to convert String to float. and we can use int () to convert a String to an integer. Input: "33.28". Output: 33.28 # float. Explanation: int in input and float in output.

  3. Convert a string to a number (int, float) in Python

    Use str() to convert a number to a string.. Built-in Functions - str() — Python 3.12.1 documentation; To format numbers or strings into various styles like zero-padding, binary, octal, hexadecimal, or scientific notation, use the format() function or the format() method on string objects.. Format strings and numbers with format() in Python

  4. 6 Ways to Convert String to Float in Python

    3) Convert string to float list in python. In this method, firstly, you need to initialize the string, and later, you can use the float () and split () method to convert a string into the floating-point list, as shown below in the example. For Example. print ( "The float list is : " + str (res))

  5. How to Convert a String to a Float in Python

    Note!! The eval() function can be dangerous if used with untrusted input, as it can execute any Python code contained in the string. Therefore, it is recommended to use the float() function for converting strings to floats whenever possible.. Advanced Usage. In addition to converting a single string to a float, there are several other ways to convert multiple strings or even entire files of ...

  6. Convert String to Float and Back in Java

    Lastly, we can use Float 's constructor directly for the conversion. Internally it will use Float's static parseFloat () method and create the Float object: String givenString = "1.25" ; Float result = new Float (givenString); assertEquals( 1.25f, result); Copy. As of Java 9, this constructor has been deprecated.

  7. Convert a String to a Float in Python: 3 Easy Methods

    Python Convert String to Float: A Practical Guide: This practical guide on DigitalOcean explains how to convert a string to a float in Python, covering various scenarios and providing examples to illustrate the conversion process.

  8. How to convert string to float in python

    The float class can be used to convert a decimal string to a float number. As an example, consider the following: The following is the code for transforming a string using float: #demonstrating converting a string to float str_val_1 = '25.58' b_val = 14.66 c_val= float(str_val_1) + b_val print ("The value of c_val = ",c_val) ...

  9. 5 Best Ways to Convert Python String to Float Format

    The input is a numeric string, and the desired output is a float: '3.14'-> 3.14. Method 1: Using the float() Function. The float() function in Python is the most straightforward method to convert a string into a float. This built-in function takes a single string argument that represents a number and returns its float value.

  10. How to convert string to float in Python

    Python provides a built-in function called float() that can be used to convert a string to a float. The float() function takes a single argument, which is the string that you want to convert, and returns the float representation of the provided string. Here's an example of how to use the float() function to convert a string to a float:

  11. Convert string to float in python

    Convert string to float object in python in python. Suppose we have a string '181.23' as a Str object. To convert this to a floating-point number, i.e., float object, we will pass the string to the float() function. Which converts this string to a float and returns the float object. For example,

  12. Python String to float, float to String

    In the daily programming practices, many times we come across scenarios wherein we feel the need to convert the type of data we are dealing with. Python String to float. Python provides us with the built-in float() method to convert the data type of input from String to float. Syntax:

  13. Java Program to Convert String to Float Value

    Given a string "str" in Java, the task is to convert this string to float type. Methods: This can be done by two methods as listed below: Using parseFloat() Method ; Using valueOf() Method ; Let us discuss above two ways of implementing the methods to get a fair understanding of the conversion of string to float values.

  14. Converting strings to floats in a DataFrame

    NOTE: pd.convert_objects has now been deprecated. You should use pd.Series.astype(float) or pd.to_numeric as described in other answers. This is available in 0.11. Forces conversion (or set's to nan) This will work even when astype will fail; its also series by series so it won't convert say a complete string column

  15. C++ String to float/double and vice-versa

    The easiest way to convert a string to a floating-point number is by using these C++11 functions: std::stof () - convert string to float. std::stod () - convert string to double. std::stold () - convert string to long double. These functions are defined in the string header file.

  16. Python Float: Working With Floating-Point Numbers • Tutorial

    There are multiple ways to create floating-point numbers in Python. Most of the time, you will simply enter the number as-is: # You can simply enter the number. f = 1.45. But you may want to convert a number or a string to a float using the float () function. The variable f will become 2.0 in all cases below:

  17. Python float to string Conversion Using 10 Different Methods

    Output: <class 'float'> 10.0 <class 'str'> 10.0. Above, we have performed a very basic float to string conversion.Here we can notice that 1st we have defined a variable 'a'.To check its data type, we have used a print statement with a type tag.The output confirms our data type is float.We have used the str tag to change the data type to a string.Once again, we have used the type tag to ...

  18. Beryl Tracker: Satellite, Spaghetti Models And More

    You can track the latest information and forecasts on Beryl here. - Articles from The Weather Channel | weather.com

  19. Dominica Will Change The Way You See The Caribbean

    One of the best things to do in Dominica is float through Titou Gorge. Known for its crystal-clear emerald-green water, this swimming hole is tucked within a deep gorge formed by a bed of lava ...

  20. CBC News: The National

    June 30, 2024 | A surprise strike by WestJet mechanics forces the cancellation of hundreds of flights and upends long weekend travel plans for thousands. France's far right takes the lead in the ...

  21. How to convert string into float in JavaScript?

    This will return 554.20: var value = parseFloat("554.20") So in the end, you can simply use: var fValue = parseFloat(document.getElementById("textfield").value.replace(",",".")) Don't forget that parseInt() should only be used to parse integers (no floating points). In your case it will only return 554. Additionally, calling parseInt () on a ...

  22. A String of Supreme Court Decisions Hits Hard at Environmental Rules

    But the string of recent losses before the Supreme Court could make it difficult for the E.P.A. to follow through on those plans. ... Congress has passed one major law to address climate change ...

  23. Some Democrats start calling for Biden to step aside and 'throw in the

    At the same time, top Biden allies dismissed the prospect of a change at the top of the ticket. California Gov. Gavin Newsom, a Democrat whom many in the party see as a potential Biden alternative ...

  24. Convert float to String and String to float in Java

    403. Using Java's Float class. float f = Float.parseFloat("25"); String s = Float.toString(25.0f); To compare it's always better to convert the string to float and compare as two floats. This is because for one float number there are multiple string representations, which are different when compared as strings (e.g. "25" != "25.0" != "25.00 ...

  25. IntelliJ IDEA 2024.2 EAP 7: Improved Code Completion in AI Assistant

    Additionally, the new inlay hint allows for instant application of the Change Signature refactoring. Read on to learn more details about these and other features. To catch up on the updates introduced in previous EAP builds, browse the dedicated 2024.2 EAP section of our blog. ... String variable visualizers for JSON, XML, and other formats ...

  26. How courts have new power to limit federal environmental policy

    A recent string of Supreme Court decisions could constrain the government's ability to tackle climate change and pollution for decades to come. By Maxine Joselow July 1, 2024 at 5:00 a.m. EDT

  27. Convert float to std::string in C++

    I have a float value that needs to be put into a std::string. How do I convert from float to string? float val = 2.5; std::string my_val = val; // error here

  28. How the Supreme Court Chevron decision could gut environmental

    The 6-3 ruling, written by Chief Justice John G. Roberts Jr., could make it easier for courts to block regulations aimed at addressing air pollution, combating climate change and protecting ...

  29. string

    The format specifier inside the curly braces follows the Python format string syntax. Specifically, in this case, it consists of the following parts: The empty string before the colon means "take the next provided argument to format()" - in this case the x as the only argument. The 10.4f part after the colon is the format specification.