• Open access
  • Published: 04 September 2015

A systematic review of RFID applications and diffusion: key areas and public policy issues

  • Kwangho Jung 1 &
  • Sabinne Lee 2  

Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity volume  1 , Article number:  9 ( 2015 ) Cite this article

34k Accesses

26 Citations

4 Altmetric

Metrics details

RFID applicants called as e-ID, smart tag, and contactless smart card are being applied to numerous areas in our daily life, including tracking manufactured goods, currency, and patients to payments systems. To review these various applications of RFID is important to exploring not only ongoing e-governance issues such as digital identification, delivery process, and governance but also business oriented application areas like supply chain. Through a systematic review methodology from 111 previous studies about RFID technology for public sector, we found six key areas of RFID applications: defense and security, identification, environmental applications, transportation, healthcare and welfare, and agriculture-livestock. We also suggest that the diffusion and applications of RFID can involve unexpected disadvantages including technological deficiency, uncertain benefits, dubious transparency, uncomfortable privacy issue, and unequal distribution of digital power and literacy. Further research on RFID impact includes not only various theoretical issues of but also legal and managerial problems. Rigorous research is required to explore what factors are critical to adopt and implement new RFID applications in terms of technology governance and digital literacy. Massive data driven research is also expected to identify RFID performance in government agencies and various industry sectors.

RFID technology has been widely implemented all over the world and its impact on our daily life is very diverse and massive (Li et al., 2006 ; Wyld, 2005 ). Those diverse areas of RFID application include logistical tracking, monitoring and maintenance of products, product safety and information, and payment process. Today many governments around the world in both developed Footnote 1 and developing Footnote 2 countries are trying to apply it for various areas from tracking manufactured goods, currency, and patients to securing sagety of payments systems. Massive RFID applications around all the industry sectors and countries are expected to generate a huge potential benefits for sustainable efficient energy infrastructure, transportation safety, and health care. Over the past 50 years, RFID technology went through innovations and progressions to become a more efficient and effective gadget for human beings as well as effective solutions of technical and organizational problems in various industry sectors. However, key issues of appropriate ICT technology, governing networks among RFID domains, standardization requirement, and privacy still remain unsolved Footnote 3 .

We review previous literature about RFID technology used in public sectors in order to identify what has been done and found to suggest policy implications and further research agenda. More specifically, we discuss four aspects regarding RFID research issues and policy implications. First, we examine various competing concepts of RFID use by governments all over the world. Second, we categorize numerous applications of RFID technology through analyzing previous literature. Third, we try to figure out technological issues and governance problems that RFID technology faces today. Last, we draw key public issues and suggest future research agenda.

Methodology of the RFID literature review

A brief history of rfid technology.

RFID technology was emerged as Frederick Hertz found existence of radio frequency during his experiment in 1886 (Wyld, 2005 ) and developed for the purpose of defense during the Second World War Footnote 4 . During 1970s and 1980s, the RFID system attracted plenty of scholars and innovators, so efforts to register patents progressed (Takahashi, 2004 ). Researchers like Charles Walton had registered a patent to use RFID. In the 1980s, many US and European companies recognized the importance of developing RFID technology and started to manufacture RFID tags. Soon scholars at MIT University opened an Auto-ID center to promote the use and implementation of RFID technology. But most of the scholars report that the first commercialization of RFID technology was done by Wal-Mart as they launched RFID based material identifying system in 2005 (Shahram and Manish 2005 ). Wal-Mart is now tracking merchandise including food, apparels, and electronic items with RFID technology in their supply chain. Footnote 5 . RFID technology is a brand new policy tool that can ensure high transparency, efficiency and effectiveness not only in industrial areas but also in government service delivery. Table  1 describes a brief history of how RFID technology was developed and diffused.

Research design for a systematic review

We searched online data base and expert based information to identify RFID publications between 2003 and 2015. We categorized RFID applications and analyzed issues and concerns that RFID faces today by systematically reviewing published literature. We have collected literature we use for systematic review from two different resources. First, most of the studies are found by searching the e-database. We could access electronic databases, such as Google Scholar, World Web of Science (WWS), Proquest Central, and Science Direct through Seoul National University’s main library homepage. We had set ‘RFID technology’, ‘RFID government,’ ‘RFID application, and ‘RFID issue’ as keywords for searching literature. We found most of the research through this method of searching. The second method we used for collecting data was having discussions with experts. To do this, we first made a list of experts who specialize in IT technology, Science technology, and public administration. Five experts agreed to help us and recommended some research papers that were known for their fluent flow of logic and plentiful contents. We chose relevant research papers from among experts’ recommendations. In sum we had used previous literature collected from two methods we discussed above, searching e-database and asking experts, as our resource of searching.

[Figure  1 ] shows analytical frame that we use for this study. We have determined the literature for systematic review according to three stages shown on the flow chart. First, the original total number of studies we have found from the e-database was 4260. Also 185 research papers were found from experts’ recommendations and previous public papers. A total of 4,445 studies were chosen through the first stage. Second, we excluded 4,121 following general eligibility criteria by screening title and abstract. More specifically, we excluded RFID studies only with one of the following criteria: 1) studies focusing on private sector; 2) studies without considering how public sector implemented RFID technology; 3) studies that did not discuss any social scientific implications; and 4) studies that only deal with RFID technology from pure scientific and engineering points of view. In sum, we included only 324 papers that discussed RFID issues and their implications in public sector. Third, we removed further 213 studies too much focusing on private sector or RFID technology itself, rather on its applications in our society and social scientific implications. Finally, 111 articles were chosen for our systematic review.

Analytical Frame

[Figure  2 ] below showed descriptive statistics of collected literatures by published year. It shows 22 studies were published in 2007 among 111 literatures. As we already described above in history of RFID section, the popularization and commercialization of RFID technology was started in 2005 with Wal-Mart’s adoption. It seems that after Wal-Mart’s innovative footsteps hit the world, many scholars were started to recognize the potential of new technology and tried to understand and develop RFID technology. Besides some governments from all over the world implemented new way of public service delivery using RFID technology. Consequently, 49 literatures were publishedbetween 2006 and 2008 and it forms almost 45 % of our collected studies

Descriptive Statistics of Literatures by year

For this study, we categorized governments’ way of using RFID technology in 6 areas; Agriculture and Livestock, Defense and Security, Environmental Applications, Healthcare and Welfare, Identification, and Transportation. [Figure  3 ] shows descriptive statistics of collected literatures categorized by applications. We categorized studies that did not focus on specific sector and analyze and introduce RFID technology from the general perspectives as ‘RFID general’. ‘RFID general’ studies usually deal with various ways of using RFID technology in diverse sectors simultaneously. As we can see from [Fig.  3 ], RFID general area had 42 papers. That means still lots of RFID studies could not be fully specialized and remained in status of generally introducing RFID technology. Identification sector scores secondly highest number of published literatures among areas. This result seems natural because e-ID card or e-Passport have most powerful force that can hurt privacy, one of the most serious and notorious issues that RFID technology face today

Descriptive Statistics of Literatures by applications

Key applied areas of RFID

Defense and security.

As we show in [Table  1 ], the history of RFID technology was started from the need for ensuring national security. Almost 60 years have passed since US army developed RFID based identification system to identify allies and enemies, RFID technology is still used for protecting people. For instance, Weinstein ( 2005 ) and Konsysnki & Smith ( 2003 ) reported how the US Army and Navy implement RFID technology in cargo containers to identify materials. The US Army and Navy implement RFID not only to identify US troops’ own weapons and containers but also to identify enemies in battle (Tien 2004 ) Footnote 6 . RFID systems are also important in terms of airport and port security. After the 9/11 terror attack on the United States, President George W. Bush let all the airport and port in US adopt identification systems based on RFID technology to protect its nation from additional terrorist attacks (Werb and Sereiko 2002 ) Footnote 7 . In 2012, the Taiwanese government decided to implement an RFID based e-Seal system to increase security and efficiency (Tsai and Huang 2012 ). In addition, RFID technology can be used effectively in prison management Footnote 8 and child protection. In some countries like Japan and Republic of Korea, the RFID tag is implemented in child protection monitoring (Table  2 ). Footnote 9


Electronic passports like ‘e-passports’ were adopted electrically after the 9/11 attack. After the terrible tragedy broke heart of United States, the American government became aware of the importance of checking VISAs and passports correctly. The US Department of State soon let people who wanted to enter US to use RFID tag embedded electronic passports instead of traditional barcode based passports Footnote 10 . The European Union also endorsed the inclusion of biological information in e-passports. The EU Justice and Home Affairs Council decided to include fingerprints as a second mandatory identifier on passports in 2004. Footnote 11 In addition, RFID can be used in e-ID cards in various countries. For example, in the United Kingdom, Prime Minister Tony Blair and his Labor Party convinced the nation to adopt biometrically-enhanced national identification cards (Ezovski and Watkins 2007 ). Tony Blair’s administration announced its will to implement RFID tag embedded national identification card in late 2004. China is another case where the e-ID card is used today. As a matter of fact, China is the country where e-ID card is widely and largely adopted today. The Beijing Olympics held in 2008 lit the fuse of adoption. The largest smart card project was implemented as a part of preparing the most prominent international sports event. In 2008, the Chinese government supplied 1.2 billion dollars of RFID readers and 2.25 billion dollars of RFID embedded smart cards to citizens. This made China the world’s largest market for RFID (Kovavisaruch and Suntharasaj 2007 ) (Table  3 ).

Environmental applications

RFID technology can be widely applied in environmental applications. Adopting an RFID system in waste management is the most prominent way of using RFID to ensure efficient, eco-friendly waste management among lots of countries in the world. PAYT (Pay-As-You-Throw) program done by European Union (EU) is the pioneer of this field. PAYT is an RFID based waste pricing model that allows each individuals or each household to pay for the tag along with the total amount of waste they throw. Since each household and individual has a waste box in which RFID tags are embedded, the exact volume of waste can be calculated. In Europe this incentive based system has been proven to be a powerful policy tool for reducing the total amount of waste and for encouraging recycling (Schindler et al. 2012 ). Similar systems are broadly implemented in US (Ransford et al. 2012 ). In South Korea, the ministry of environment introduced it to industry and urged them to use an RFID based waste management system, especially in medical waste management. RFID technology is implemented in waste management in developed and developing countries, but the purpose of adoption is somewhat different from Europe to the US. India, the second-most populated country in the world, has adopted RFID technology to cope with the rapid increase of volume and types of waste (Infotech 2013 ). Similarly in 2010, what China faced were the World Expo and huge amounts of construction waste that comprised 30 % to 40 % of the total urban waste. Shanghai was chosen for a pilot project using an RFID based waste management system. All the waste dumping trucks had an embed RFID tag and volume of waste they carry was checked by the local government (Ruan and Hu 2011 ). Another interesting case of environmental application emerges from South Korea. The South Korean government operates U-Street Trees Systems through which the exact location and status of street trees can be monitored. Information about location and status of street trees are collected by an RFID tag that is attached to each tree is saved in a web information system, so trees can be managed effectively. Kim et al. ( 2006 ) claim that this web based information system could manage information remotely with an interactive system (Table  4 ).


Public transportation is another popular sector for RFID technology applications. RFID based electronic toll collection technology is one of the oldest and widespread RFID implementation (Ulatowski 2007 ). As soon as an RFID tag embedded car arrives at a toll booth, the RFID reader scans and reads the information that the RFID tag contains. The driver will pay debits according to the price that electronic reader suggests. In the US, electronic toll collection is thought as efficient and effective method that eliminates long lines of traffic at toll booth (Ulatowski 2007 ). RFID based toll collection is also adopted in criminal cases because it enables prosecutors to identify the exact location of the criminal’s car (Smith 2006 ). In South Korea, the Korean government has set credit card-linked electronic toll collection system called ‘Hypass’ especially for collecting transportation tolls on express ways. If an RFID tag is embedded on their cars, drivers can pass the tollbooth without stopping the car because RFID reader scan the data immediately and handle the whole payment process in about 5 s (Kim 2008 ). Hong Kong launched similar public transportation toll collection system in 1997 and the ‘Octopus Card’ is now internationally famous for its convenience. This system is able to handle 10 million transactions per day and includes all modes of public transport (Kovavisaruch and Suntharasaj 2007 ). South Korea has set credit card-linked electronic toll collection system called ‘Hypass’ especially for collecting transportation tolls on express ways. RFID technology is also implemented in railroad toll collection in India, where railroads are the most widely used form of public transportation. If an RFID tag is embedded on their cars, drivers can pass the tollbooth without stopping the car because RFID reader scan the data immediately and handle the whole payment process in about 5 s (Kim, 2008 ). In addition, RFID has been used as a critical technology to promote efficiency and transparency for public transportation system in developing countries. For instance, the Mexican government runs “Creating Traffic Knowledge in Mexico: Applying RFID to prevent vandalism” and one of the purposes of this innovative project is to develop a transportation information system to acquire more subtle data necessary for government decision making ( Prado et al. 2010 ). Analogous to Mexican case, in Bangladesh where BRTA (Bangladesh Road Transport Authority) was started in 2003, the technology is operated mainly for control and supervision of the road transport systems (Hossain et al. 2009 ). RFID technology is also implemented in railroad toll collection in India, where railroads are the most widely used form of public transportation (Table  5 ).

Healthcare and welfare

RFID enables hospitals to manage their equipment more easily and save expenses in public health areas Footnote 12 . The US government agencies like FDA have also already used RFID tag in monitoring drug industry Footnote 13 . Since American hospitals handle almost 4,000 medicines per day, medication errors can be easily occurred. With strong government support, public hospitals in Taiwan have actively adopted innovation of RFID (Kuo and Chen 2008 ) Footnote 14 . Even though it is not yet commercialized, an RFID identification system Footnote 15 for the visually impaired people is being developed by engineers in Pakistan with the support of the Pakistani government (Murad et al. 2011 ) (Table  6 ).

Agriculture and livestock

RFID technology can be an effective tool for securing food safety and managing agriculture and livestock. Another major advantage to this system is that animal disease tracking can be realized through innovative technology like RFID (Hossain and Quaddus 2009 ). With the government support, researchers have developed the Navigation System for Appropriate Pesticide Use as a basic system for risk management in agriculture (Nanseki et al. 2005 ). RFID technology in agriculture was first introduced by the European Union (EU) in the late 1990s and shortly thereafter many countries, such as Australia, Japan and South Korea, adopted the innovation. Among those countries, the Australian government was the most passionate in implementing RFID Footnote 16 . For instance, all the livestock in Australia have RFID embedded tags on their bodies immediately after they are born; information that enables farmers to identify each entity and its health status is registered in National Livestock Identification System (NLIS). RFID technology in Japan has been also adopted in agriculture especially to secure food safety and agricultural risk management that can occur by abusing pesticides (Nanseki et al. 2005 , Sugahara 2009 ). The Japanese government planned to make a food traceability system by 2010 as a part of the “e-Japan” plan (Chen et al. 2008 ). The United States is another case that applies mandatory RFID based identification system in managing livestock. According to RFID Gazette ( 2006 ), the USDA is pushing for RFID tagging of cattle to make tracing of disease patterns easier. With the formation of National Institute for Animal Agriculture (NIAA) in 2002, the plan for setting the National Animal Identification System was started. What the US government fulfilled through this program was “to be able to identify all animals and premises that have had contact with a foreign or domestic animal disease of concern within 48 h” (Wyld, 2005 ) because “the sooner animal health officials can identify infected and exposed animals and premises, the sooner they can contain the disease and stop its spread (USDA-APHIS 2005 )” (Table  7 ).

Public policy issues from RFID diffusion

RFID applications and diffusion generate complex policy and governance problems. We address public policy issues such as technological gap and uncertainty of expecting potential benefits and costs from a rapid and massive RFID diffusion. Uneasy governing issues in transparency, digital identification and power distribution are arising from inappropriate RFID applications. We discuss governance issues such as corruption, privacy problem, and digital monopoly and literacy in the following.

Technological concerns

Technology is not still enough to satisfy all the elements that RFID is trying to perform various operational mechanisms. RFID technology deficiencies inevitably occur with the application of technology because there is niche space still left. For instance, RFID technology does not have a unified frequency standard yet. Since there are no internationally agreed upon frequencies for RFID operations, permitted scanner/reader powers also differ between countries. There are still significant differences between the frequencies from the EU and the USA (Hossain et al., 2009 ). In addition, Reichenhach (2008) pointed out the lack of storage capacity. In the EU, where RFID based waste management is common, there are technological barriers like a shortage of storage capacity Footnote 17 . Ema and Fujigaki ( 2011 ) draw implications from a child monitoring case done in Japan that being informed of children’s exact location cannot guarantee their actual safety, but RFID tags often lead to that cherished illusion. Vining ( 2005 ) warned about another possibility of niche space. According to his study about port security in the US, stealing goods without damaging RFID tag is possible because at ports, the container can be drilled into and contents can be removed. The RFID tag does not have to endure any damage through this whole process. In the US, as a response to continued pressure from various stakeholders, the US government even adopted the ‘Faraday cage’ for privacy protection Footnote 18 (Table  8 ).

Uncertain cost-benefit effectiveness

RFID defenders emphasize that RFID technology can guarantee effectiveness and efficiency at a very cheap price. There is, however, substantial evidence to show RFID can generate unexpected costs Footnote 19 . In reality, the RFID tag is much more expensive than a barcode, which was very popular in identifying materials before the rise of RFID technology (Becker 2004 ). Purchasing RFID devices, hardware, and tags is not sufficient to drive system relevantly. To guarantee a better quality of service, the RFID system needs more additional things such as “circular process mechanism, the richness of consultant, project manager, programmers and plentiful project labors” (Kuo and Chen 2008 ). These elements for a better RFID performance may involve considerable costs. Kuo and Chen ( 2008 ) reported that RFID technology consumers and government should pay the extra hidden cost in the healthcare industry (Table  9 ).

Dubious transparency and corruption

RFID technology is expected to increase transparency and monitor corruption. However, RFID technology cannot ensure a high level of transparency than expected. As a matter of fact, RFID tags can be cloned and manipulated quite easily, and this kind of tag corruption can occur at every stage of RFID implementation. There are various examples to show an inappropriate use of RFID technology. For instance, Armknecht et al. ( 2010a , b ) warned the possibility of tag corruption. Lee et al. ( 2012 ) pointed out reader corruption of the RFID technology. An existing security model mainly focuses on the possibility of tag corruption, but reader corruption can hurt consumers’ privacy as seriously as tag corruption can. Jules ( 2006 ) reported one of the tag corruption cases that observed in United States. One of the staff members who worked in a Dupyu store, an unscrupulous retailer, attached a cloned tag to counterfeit drugs. Avoine et al. ( 2010 ) argued that internet based databases can also be directly attacked and emphasized the possibility of reader corruption. There are also unethical behaviors to avoid RFID monitoring process. In the EU where an RFID based waste management system is aggressively implemented, some people disposed waste that came from their house at work places in order to avoid exact calculation through the RFID system. Not only this, Bilitewski ( 2008 ) reported that some conscienceless people are burning or transferring waste outside instead of throwing it into their RFID tag attached garbage can (Table  10 ).

Privacy issues

One of the most serious issues that RFID technology faces today is whether RFID technology is secure enough to protect privacy. Privacy is the most important concern RFID users have to deal with (Perakslis and Wolk 2005 ). RFID tag embedded chips often contain important personal information and usually this kind of private information can hurt one’s privacy seriously if leaked. To prevent leakage of private information, engineers developed cryptography, but there remains criticism Footnote 20 . The reason why these sorts of privacy concerns arise is because of the lack of security protection capacity of modern RFID technology. As we discussed above in the technological issues section, RFID technology today is not developed to secure perfect privacy. The technology itself has lots of deficiencies and people are smart enough to find niche spaces that can destroy the RFID security process. RFID itself can involve not only various hidden costs Footnote 21 but also induces a serious privacy problem Footnote 22 . However, despite these possibilities of attacks on privacy, there are lots of stakeholders and scholars who advocate the potential benefits of RFID. They claim that tracking and profiling consumers is solely for implementing RFID chips more effectively. Eaward Rerisi, one of the producers of early implementation of RFID technology argued that, “An RFID reader can read the number on a tag, but without knowing what the number means, there is no way to access personal information. The idea that the tags can be read by just anybody—that’s pretty impossible” (Murray 2003 ) (Table  11 ).

Unequal power and digital literacy

Unequal distribution of RFID technology can generate unequal distribution of various resources such as information and digital literacy. Especially in developing countries, the combination of unbalanced power distribution between stakeholders and a low level of digital literacy can cause serious problems. Ketprom et al. ( 2007 ) emphasized that in developing countries like Thailand Footnote 23 , governments should provide education and training on how to use brand new technology to poor farmers whose digital literacy remains relatively low. But poor farmers in Thailand are not the only stakeholders who are suffering from a lack of digital literacy. In Bangladesh, where RFID toll collection is common, traffic policies have no interest in using RFID technology for managing public transportation systems. Rather, they prefer traditional ways of toll collecting to information based technology (Hossain et al., 2009 ). Prasanth et al. ( 2009 ) found that the lack of digital literacy among the Indian people hampered an effective process of railroad toll collection in India. Another problem developing countries face is an unbalanced power distribution due to lack of democratic value embedded governance. Chen et al. ( 2008 ) criticized the Taiwanese government because it monopolizes most of the information collected by RFID technology. As we already discussed above, when RFID tag scanned, information saved in RFID tag is scanned by reader and then transmitted to an internet based database. If that data were available to the public, individuals and industry could make more reasonable decisions by analyzing them. We find another unbalanced power distribution case in China’s waste management system. According to Ruan and Hu ( 2011 ), the Chinese government benefits most from the RFID system Footnote 24 (Table  12 ).

Discussion and Conclusion

We found, relying on a systematic review from 111 RFID studies, six key areas of RFID applications. Specifically in the defense and security section, we addressed how military and airports/ports manage RFID systems to ensure security. We also found that RFID is effectively implemented in prison management and child protection programs. Numerous governments have introduced RFID identification tools such as e-passport and e-ID. RFID systems for waste management and street tree management are widely used from rich to poor countries. In healthcare and welfare delivery, RFID based smart cards have turned out to be very efficient. RFID is now being used to monitor counterfeit drugs. RFID has been applied to delivering service for the impaired and to trace infection. However, despite potential benefits from RFID applications, various unexpected problems arise. RFID can still involve technological deficiencies, especially in securing cryptography techniques, international standards of frequency, and storage capacity. RFID technology is not still enough to be efficient and effective in some areas (Becker 2004 , Jensen et al. 2007 ). Tag and reader corruption can hurt transparency and security. Privacy issues are still the most serious issues that RFID faces today (Naumann and Hogben 2008 ). RFID itself can generate new unequal digital literacy and power distribution, especially in developing countries such as Thailand and Bangladesh. Even the most latest innovative technologies, like RFID, do not have perfect answers to securing efficiency, effectiveness, convenience, and transparency. Rather, RFID technology itself creates unexpected problems. It should be noted that democratic governance and trust is still important to technological innovation and policy issues arising from a rapid RFID diffusion.

Our systematic review is incomplete to discuss all of the RFID issues from technology, market and management, e-government, and legal aspects. Further research on RFID diffusion and impact include not only various theoretical issues of but also legal and managerial problems. For instance, both qualitative and quantitative research is required to explore what factors are critical to adopt and implement new RFID technology in terms of governance and digital literacy. Both micro and macro approaches with massive data are also required to identify how RFID improve not only organizational performance in government agencies and various industry sectors but also quality of our life.

For example, after serious attack by Osama Bin Laden on 9/11, the American government decided to implement an RFID tag embedded e-passport and VISA waiver program. The US government asked their member countries to implement e-passport by late 2005 and soon US member countries like ROK and EU started to use e-passports. Currently, no one can enter to United States without an RFID tag based e-passport.

Especially in developing countries, governments usually adopt brand new IT technologies, but their low level of socio-economic infrastructures may prohibit the efficient operation of technology.

For instance, RFID applications may lack social virtues like trust, ethics, and democracy. It is essential to understanding how a rapid diffusion and massive applications of RFID generate conflict or harmony among human behaviors, digital literacy, institutional rules, and technology.

US Army and its allies could not only manage weapons and soldiers but also identify who was the enemy or not (Castro and Wamba, 2007 ). This whole project of developing an RFID based identifying system was known as IFF (Identify Friend of Foe).

See more various examples of RFID applications at the website ( https://epic.org/privacy/rfid/ )

In 2004, the US Army adopted RFID during the Iraq war to track Iraq troops. Not only these, the US Army piloted 4 projects using RFID; identifying material locations, weapons deteriorations, hazardous material tracking, and asset tracking (Anon 2002).

The New York City government also started an RFID e-seal pilot project in the New Jersey Port. Once RFID read and scan the tag, it can identify the contents of the container box. Also, the port of Tacoma and Seattle planned to adopt E-Seals, made of metal bolts with embedded RFID devices to ensure its security (Konsynski and Smith 2003 ).

Calpatria prison, located in Los Angeles, adopted a prisoner monitoring system using RFID chips in 2000 as the very first pilot using RFID in prison management in United States (Kim 2008 ). According to regulations of Calpatria prison, all the prison inmates were issued bracelets in which RFID chips were embedded. Since the pilot project at the Calpatria prison was successful, the local government let other prisons in Los Angeles adopt the innovative bracelet. The LA County prison started to use a brand new bracelet in response to the state government’s order; it is reported that through its adoption the prison could increase efficiency and effectiveness and decrease crimes occurred between inmates simultaneously (Nicholas 2008).

For instance, city governments in the Gifu and Osaka prefecture provided RFID tags that can be attached in students’ schoolbags to public elementary schools (Ema and Fujigaki, 2011 ). Similarly, in Haewoondae beach, one of the most famous vacation spots in South Korea, Busan Metropolitan City provides for parents RFID embedded bracelet that enables tracking exact location of their child by a smart phone ( http://news.naver.com/main/read.nhn?mode=LSD&mid=sec&sid1=102&oid=001&aid=0003353674 ).

This project began in 2002, but it took 3 years to fully implement for all 16 US passports (Meingast et al. 2007 ). The appearance of the e-passport is very similar to old passports, but woven into the paper of the passport, there is RFID tag that information about owner of the passport is included. Information about nationality, sex, age, and so on is scanned, as airport staff members scan the passport through RFID reader (Lorenc 2007 ). The US government did not stop at this point and adopted VISA Waiver Program. By 2005, the US member countries had to adopt RFID based e-passports and VISA Waiver Programs in order for their citizens to enter the United States because without e-passports, passengers could not be accepted at American points of entry. Today, the e-passport includes not only individual data but biological data, such as fingerprints (ICAO TAG MRTD/TWF 2004).

E-Government News, “EU Asks US for Time to Issue Biometric Passports”. iDABC European e-Government Services, 1 April, 2005.

For instance, Wicks et al. ( 2006 ) reported that this RFID based hospital management system is very effective in reducing management costs because embedded RFID tags can track lost or hidden expensive equipment. Miller (1999) pointed out that the potential of RFID technology can be expanded in tracking the location of patients and controlling the drugs. Also, Chowdhury and Khosla ( 2007 ) argued that RFID technology can be effectively used not only in hospital equipment management but also in patient management.

According to statistics published by the Institute of Medicine (IOM), about 44,000 to 98,000 people die in the USA per year because of improper drug administration (Kohn et al. 2000). To rectify this phenomenon, in 2004 the US government and US FDA recommended pharmaceutical industries to implement RFID tags to prevent the production of counterfeit drugs (Wyld, 2005 ). The Florida state government added legal regulations to this recommendation in 2006. If a pharmaceutical industry located in Florida does not attach RFID embedded tags on its products, it has to face substantial financial penalties (Skinar 2005).

For instance, RFID technology saved Singapore and Taiwan from SARS attack around 2003. Two public hospitals in Singapore in 2003 adopted RFID technology to track staff, patients, and visitors in order to trace people who carried the SARS virus. The RFID information database saved all the data collected from each individual’s RFID tag for 21 days, which was thought to be long enough for expression of SARS virus (Nicholas 2008). A similar process was done in Taiwan too. During the SARS period, five hospitals, including Taipei Veteran’s General Hospital, implemented RFID tags to track patients who had possibility contracted the SARS virus (Kuo et al. 2004 ) with strong government support.

One peculiar characteristic of this system as compared to other systems is that visually impaired people are both the reader carrier and the service beneficiaries, simultaneously. Generally in government service delivery using RFID technology, the service provider usually carries RFID tag readers and service beneficiaries usually act more passive roles by attaching RFID tags. But in this Pakistani case, the service beneficiaries can identify objects around them by operating RFID tag reader they have.

The Australian government passed legislation on mandatory use of RFID tags in the livestock industry, so Hossain and Quaddus ( 2014 ) categorized Australian case as a very rare and special adoption case. According to Trevarthen and Michael ( 2007 )’s case study, one of the Australian farms where the RFID tag is implemented, farmers not only track the exact location of the cows but also check the condition, identify cows and even feed the new born cows automatically by using an RFID system.

Usually people throw waste in various places. They may throw it away at their houses or at work places, like an office. Since the RFID tag is only attached to a garbage can in house, it is impossible to track all types of waste throwing behaviors. Inevitably, this shortage of storage capacity leads to selective waste collection monitoring.

The faraday cage is an object in metal; proponents of this device argue that faraday cage can prevent hacker’s attack because electronic devices are prevented from passing through the object (Ezovski et al. 2007). But speculation about stability of this technology still remains. Lorenc ( 2007 ) reported that if there is no additional technology, the faraday cage cannot preserve sensitive security.

As a matter of fact, there are two kinds of RFID tags, the passive tag and the active tag. These two tags provide owners with different benefits and liabilities. Active tags are implemented by a power source, such as small battery. Active tags are more efficient and safe in protecting privacy than passive tags, so sensitive organizations like military prefer active tags to passive tags. But ordinary consumers have less accessibility to active tags because active tags are much more expensive than passive ones (Jensen et al. 2007 ).

According to Laurie ( 2007 ), even without physically losing an RFID tag, private information can be stolen because what’s inside RFID tags can be skimmed quite easily. If we can build a device that enables us to transmit an arbitrary number, invading the internet based database is theoretically possible.

For instance, Wal-Mart Stores Inc. and Procter & Gamble Co. in autumn 2003 planned a very interesting experiment to check the potential deficiencies of RFID technology. Customers of a Wal-Mart store in Broken Arrow, Oklahoma were secretly tracked through RFID tags while purchasing lipstick that Procter & Gamble Co. made (Barut et al. 2006 ).

For instance, Hwang et al. ( 2009 ) and Numann & Hogben (2009) categorized various kinds of privacy attack cases that can possibly occur. According Hwang et al. ( 2009 ), technological deficiency enables hackers to engage in cloning, eavesdropping, replay attack, denial of service, forward security, tag tracing, individual data privacy, and data forging. Specifically, the hacker can read the tag and then clone the tag (cloning), surreptitiously listen to all the communications between and the tag (eavesdropping), repeat or delay the message (replay attack), send large amount of message to break down RFID system (denial of service), compromise a tag (forward security), trace the exact location of the tag (tag tracing), find out shopping trend of the consumer (individual data privacy), and modify information saved on an RFID tag (Data forging). In addition, Numann and Hogben (2008) categorized the privacy attacking cases more briefly. According to their research, the hacker can attack RFID tag in some ways. First, the attacker can open a connection to the chip and can steal the data inside (skimming). Second, the attacker can intercept the communication between tag and reader (eavesdropping). Last, the attacker can track the exact location of the tag or the person.

In Thailand, most of the farms are trying to adopt an RFID system in farm management, but RFID technology is widening the gap between poor and rich farmers. Poor farmers are usually less educated people who have hardly had any experience using digital technology like RFID. On the other hand, well-educated wealthy farmers face low entry barriers and easily adopt the technology. Rich farmers armed with innovative technology not only make enormous fortunes by increasing efficiency but also by replacing poor labors with RFID embedded devices. According to the Thailand Ministry of Labor (2006), most farm labors are afraid of being replaced. Unfortunately, this phenomenon eventually correlates to a serious gap between rich and poor.

The government has invested a huge amount of money to buy necessary devices such as readers, tags, hardware, and so on, but in the long run cost of management will decrease. On the other hand, the waste industry could carry a very heavy debt. The waste contractors have to deal with expensive RFID tag rental and as well as the cost of construction simultaneously. Although this situation is totally unfavorable for them, the waste management industry cannot resist to this policy because the Chinese government is the entity which has made the use of RFID policy and set prices. The industry has no other choice but consent.

Armknecht F, Chen L, Sadeghi AR, Wachsmann C. Anonymous authentication for RFID systems. In: Radio Frequency Identification: Security and Privacy Issues. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer; 2010a. p. 158–75.

Chapter   Google Scholar  

Armknecht F, Sadeghi AR, Visconti I, Wachsmann C. On RFID privacy with mutual authentication and tag corruption. In: Applied Cryptography and Network Security. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer; 2010b. p. 493–510.

Avoine G, Coisel I, Martin T. Time measurement threatens privacy-friendly RFID authentication protocols. In: Radio Frequency Identification: Security and Privacy Issues. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. p. 138–57.

Barut M, Brown R, Freund N, May J, Reinhart E. RFID and corporate responsibility: hidden costs in RFID implementation. Bus Soc Rev. 2006;111:287–303.

Article   Google Scholar  

Becker C. A new game of leapfrog? RFID is rapidly changing the product-tracking process. Some say the technology--once costs drop--could displace bar-coding. Modern Healthcare. 2004;34:38–40.

Google Scholar  

Bilitewski B. From traditional to modern fee systems. Waste Management. 2008;28(12):2760–6.

Castro L, Wamba SF. An inside look at RFID technology. J Technol Manag Innov. 2007;2:128–41.

Chen RS, Chen CC, Yeh KC, Chen YC, Kuo CW. Using RFID technology in food produce traceability. WSEAS Transac Inform Sci Appli. 2008;5:1551–60.

Chowdhury B, Khosla R. RFID-based hospital real-time patient management system. In: Computer and Information Science, 2007. ICIS 2007. 6th IEEE/ACIS International Conference on. 2007. p. 363–8. IEEE.

Ema A, Fujigaki Y. How far can child surveillance go?: Assessing the parental perceptions of an RFID child monitoring system in Japan. Surveillance Soc. 2011;9:132–48.

Ezovski GM, Watkins SE. The electronic passport and the future of government-issued RFID-based identification. In: RFID, 2007. IEEE International Conference on. Grapevine, TX: IEEE; 2007. p. 15–22.

Hossain MA. Exploring the Perceived Measures of Privacy: RFID in Public Applications. Aus J Inform Systems. 2014;18(2):133–48.

Hossain MA, Quaddus M. An adoption-diffusion model for RFID applications in Bangladesh. In: Computers and Information Technology, 2009. ICCIT'09. 12th International Conference on. 2009. p. 127–32. IEEE.

Hossain MF, Sohel MK, Arefin AS. Designing and implementing RFID technology for vehicle tracking in Bangladesh. Dhaka, Bangladesh: National Conference on Communication and Information Security; 2009.

Hossain MA, Quaddus M. Developing and validating a hierarchical model of external responsiveness: A study on RFID technology. Inform Systems Frontiers. 2014;17(1):109–25.

Hwang MS, Wei CH, Lee CY. Privacy and security requirements for RFID applications. J Comput. 2009;20:55–60.

Jensen A, Cazier J, Dave D. The impact of government trust perception on privacy risk perceptions and consumer acceptance of residual RFID technologies. AMCIS 2007 Proceedings, 146. (2007).

Jensen AS, Cazier JA, Dave DS. Mitigating consumer perceptions of privacy and security risks with the use of residual RFID technologies through governmental trust. J Inform Syst Security. 2008;4:41–66.

Jules A. RFID security and privacy: A research survey. Selected Areas Commun IEEE J. 2006;24:381–94.

Infotech. RFID based Waste Management System. 2013. http://www.slideshare.net/iaitoinfotech/rfid-in-waste-management-slide-share.

Ketprom U, Mitrpant C, Lowjun P. Closing digital gap on RFID usage for better farm management. In: Management of Engineering and Technology, Portland International Center for. Portland, OR: IEEE; 2007. p. 1748–55.

Kim JG. A divide-and-conquer technique for throughput enhancement of RFID anti-collision protocol. Communications Letters, IEEE. 2008;12:474–6.

Kim EM, Pyeon MW, Kang MS, Park JS. A management system of street trees by using RFID. In: Web and Wireless Geographical Information Systems. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer; 2006. p. 66–75.

Konsynski B, Smith HA. Developments in practice x: Radio frequency identification (rfid)-an internet for physical objects. Commun Assoc Inform Systems. 2003;12:19.

Kovavisaruch L, Suntharasaj P. Converging technology in society: opportunity for radio frequency identification (RFID) in Thailand's transportation system. In: Management of Engineering and Technology, Portland International Center for. Portland, OR: IEEE; 2007. p. 300–4.

Kuo CH, Chen HG. The critical issues about deploying RFID in healthcare industry by service perspective. In: Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, Proceedings of the 41st Annual. Waikoloa, HI: IEEE; 2008. p. 111–1.

Kuo F, Lee Y, Tang CY. The Development of RFID in Healthcare in Taiwan. Bejing: ICEB; 2004. p. 340–5.

Laurie A. Practical attacks against RFID. Network Security. 2007;2007:4–7.

Lee K, Nieto JG, Boyd C. A state-aware RFID privacy model with reader corruption. In: Cyberspace Safety and Security. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. p. 324–38.

Li S, Visich JK, Khumawala BM, Zhang C. Radio frequency identification technology: applications, technical challenges and strategies. Sensor Review. 2006;26:193–202.

Lorenc ML. Mark of the Beast: US Government Use of RFID in Government-Issued Documents. The Alb LJ Sci Tech. 2007;17:583.

Meingast M, King J, Mulligan DK. Embedded RFID and everyday things: A case study of the security and privacy risks of the US e-passport. In: RFID, 2007. IEEE International Conference on. Grapevine, TX: IEEE; 2007. p. 7–14.

Murad M, Rehman A, Shah AA, Ullah S, Fahad M, Yahya KM. RFAIDE—An RFID based navigation and object recognition assistant for visually impaired people. In: Emerging Technologies (ICET), 2011 7th International Conference on. Islamabad: IEEE; 2011. p. 1–4.

Murray C. Privacy concerns mount over retail use of RFID technology. EE Times. 2003;2:4–5.

Nanseki. A navigation system for appropriate pesticide use: design and implementation. Agricultural Information Research. 2005;14:207–26.

Naumann I, Hogben G. Privacy features of European eID card specifications. Network Security. 2008;8:9–13.

Perakslis C, Wolk R. Social acceptance of RFID as a biometric security method. In Technology and Society, 2005. Weapons and Wires: Prevention and Safety in a Time of Fear. ISTAS 2005. Proceedings. 2005 International Symposium on (pp. 79-87). IEEE. New York, New York; 2005.

Prado JAD, Monterrey IC, Prado FED. Creating Traffic Knowledge System in Mexico: Applying RFID to Prevent the Vandalism. The 15th International Business Information Management Association Conference. 2010. p. 2042–50.

Prasanth V, Hari PR, Soman KP. Ticketing Solutions for Indian Railways Using RFID Technology. In: Advances in Computing, Control, & Telecommunication Technologies, 2009. ACT'09. Trivandrum, Kerala: International Conference on. 2009. p. 217–9. IEEE.

Ransford B, Sorber J, Fu K. Mementos: system support for long-running computation on RFID-scale devices. Acm Sigplan Notices. 2012;47:159–70.

Reichenbach J. Status and prospects of pay-as-you-throw in Europe–A review of pilot research and implementation studies. Waste Management. 2008;28:2809–14.

Romero A, Lefebvre E. Gaining Deeper Insights into RFID Adoption in Hospital Pharmacies. World. 2013;3:164–75.

Ruan T, Hu H. Application of an RFID-based system for construction waste transport: a case in Shanghai. In: Computational Logistics. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer; 2011. p. 114–26.

RFID Gazette. RFID hybrid tech: Combining GPS for location tracking. Retrieved December 5, 2006, from tec.html http://www.rfidgazette.org/2006/12/index.html .

Schindler R, Schmalbein N, Steltenkamp V, Cave J, Wens B, Anhalt A, et al. SMART TRASH – study on RFID tags and the recycling industry, technical report. TR-1283-EC. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Europe Corporation; 2012.

Shahram M, Manish B. RFID Field Guide: Deploying radio frequency identification systems. New York: Prentice Hall; 2005.

Smith JE. You Can Run, But You Can’t Hide: Protecting Privacy from Radio Frequency Identification Technology. NCJL Tech. 2006;8:249.

Sugahara K. Traceability system for agricultural productsbased on RFID and mobile technology. In: Computer and Computing Technologies in Agriculture II, vol. 3. US: Springer; 2009. p. 2293–301.

Tien L. RFID tags should track inventory, not people. RCR Wireless News, 2004. http://www.rcrwireless.com/20040705/archived-articles/rfid-tags-should-track-inventory-not-people .

Takahashi. “The Father of RFID,” Mercury News, www.siliconvalley.com (June 7, 2004).

Trevarthen A, Michael K. Beyond mere compliance of RFID regulations by the farming community: a case study of the Cochrane dairy farm. In: Management of Mobile Business, 2007. ICMB 2007. International Conference on the. Toronto, Canada: IEEE; 2007. p. 8–8.

Tsai FMC, Huang CM. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Implementing RFID System in Port of Kaohsiung. Procedia-Social Behav Sci. 2012;57:40–6.

Ulatowski LM. Recent developments in RFID technology: weighing utility against potential privacy concerns. ISJLP. 2007;3:623.

USDA APHIS. National Animal Identification System: Animal Identification Number(AIN). Retrieved from the web on June 8, 2005. Available at https://www.aphis.usda.gov/traceability/downloads/NAIS_overview_report.pdf.

Vining J. RFID Alone Can’t Resolve Cargo Container Security Issues. 2005.

Weinstein R. RFID: a technical overview and its application to the enterprise. IT professional. 2005;7:27–33.

Werb J, Sereiko P. More than just tracking. Frontline Solutions. 2002;3:11–42.

Wicks AM, Visich JK, Li S. Radio frequency identification applications in hospital environments. Hosp Top. 2006;84:3–9.

Wyld DC. Delta airlines Tags Baggage with RFID. Re:ID Magazine. 2005;1:63–34.

Wyld DC. RFID: The right frequency for government. Washington DC: IBM Center for the Business of Government. IBM Center; 2005.

Wyld DC. Death sticks and taxes: RFID tagging of cigarettes. Int J Retail Distribution Manag. 2008;36:571–82.

Yonhap news. 2013. http://news.naver.com/main/read.nhn?.mode=LSD&mid=sec&sid1=102&oid=001&aid=0003353674 .

Zhang R. A transportation security system applying RFID and GPS. J Ind Engr Manag. 2013;6(1):163–74.

Download references


This paper was supported by the research grant of Seoul National University Foundation (Korea Institute of Public Affairs) in 2015.

Author information

Authors and affiliations.

Korea Institute of Public Affairs, Graduate School of Public Administration of Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea

Kwangho Jung

Graduate School of Public Administration of Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea

Sabinne Lee

You can also search for this author in PubMed   Google Scholar

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Kwangho Jung .

Additional information

Competing interests.

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Authors’ contributions

KJ and SL carried out a systematic literature review not only from not only technological point of view but also from social scientific point of view. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Rights and permissions

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article.

Jung, K., Lee, S. A systematic review of RFID applications and diffusion: key areas and public policy issues. J. open innov. 1 , 9 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40852-015-0010-z

Download citation

Received : 07 July 2015

Accepted : 11 August 2015

Published : 04 September 2015

DOI : https://doi.org/10.1186/s40852-015-0010-z

Share this article

Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:

Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article.

Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative

  • Digital identification
  • Digital delivery
  • Contactless smart card

rfid research paper ideas

rfid research paper ideas



rfid research paper ideas

Inventory Accuracy | Whitepaper


rfid research paper ideas

Using RFID to Quantify School Bus Evacuation Training Times

rfid research paper ideas

2023 Retail Innovations | DART

rfid research paper ideas

Revised & Expanded – Quantifying Customer Experience | DART Whitepaper

rfid research paper ideas

AUBIE | The BOPIS Retailer Scorecard

rfid research paper ideas

Quantifying Customer Experience | DART Whitepaper

rfid research paper ideas

CHain Integration Project (CHIP) Proof-of-Concept Whitepaper

rfid research paper ideas

Why Retail is Ready for Blockchain

rfid research paper ideas

Key Considerations for RFID Pilots and Deployments

rfid research paper ideas

RFID Item-level Quantity Auditing for Apparel Supplier Distribution Centers.

rfid research paper ideas

An Empirical Study of Potential Uses of RFID In The Apparel Retail Supply Chain

rfid research paper ideas

RFID-Enabled Visibility and Retail Inventory Record Inaccuracy: Experiments in the Field

rfid research paper ideas

Item-Level RFID for Apparel/Footwear: The JC Penney RFID Initiative

rfid research paper ideas

Item-Level RFID for Apparel: The Bloomingdale’s RFID Initiative

rfid research paper ideas

Item-Level RFID for Apparel: The Dillard’s RFID Initiative

rfid research paper ideas

RFID As Electronic Article Surveillance EAS: Feasibility Assessment

rfid research paper ideas

The Promise of RFID-based Sensors in the Perishables Supply Chain

rfid research paper ideas

The Politics of RFID – Implementation

rfid research paper ideas

The Politics of RFID – The Issues

rfid research paper ideas

RFID Item-Level Tagging for Apparel/Footwear: Feasibility Study

rfid research paper ideas

Does RFID Improve Inventory Accuracy? A Preliminary Analysis

rfid research paper ideas

RFID in Healthcare: A Framework of uses and Opportunities

rfid research paper ideas

Is There a Business Case for RFID?

rfid research paper ideas

RFID for Better Supply-Chain Management through Enhanced Information Visibility

rfid research paper ideas

RFID Assimilation Hierarchy

RFID’s Impact on Out of Stocks: A Sales Velocity Analysis

The Myths and Realities of RFID

rfid research paper ideas

Does RFID Reduce Out of Stocks? A Preliminary Analysis

1550 East Glenn Ave. Auburn, AL 36830 [email protected]

Copyright © 2024.

Academia.edu no longer supports Internet Explorer.

To browse Academia.edu and the wider internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds to  upgrade your browser .

Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link.

  • We're Hiring!
  • Help Center

paper cover thumbnail

Research Study on RFID and its Future Applications

Profile image of IJRASET Publication

2021, International Journal for Research in Applied Science & Engineering Technology

There has been a revolution in tracking and tracing of products and goods in the supply chain using passive radio frequency identification (RFID) systems. Recommendations to the suppliers have been released to various major retailers and government agencies after realizing the potential of RFID systems. This paper outlines some research done to identify a set of parameters which can help us in comparing the performance of Ultra High Frequency (UHF) passive RFID tags to be set as benchmarks. This paper is published on the notes of the above paragraph to provide a survey on radio frequency identification (RFID) technology. Primarily the RFID tags were developed to eventually replace barcodes in supply chains due to their advantages of being able to be read wirelessly and without line of sight, they contain more information than barcodes, and are obviously more robust. The RFID technology did not stop at item-level tagging. This paper tries to unfold the various studies and research done on the RFID beyond their just feature of being used as a tag. It tells us about the latest technology research that focuses on locating and tracking labeled objects that move using RFID. Passive radio frequency identification (RFID) systems are revolutionizing the way products and goods are tracked and traced in the supply chain. Radio frequency identification (RFID) and barcode technology are similar in some ways as they both are an automatic identification technology. Nowadays RFID is mostly involved in numerous tasks including managing supply chains, tracking livestock, preventing counterfeiting, controlling building access, and supporting automated checkout. This paper highlights the RFID technology, its working, its architecture and its applications. With the help of RFID the world is moving towards automation with reduced labor levels, enhanced visibility, and improved inventory management. This paper also underlines the different types of RFID tags. RFID is applicable in many fields like retail industry, agriculture, vehicle management, underwater applications, healthcare, smart homes and for security and safety purposes to name a few.. It enables distant identification unlike earlier bar-code technology it does not require a line of sight. This paper also addresses current RFID technology in terms of systems, components, and propagation, and provides a look forward towards its future applications.

Related Papers

IOSR Journal of Computer Engineering


rfid research paper ideas

International Journal of Engineering Sciences & Research Technology

Ijesrt Journal

Radio frequency identification is a contactless technique that uses the radio waves to identify the object uniquely. RFID Tag and Reader are major two parts of the RFID System. Tags are used to store the information about the object and Readers read tag’s stored information when tag enters in the range of the Reader. This paper provides the information regarding the current scenario of the RFID Technology. Aside from the introduction of the working of RFID, discussion is made on major types of the RFID tags and Readers, comparison with Bar code as well as current application areas have been presented.


IAEME Publication

RFID is only one of numerous technologies grouped under the term Automatic Identification (Auto ID), such as bar code, magnetic inks, optical character recognition, voice recognition, touch memory, smart cards, biometrics etc. Auto ID technologies are a new way of controlling information and material flow, especially suitable for large productions [1][17] This paper gives a review of the current state of the art in the radio frequency identification (RFID) technology. This is short prologue to the standards of the engineering; a survey is given on real classes of RFID labels and readers. The introduction of RFID systems in industrial manufacturing has already been taken up more than ten years ago. RFID is a smart and promising technology in various applications like asset tracking, animal tracking, in wall mart and in inventory management. This paper is a roadmap for new learners in RFID technology

Laszlo Monostori

The paper gives an overview of the current state of the art in the radio frequency identification (RFID) technology. Aside from a brief introduction to the principles of the technology, a sur- vey is given on major classes of RFID tags and readers, commonly used frequencies and identifier systems, current and envisaged fields of application, as well as advantages, con-

International Journal of Scientific Research in Science, Engineering and Technology IJSRSET

RFID is basically a Radio frequency identification which contributions in automatic identification of physical products by radio waves. Nowadays RFID is frequently used as a medium for several tasks including vehicle security system, handling supply chains, tracking product, supporting automated checkout. Most of the countries are using RFID technology in their private and public sectors. The usage of RFID is limited by safety concerns and delays in regulation. The paper provides a general idea of current stage of the art in the RFID technology. The paper also discusses on the current and imagined fields of application, as well as advantages and disadvantages of use.

neeraj mohan

Abstract—This paper gives an overview of the current state of radio frequency identification (RFID) technology. Aside from a brief introduction to the principles of the technology, major current and envisaged fields of application, as well as advantages, and limitations of use are ...

International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development

Anupam Saigal

Pervasive Computing, IEEE

Dhanraj Neelakandan

Paul Mueller


Alisha Ismail , Noorul Bin Abdul Rahman


Shiera el-Malik

The American Journal of Cardiology

Geoffrey Candy

Contemporary Clinical Dentistry

Rathy Ravindran

James Wynne

Transylvanian Review of Administrative Sciences

Nicoleta Neamtu

Papers of the Twenty-Second Algonquian Conference

Regna Darnell

… Journal of Engineering-Transactions A: Basics

somayeh delfani

George H Rebêlo

Journal of the Korean Society for information Management

Revista do Centro de Estudos Portugueses

Leonardo Chioda

João Romaldini

Perspectives in Environmental Management

Ralf C Buckley

Revista chilena de infectología

Beatrice Herve

Entrever Revista Das Licenciaturas

Lucas Villela

Henry Ijeomah

Ümit Öztoprak

LSU毕业证 路易斯安那州立大学文凭证书

Journal of the American Chemical Society

Thanh Ly Nguyen

Center for International and Regional Studies (CIRS)

Danyel Reiche

European Journal of Clinical Investigation

Olivier SIRE


  •   We're Hiring!
  •   Help Center
  • Find new research papers in:
  • Health Sciences
  • Earth Sciences
  • Cognitive Science
  • Mathematics
  • Computer Science
  • Academia ©2024

Nevon Projects

Latest RF & RFID Based Projects

NevonProjects has the largest list of Rf as well as rfid based projects topics and ideas for engineers researchers and students. These rfid projects kits help you learn and build rfid based circuit systems in no time. These rf based projects are built by making effective use of the rf technology in various fields of life. These project kits are provided to help individuals in their rf based research and studies. Rf technology is used in various applications at various industries. Our rfid based projects are built to demonstrate these concepts through our self learning electronics project kits. Browse through list of latest rfid based project topics and ideas to choose the project that suits you.

  • RFID Token Based Appointment Calling System
  • Weather Imaging CubeSat with Telemetry Transmission
  • Solar SeaWeather and Pollution Transmitter Buoy
  • Gesture Control Bicycle Indicator Gloves
  • IOT Water Pollution Monitor RC Boat
  • IOT Smart Parking Using RFID
  • Fishing Drone
  • Solar Floor Cleaner Robot
  • 360° Filmmaking Drone For 4K HD Video
  • Water Pollution Monitoring RC Boat
  • Pollution Monitoring & Source Tracker Drone
  • Intelligent Surveillance and Night Patrolling Drone
  • RF Controlled Solar Panel Based Robotic Vehicle
  • Smart Shopping Trolley with Automated Billing using Arduino
  • DIY 5DOF Wireless Hand Motion Controlled Robotic Gripper Arm
  • Advanced Footstep Power Generation System using RFID for Charging
  • RFID Based Petrol Pump Automation System
  • Smart Stand-up wheelchair using Raspberry Pi & RF
  • Motion Controlled Pick & Place Obstacle Avoider Robot
  • IOT Mining Tracking & Worker Safety Helmet
  • Auto Billing Mall Shopping Cart 8051
  • IOT Prison Break Monitoring & Alerting System
  • Multicontroller Wheelchair Safety Android, Touch, Speech, Gesture
  • Accident Avoiding System Crash Detection &GPS Notification
  • Wireless Humanoid Bionic Arm on Robotic Vehicle
  • IOT Paralysis Patient Health Care Project
  • DTMF & RF Dual Controller Based Robot
  • Fire Fighter Robot with Fire Resistant Body
  • RFID Based Smart Master Card For Bus Train Metro Ticketing
  • Multi Robot Coordination For Swarm Robotics
  • Automatic Whiteboard Eraser Robot
  • Wireless Doorbell Calling System
  • Automatic BMI Calculator Using Load Cell & Height Sensing
  • RFID Mobile Charging System
  • Raspberry Pi Speaking Bus Stop Reminder
  • RFID Attendance System With SMS Notification
  • Joystick Controlled Steering Mechanism Vehicle
  • Raspberry Pi Wheelchair With Safety System
  • Ultrasonic Blind Stick With GPS Tracking
  • IOT Asset tracking System
  • Robotic Vehicle Controlled By Hand Gesture Using PIC
  • Wireless Patient Health Monitoring
  • RFID Voting System Project
  • Anti Drowning System With Remote Alert
  • RF Controlled Robotic Vehicle
  • Rough Terrain Beetle Robot
  • Remote Controlled Automobile Using Rf
  • Rf Controlled Spy Robot With Night Vision Camera
  • RF Based Night Vision Spy Robot Using PIC
  • Advanced Military Spying & Bomb Disposal Robot
  • Wildlife Observation Robot Using Rf
  • Remote Controlled Robotic Arm Using Rf
  • Car Parking Project Based on RFID
  • RFID Based Passport Project
  • Automating Homes Using RF
  • Automated RF plus IR Based Paid Parking Manager System
  • Fire Fighter Robot With Night Vision Camera
  • Geo Location Guide Using RF
  • Motion Based Message Conveyer For Paralytic/Disabled People
  • Billing System Based On RFID
  • Security Access Control Using RFID Project
  • Attendance System Based On RFID Project
  • Heart Attack Detection By Heart Beat Sensing
  • RF Based Secure Door Opener System
  • RF Secure Coded Communication System
  • Automatic Unauthorized Parking Detector With SMS Notification To Owner
  • Robotic Vehicle With Metal Detection Project
  • Ultrasonic Blind Walking Stick
  • IOT Based Toll Booth Manager System

Need Custom Made RFID Project / System ?

submit nevonproject requirements

Other Electronics Project Categories

  • Mini Projects
  • PIC Microcontroller Projects
  • Robotics Projects
  • AVR Microcontroller Projects
  • 8051 Microcontroller Projects
  • Wireless Communication Projects
  • Arduino Projects
  • RF & RFID Projects
  • Raspberry Pi Projects
  • Bluetooth & Zigbee Projects
  • ARM Cortex & ARM 7 Projects
  • Sensor Based Projects
  • All Microcontroller Projects
  • GSM Based Projects
  • GPS Based Projects
  • Solar Projects
  • Simple Electronics Projects
  • Electrical Projects
  • Digital Electronics Projects

NevonProjects provides this free list of rfid projects topics for your study and research. With the world moving on to wireless technologies rf based systems will be playing an important role in future of wireless communications. These rfid based projects help students and researchers learn about rfid based systems in no time. Our rf based projects list is updated every month, so keep visiting for latest rf and rfid based project ideas.

RFID projects nevon

  • All Electronics Projects
  • Premium DIY Electronics Projects
  • Community Projects
  • NEW | DIY Webinars
  • Submit Your Project
  • Mini Projects
  • College Projects
  • Advanced Projects
  • AI/ML Projects
  • Reference Designs
  • S/W Projects
  • Tech Trends
  • Tech updates
  • Aerospace & Defence
  • Communication & Networks
  • Energy & Power
  • LEDs & Lighting
  • Testing Times
  • Thought Leaders
  • Industry Powered Content
  • NEW @ Electronicsforu.com
  • New Products
  • Innovative Components
  • Components Corner
  • Tech Updates
  • Press Releases
  • Electronics Calculators
  • NEW | Events
  • Premium Content
  • Startup Contests
  • Design Contests
  • Explore Components on DigiKey


RFID Projects Ideas for Engineers

Radio-frequency identification ( RFID ) is a technology that uses radio-frequency electromagnetic fields to transfer information from a tag to an RFID reader for identification purposes. Passive tags do not require battery power. They derive power from the electromagnetic field generated by the reader. Some tags are also available which have their own power source.

When it comes to RFID projects, students always find them simple and interesting. There are many such RFID projects available on the internet. We have listed down the top 20 simple RFID projects for you to try.

( To access detailed information about a specific project, simply click on the name of the project below )

List of Top RFID Projects

1. rfid-based security system.

In a security access system, RFID is inductively coupled with the reader. When a card is swiped against the reader, modulated data from the card is sent to the reader which in turn is fed to the microcontroller.

The card used is the identity card for a particular person and carries his/her details. If this data matches with that stored in the database of the microcontroller, the person is given access to the secured area.

This is indicated by a lamp being switched on. The status of the authority of the person is also displayed on an LCD interfaced with the microcontroller.

More details about this are available at RFID based Security system

2. Attendance System

Here an RFID tag is used, which is indirectly connected to the RFID reader using the inductive coupling method. As the tag or the card is swiped against the reader, the tag receives a carrier signal from the reader and in turn modulates the carrier signal and sends it back.

The reader receives this modulated signal and sends this data to the microcontroller. The microcontroller compares this data with the existing data and on pressing the status push button, the status of the cardholder is shown on the display, indicating the attendance of the cardholder.

More details about this are available at RFID-based attendance system

3. Access Control System

An RFID reader emits a low-level radio frequency magnetic field that energies the tag. The tag responds to the reader’s query and announces its presence via radio waves, transmitting its unique identification data.

This data is decoded by the reader and passed to the local application system via middleware. The middleware acts as an interface between the reader and the RFID application system.

The system then searches and matches the identity code with information stored in the host database or back-end system. In this way, accessibility or authorization for further processing can be granted or refused, depending on results received by the reader and processed by the database.

More details about this are available at RFID based Access Control

4. Anti-theft Auto Security System with an Immobilizer

The immobilizer uses the active RFID technology where the tag is generated with comparatively large character sets. The receiving unit is intelligently integrated into three control circuits in the vehicle, namely, the ignition circuit, power control unit, and automatic gear changing system, enabling it to bring the vehicle speed down to zero in a safe step-by-step manner.

The anti-theft auto security system proposed here was tested under different weather conditions and possible signal distortion situations to verify its reliability.

More details are available at RFID based anti-theft auto security system

5. Automatic Door Lock System

The automatic door lock system consists of a reader, a controller, and a door lock. Here a reader reads the RFID tags, a controller is used to accept the data from the reader and control the o/p of the door lock.

The RFID reader is placed on the outside of the door and it is detached from the controller confidentially so no one can avoid the security by breaking open the RFID reader and trying to short circuit the reader.

The controller of this project receives serial information from the RFID reader and controls the door lock and the LED.

More details about this project are available at Automatic door lock system

6. Automatic Car Parking

RFID-based car parking uses a microcontroller along with sensing circuits, monitoring the entry and exit of cars. The car owners are allowed entry only when their RFID card is swiped. The amount in the card automatically gets reduced with a display indication besides indicating the available number of parking.

An H-bridge arrangement operates the entry and exit boom motors operating clockwise and anticlockwise for opening and closing. A buzzer sound comes while the card is swiped.

Upon every entry of a car, the parking availability gets reduced by one number while every exit increases the number.

More details about this are available at RFID-based automatic vehicle parking

7. Toll Booth Automation

The microcontroller reads the RFID card number from the RFID reader. It sends this data to the LCD so that the person operating this product reads various informative messages.

The microcontroller senses the command given using the keypad and receives a signal from the IR receiver. It sends the data to the motor or buzzer depending on the RFID card number and balance inside the card.

Tollbooth automation reduces human effort, improves security, and avoids jams at toll centers.

More details about this system are available at RFID based Electronic toll collection

8. Bus Ticketing and Accident Information Provider System

The passengers are counted using an IR sensor and the distance traveled by the passenger is calculated automatically using a motor and u-slot sensor, and the corresponding amount is debited from an RFID card.

In addition to that, the occurrence of accident information is automatically transmitted to the nearest hospital using GSM and GPS . IR transmitter and receiver are placed straight to each other, so the transmitted IR ray is received by the IR receiver. When the passenger crosses the IR transmitter and receiver, the rays received will be interrupted.

Here the microcontroller, Atmel 89C52, has flash-type reprogrammable memory. The RFID tag is rechargeable and can be recharged at the bus depot or the nearest retail shop.

More information is available at Bus ticketing and accident information provider system

9. Petrol Bunk Automation

Each vehicle is fitted with a prepaid card. When a car arrives at the gate, the RFID reader reads the card. The gate is opened only when the card is valid. Once entered the user will be shown the balance amount available on the card and he must select an option to dispense the fuel.

The system checks whether the user has entered valid data that is the amount should not exceed the balance available on the card. After dispensing petrol, information about the available balance is sent to the user’s mobile phone using GSM.

More about this project is available at Petrol Bunk automation

10. RFID based Passport

The project designed is an authentication system where the passport holder is authorized through RFID technology. The passport holder would have an RFID tag that contains all the passport details like name, number, nationality, etc.

This tag has to be swiped over the reader and the information thus read is provided to a microcontroller.

This information is matched with the one stored in the microcontroller, if the data matches microcontroller displays a confirmation message otherwise displays a denial message on an LCD screen.

The status of a particular person can also be obtained through a status button in the system.

More details are available at RFID-based Passport

11. Airport Luggage Security Scanning System

Read-only tags are typically passive and are programmed with a unique set of data that cannot be modified.

The reader has three main functions: energizing, demodulating, and decoding.

The antenna emits radio signals to activate the tag and to read and write data to it. Here we are using RFID based security scanning system to check the luggage in highly secured areas like airports, railway stations, in various places where security is the primary concern.

Here we are placing the luggage bags that are to be scanned.

More details are available at RFID-based airport luggage handling system

12. Library Automation

RFID-based library management facilitates the fast issuing, reissuing, and returning of books with the help of RFID-enabled modules. It directly provides book information and library member information to the library management system and does not need manual typing.

The monitoring module continuously monitors the movement of books across the gates, so that the books taken out without prior issuing are traced easily and alarm the librarians.

The searching module provides the fast searching of books using RFID handheld reader. The physical location of the books can be easily located using this module.

More details about this are available at RFID library automation

13. Banking System

When the card is brought near to the RFID module it reads the ID code card and then compares it with the ID code present in the system. If it matches then the door gets opened in the clockwise direction and the person gets in.

The door is automatically closed at a defined time. Every time we make a transaction, we need to enter the user ID and password using a keypad. For a successful match, the ID transaction is enabled, else denied.

If the password does not match after three successive failures, the system gets locked and further transactions are denied. The transaction denial is indicated by a buzzer.

More details are available at RFID-based banking system

14. Patient Monitoring System

Every patient is provided with a unique RFID number and all the details regarding the patient and treatments are stored in a centralized database which is retrieved by the server. The second section is patient tracking where in case of any emergency in a closed environment the patient is provided with assistance in a short span of time.

The patient is regularly monitored by the temperature and heartbeat sensor. The moment values cross a normal range, the message is sent through GSM/GPS to the nearest hospital with its location and also to a relative. Assistance is provided accordingly to the patient.

More details are available at RFID patient monitoring system

15. Touch Screen Museum Guide

RFID comprises a reader and a tag. The reader receives the identity of an object from the embedded tag wirelessly using radio waves and then compares it with the corresponding identification stored in the database.

When a match is found, detailed information is retrieved and the user can able to listen to the audio clip of the painting, with these our project is providing images related to that painting.

This project focuses on making a user-friendly device for making easy guidelines for tourists with a combination of audio and image facilities.

More details about this project are available at  RFID based Touch Screen Museum Guide System

16. Voting Machine

RFID card has been used for the identification of a person before giving his vote by placing his card before the reader module. When the card is placed before the reader, the details stored with a unique number in the microcontroller will be checked and displayed.

If he/she is eligible for voting, they’ll be sent to the voting unit where they will be casting their vote. If they violate any of the rules like giving their vote more than once or if he/she is not eligible person, then an alarming buzzer is activated.

More details are available at RFID based Electronic voting machine

17. Object Locators

This system is proposed for the assistance of blind people. The system incorporates a mobile RFID reader with an object management system with three main functionalities: to access and manage an integrated ZigBee transceiver for transmitting the tag’s information.

Utensils and other objects in a building carry the tags and transmit data wirelessly to the server embedded. An audio file, recorded for each unique object resides on the server.

The reader reads the PC which in turn scans for the particular id in the database and plays the corresponding audio file.

More information about this is available at  RFID based Object locators

18. Implantable RFID Chip for Animal Identification

Meet our implantable tracking system, a tiny chip that can be placed inside animals or even humans. This chip works like magic to track, identify, and collect crucial data. We’re talking about information like their age, health, species, and where they’re from.

This intelligent system is like an animal’s digital ID card, making it perfect for significant areas like national parks and zoos.

Complete project details are available here: Implantable RFID Chip .

Enthusiasts always come up with new RFID projects from time to time. If you have any such idea, let us know at: [email protected] , We also welcome RFID projects from contributors.

This article was first published on 27 April 2017 and was updated on September 2023.

Electronics For You

Network Consists of Further Focused Websites (Channels)


Inspired by our flagship publication

Electronics for you.


  • Sample For Free
  • Subscribe For Print
  • Subscribe For Ezine




© Copyright 2024 - EFY Group

rfid research paper ideas

Research on RFID technology security

Ieee account.

  • Change Username/Password
  • Update Address

Purchase Details

  • Payment Options
  • Order History
  • View Purchased Documents

Profile Information

  • Communications Preferences
  • Profession and Education
  • Technical Interests
  • US & Canada: +1 800 678 4333
  • Worldwide: +1 732 981 0060
  • Contact & Support
  • About IEEE Xplore
  • Accessibility
  • Terms of Use
  • Nondiscrimination Policy
  • Privacy & Opting Out of Cookies

A not-for-profit organization, IEEE is the world's largest technical professional organization dedicated to advancing technology for the benefit of humanity. © Copyright 2024 IEEE - All rights reserved. Use of this web site signifies your agreement to the terms and conditions.

How Much Research Is Being Written by Large Language Models?

New studies show a marked spike in LLM usage in academia, especially in computer science. What does this mean for researchers and reviewers?

research papers scroll out of a computer

In March of this year, a  tweet about an academic paper went viral for all the wrong reasons. The introduction section of the paper, published in  Elsevier’s  Surfaces and Interfaces , began with this line:  Certainly, here is a possible introduction for your topic. 

Look familiar? 

It should, if you are a user of ChatGPT and have applied its talents for the purpose of content generation. LLMs are being increasingly used to assist with writing tasks, but examples like this in academia are largely anecdotal and had not been quantified before now. 

“While this is an egregious example,” says  James Zou , associate professor of biomedical data science and, by courtesy, of computer science and of electrical engineering at Stanford, “in many cases, it’s less obvious, and that’s why we need to develop more granular and robust statistical methods to estimate the frequency and magnitude of LLM usage. At this particular moment, people want to know what content around us is written by AI. This is especially important in the context of research, for the papers we author and read and the reviews we get on our papers. That’s why we wanted to study how much of those have been written with the help of AI.”

In two papers looking at LLM use in scientific publishings, Zou and his team* found that 17.5% of computer science papers and 16.9% of peer review text had at least some content drafted by AI. The paper on LLM usage in peer reviews will be presented at the International Conference on Machine Learning.

Read  Mapping the Increasing Use of LLMs in Scientific Papers and  Monitoring AI-Modified Content at Scale: A Case Study on the Impact of ChatGPT on AI Conference Peer Reviews  

Here Zou discusses the findings and implications of this work, which was supported through a Stanford HAI Hoffman Yee Research Grant . 

How did you determine whether AI wrote sections of a paper or a review?

We first saw that there are these specific worlds – like commendable, innovative, meticulous, pivotal, intricate, realm, and showcasing – whose frequency in reviews sharply spiked, coinciding with the release of ChatGPT. Additionally, we know that these words are much more likely to be used by LLMs than by humans. The reason we know this is that we actually did an experiment where we took many papers, used LLMs to write reviews of them, and compared those reviews to reviews written by human reviewers on the same papers. Then we quantified which words are more likely to be used by LLMs vs. humans, and those are exactly the words listed. The fact that they are more likely to be used by an LLM and that they have also seen a sharp spike coinciding with the release of LLMs is strong evidence.

Charts showing significant shift in the frequency of certain adjectives in research journals.

Some journals permit the use of LLMs in academic writing, as long as it’s noted, while others, including  Science and the ICML conference, prohibit it. How are the ethics perceived in academia?

This is an important and timely topic because the policies of various journals are changing very quickly. For example,  Science said in the beginning that they would not allow authors to use language models in their submissions, but they later changed their policy and said that people could use language models, but authors have to explicitly note where the language model is being used. All the journals are struggling with how to define this and what’s the right way going forward.

You observed an increase in usage of LLMs in academic writing, particularly in computer science papers (up to 17.5%). Math and  Nature family papers, meanwhile, used AI text about 6.3% of the time. What do you think accounts for the discrepancy between these disciplines? 

Artificial intelligence and computer science disciplines have seen an explosion in the number of papers submitted to conferences like ICLR and NeurIPS. And I think that’s really caused a strong burden, in many ways, to reviewers and to authors. So now it’s increasingly difficult to find qualified reviewers who have time to review all these papers. And some authors may feel more competition that they need to keep up and keep writing more and faster. 

You analyzed close to a million papers on arXiv, bioRxiv, and  Nature from January 2020 to February 2024. Do any of these journals include humanities papers or anything in the social sciences?  

We mostly wanted to focus more on CS and engineering and biomedical areas and interdisciplinary areas, like  Nature family journals, which also publish some social science papers. Availability mattered in this case. So, it’s relatively easy for us to get data from arXiv, bioRxiv, and  Nature . A lot of AI conferences also make reviews publicly available. That’s not the case for humanities journals.

Did any results surprise you?

A few months after ChatGPT’s launch, we started to see a rapid, linear increase in the usage pattern in academic writing. This tells us how quickly these LLM technologies diffuse into the community and become adopted by researchers. The most surprising finding is the magnitude and speed of the increase in language model usage. Nearly a fifth of papers and peer review text use LLM modification. We also found that peer reviews submitted closer to the deadline and those less likely to engage with author rebuttal were more likely to use LLMs. 

This suggests a couple of things. Perhaps some of these reviewers are not as engaged with reviewing these papers, and that’s why they are offloading some of the work to AI to help. This could be problematic if reviewers are not fully involved. As one of the pillars of the scientific process, it is still necessary to have human experts providing objective and rigorous evaluations. If this is being diluted, that’s not great for the scientific community.

What do your findings mean for the broader research community?

LLMs are transforming how we do research. It’s clear from our work that many papers we read are written with the help of LLMs. There needs to be more transparency, and people should state explicitly how LLMs are used and if they are used substantially. I don’t think it’s always a bad thing for people to use LLMs. In many areas, this can be very useful. For someone who is not a native English speaker, having the model polish their writing can be helpful. There are constructive ways for people to use LLMs in the research process; for example, in earlier stages of their draft. You could get useful feedback from a LLM in real time instead of waiting weeks or months to get external feedback. 

But I think it’s still very important for the human researchers to be accountable for everything that is submitted and presented. They should be able to say, “Yes, I will stand behind the statements that are written in this paper.”

*Collaborators include:  Weixin Liang ,  Yaohui Zhang ,  Zhengxuan Wu ,  Haley Lepp ,  Wenlong Ji ,  Xuandong Zhao ,  Hancheng Cao ,  Sheng Liu ,  Siyu He ,  Zhi Huang ,  Diyi Yang ,  Christopher Potts ,  Christopher D. Manning ,  Zachary Izzo ,  Yaohui Zhang ,  Lingjiao Chen ,  Haotian Ye , and Daniel A. McFarland .

Stanford HAI’s mission is to advance AI research, education, policy and practice to improve the human condition.  Learn more . 

More News Topics

Child Tax Benefits and Labor Supply: Evidence from California

rfid research paper ideas

In the United States today, some of the largest social welfare programs focused on children – including the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) and Child Tax Credit (CTC) – require that parents earn income from work. While intended to encourage recipients to work, tax credit work requirements may also harm the lowest-income families. In this paper, the authors study whether eliminating child tax credit work requirements affects parents’ decision to work.

The authors study this question in the context of California’s Young Child Tax Credit (YCTC), a refundable state tax credit for low-income parents with children younger than six. When the YCTC was enacted in 2019 it was available to any taxpayer with income over $1. Then, beginning in 2022, California eliminated the work requirement altogether.   Using federal administrative tax data, the authors compare the labor force participation of mothers with children who just barely qualify for the YCTC to those with children just above the age cutoff, before and after the work requirement was eliminated. They find the following:

  • Eliminating the YCTC work requirement did not cause a significant number of California mothers to exit the labor force. The authors estimate that working mothers’ labor force participation fell by no more than 0.4 percentage points with the elimination of the work requirement.

The results of the study suggest that eliminating the work requirement from the federal CTC would cause fewer exits from the labor force than prior studies suggest. The results also provide new evidence for states considering adopting or reforming their own child tax benefits, as a central issue in designing such policies is whether to condition benefits on work.

More on this topic

rfid research paper ideas

Tax Policy and Investment in a Global Economy

rfid research paper ideas

The Short-Term Labor Supply Response to the Expanded Child Tax Credit

The macroeconomics of the greek depression.

What Went Wrong with Federal Student Loans?

At a time when the returns to college and graduate school are at historic highs, why do so many students struggle with their student loans? The increase in aggregate student debt and the struggles of today’s student loan borrowers can be traced to changes in federal policies intended to broaden access to federal aid and educational opportunities, and which increased enrollment and borrowing in higher-risk circumstances. Starting in the late 1990s, policymakers weakened regulations that had constrained institutions from enrolling aid-dependent students. This led to rising enrollment of relatively disadvantaged students, but primarily at poor-performing, low-value institutions whose students systematically failed to complete a degree, struggled to repay their loans, defaulted at high rates, and foundered in the job market. As these new borrowers experienced similarly poor outcomes, their loans piled up, loan performance deteriorated, and with it the finances of the federal program. The crisis illustrates the important role that educational institutions play in access to postsecondary education and student outcomes, and difficulty of using broadly-available loans to subsidize investments in education when there is so much heterogeneity in outcomes across institutions and programs and in the ability to repay of students.

This draft was prepared for the Journal of Economic Perspectives. Adam Looney is Clinical Professor, University of Utah, David Eccles School of Business, Salt Lake City, Utah. He is also a Visiting Senior Fellow, The Brookings Institution, Washington, DC. Constantine Yannelis is Associate Professor of Finance, University of Chicago Booth School of Business, Chicago, Illinois. He is also a Faculty Research Fellow, National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Bureau of Economic Research.


Download Citation Data

Working Groups

More from nber.

In addition to working papers , the NBER disseminates affiliates’ latest findings through a range of free periodicals — the NBER Reporter , the NBER Digest , the Bulletin on Retirement and Disability , the Bulletin on Health , and the Bulletin on Entrepreneurship  — as well as online conference reports , video lectures , and interviews .

15th Annual Feldstein Lecture, Mario Draghi, "The Next Flight of the Bumblebee: The Path to Common Fiscal Policy in the Eurozone cover slide


Math discovery provides new method to study cell activity, aging

New mathematical tools revealing how quickly cell proteins break down are poised to uncover deeper insights into how we age, according to a recently published paper co-authored by a Mississippi State researcher and his colleagues from Harvard Medical School and the University of Cambridge.

Galen Collins, assistant professor in MSU's Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Entomology and Plant Pathology, co-authored the groundbreaking paper published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , or PNAS , in April.

"We already understand how quickly proteins are made, which can happen in a matter of minutes," said Collins, who is also a scientist in the Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station. "Until now, we've had a very poor understanding of how much time it takes them to break down."

The paper in applied mathematics, "Maximum entropy determination of mammalian proteome dynamics," presents the new tools that quantify the degradation rates of cell proteins -- how quickly they break down -- helping us understand how cells grow and die and how we age. Proteins -- complex molecules made from various combinations of amino acids -- carry the bulk of the workload within a cell, providing its structure, responding to messages from outside the cell and removing waste.

The results proved that not all proteins degrade at the same pace but instead fall into one of three categories, breaking down over the course of minutes, hours or days. While previous research has examined cell protein breakdown, this study was the first to quantify mathematically the degradation rates of all cell protein molecules, using a technique called maximum entropy.

"For certain kinds of scientific questions, experiments can often reveal infinitely many possible answers; however, they are not all equally plausible," said lead author Alexander Dear, research fellow in applied mathematics at Harvard University. "The principle of maximum entropy is a mathematical law that shows us how to precisely calculate the plausibility of each answer -- its 'entropy' -- so that we can choose the one that is the most likely."

"This kind of math is sort of like a camera that zooms in on your license plate from far away and figures out what the numbers should be," Collins said. "Maximum entropy gives us a clear and precise picture of how protein degradation occurs in cells."

In addition, the team used these tools to study some specific implications of protein degradation for humans and animals. For one, they examined how those rates change as muscles develop and adapt to starvation.

"We found that starvation had the greatest impact on the intermediate group of proteins in muscular cells, which have a half-life of a few hours, causing the breakdown to shift and accelerate," Collins said. "This discovery could have implications for cancer patients who experience cachexia, or muscle wasting due to the disease and its treatments."

They also explored how a shift in the breakdown of certain cell proteins contributes to neurodegenerative disease.

"These diseases occur when waste proteins, which usually break down quickly, live longer than they should," Collins said. "The brain becomes like a teenager's bedroom, accumulating trash, and when you don't clean it up, it becomes uninhabitable."

Dear affirmed the study's value lies not only in what it revealed about cell protein degeneration, but also in giving scientists a new method to investigate cell activity with precision.

"Our work provides a powerful new experimental method for quantifying protein metabolism in cells," he said. "Its simplicity and rapidity make it particularly well-suited for studying metabolic changes."

Collins's post-doctoral advisor at Harvard and a co-author of the article, the late Alfred Goldberg, was a pioneer in studying the life and death of proteins. Collins noted this study was built on nearly five decades of Goldberg's research and his late-career collaboration with mathematicians from the University of Cambridge. After coming to MSU a year ago, Collins continued collaborating with his colleagues to complete the paper.

"It's an incredible honor to be published in PNAS , but it was also a lot of fun being part of this team," Collins said. "And it's very meaningful to see my former mentor's body of work wrapped up and published."

  • Human Biology
  • Sickle Cell Anemia
  • Mathematics
  • Mobile Computing
  • Math Puzzles
  • Mathematical Modeling
  • Mathematical induction
  • Embryonic stem cell
  • Natural killer cell

Story Source:

Materials provided by Mississippi State University . Note: Content may be edited for style and length.

Journal Reference :

  • Alexander J. Dear, Gonzalo A. Garcia, Georg Meisl, Galen A. Collins, Tuomas P. J. Knowles, Alfred L. Goldberg. Maximum entropy determination of mammalian proteome dynamics . Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , 2024; 121 (18) DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2313107121

Cite This Page :

Explore More

  • Birth of Universe's Earliest Galaxies
  • Why the Brain Can Robustly Recognize B&W Images
  • Birth Control Pill for Men?
  • Intriguing World Sized Between Earth, Venus
  • Billions of Orphan Stars Revealed
  • Massive Catalog of Strange Worlds
  • Mental Disorders May Spread Thru Social Networks
  • Global Clean Water Crisis Looms Large
  • 'Exo-Venus' With Earth-Like Temps
  • Ants Forage Better When Given a Little Caffeine

Trending Topics

Strange & offbeat.


  1. (PDF) RFID-Based Digital Door Locking System

    rfid research paper ideas

  2. ISBC Group developed an innovative RFID-paper on NXP chips

    rfid research paper ideas

  3. (PDF) RFID overview

    rfid research paper ideas

  4. ISBC Group developed an innovative RFID-paper on NXP chips

    rfid research paper ideas

  5. (PDF) A Case Study of an RFID-based System for Pilgrims Identification

    rfid research paper ideas


    rfid research paper ideas


  1. Inventory Stockroom Audit Challenge: RFID vs Barcode vs Paper and Pencil

  2. How To Build A RFID-based Smart Parking System? Arduino Uno #shorts

  3. Choosing the Best RFID Tags: 7 Factors to Consider

  4. RFID Hacking Exposed

  5. Paper Roll RFID Technology

  6. A complete new way to print RFID by inkjet silver



    Radio Fre quency Identification (RFID) is a generic term for technologies that use radio waves. to automatically identify people or objects from a distance of several inches to hundreds of feet ...

  2. (PDF) A Systematic Literature Review on RFID Application in

    This paper provides a comprehensive review of the literature on RFID application in manufacturing and supply chain management, covering the benefits, challenges, and future directions of this ...

  3. An introduction to RFID technology

    In recent years, radio frequency identification technology has moved from obscurity into mainstream applications that help speed the handling of manufactured goods and materials. RFID enables identification from a distance, and unlike earlier bar-code technology, it does so without requiring a line of sight. In this paper, the author introduces the principles of RFID, discusses its primary ...

  4. A systematic literature review on the benefit-drivers of RFID

    In addition, the work of Fosso Wamba et al. (Citation 2016) on RFID implementation in the supply chain supported the research of Oghazi et al. (Citation 2018) and added that the integration of RFID and ERP can be used in a company for better supply chain strategies and synergies through better analytics. To transform and upgrade the traditional ...

  5. A Framework for the Implementation of RFID Systems

    This paper presents a systematic and holistic RFID implementation framework which has been validated by both users and experts. The framework outlines the important tasks to be performed in each step of the implementation process. ... Figure 3 depicts the research methodology of this study. A search of English language articles published in ...

  6. A systematic review of RFID applications and diffusion: key areas and

    A brief history of RFID technology. RFID technology was emerged as Frederick Hertz found existence of radio frequency during his experiment in 1886 (Wyld, 2005) and developed for the purpose of defense during the Second World War Footnote 4.During 1970s and 1980s, the RFID system attracted plenty of scholars and innovators, so efforts to register patents progressed (Takahashi, 2004).

  7. (PDF) RFID Applications and Security Review

    This paper presents a review of the most cited topics regarding RFID focused on. applications, security, and privacy. A total of 62,685 records were downloaded from the W eb of. Science (W oS) and ...

  8. Topic Areas

    IEEE RFID 2021 is an opportunity to share, discuss, and witness research results across all technical areas of RFID research: Topics are grouped into 10 main tracks: Antennas & Propagation: Antenna theory and designs. MIMO, UWB and hybrid RFID tag antennas. Channel measurements and modeling. Applications & Software: RFID software, middleware ...

  9. Computation

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) is widely used in several contexts, such as logistics, supply chains, asset tracking, and health, among others, therefore drawing the attention of many researchers. This paper presents a review of the most cited topics regarding RFID focused on applications, security, and privacy. A total of 62,685 records were downloaded from the Web of Science (WoS) and ...

  10. PDF RFID Applications and Security Review

    This paper presents a review of the most cited topics regarding RFID focused on applications, security, and privacy. A total of 62,685 records were downloaded from the Web of Science (WoS) and Scopus core databases and processed, reconciling the datasets to remove duplicates, resulting in 40,677 unique elements.

  11. Best Papers

    IEEE RFID Conference Best Papers. 2021 - A 125μmx245μm Mainly Digital UHF EPC Gen2 Compatible RFID tag in 55nm CMOS process by Kirti Bhanushali. 2020 - 5 mm Range 61 GHz System on Chip EPC Gen2 RFID Tag in 22nm FD-SOI Technology by Armen Harutyunyan. 2019 - Breaking the Range Limit of RFID Localization: Phase-based Positioning with ...

  12. RFID Applications, Issues, Methods and Theory: A Review of the AIS

    Conclusion, Limits and Future Research Directions In this paper, the results of comprehensive review of RFID papers within the AIS basket of top journals were presented and discussed. Our results showed that, even if RFID technology has been around for more than two decades, the publication of articles dealing with the topic within the AIS ...

  13. RFID research: An academic literature review (1995-2005) and future

    To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first identifiable academic literature review on RFID research to depict the current status of RFID research. An attempt is made in this paper to comprehensively review the RFID academic journal literature by excluding work that appears in conference proceedings, magazines, and doctoral dissertations.

  14. Systematic Mapping Study on RFID Technology

    Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a technology that not only serves to identify objects but also communicates other information, allowing the real-time monitoring of objects at each step in a mobile object network and the reporting of information on their current status. RFID has become one of the most promising research areas and has attracted increasing attention. This interest sparks ...

  15. PDF RFID Technology and Applications

    Key topics such as performance optimization and evaluation, sensors, network simulation, RFID in the retail supply chain, and testing are covered, as are applications in product lifecycle management in the automotive and aerospace sectors, in anti-counterfeiting, and in health care. This book brings together insights from the world's leading ...


    Reference #: ITRI-WP154-0910 Date: September 1, 2010. RFID-Enabled Visibility and Retail Inventory Record Inaccuracy: Experiments in the Field. Read More >>

  17. Topic Areas

    IEEE RFID 2022 is an opportunity to share, discuss, and witness research results across all technical areas of RFID research: General Track Topics. Antennas & Propagations. Antenna Theory and Design ; Channel modeling and measurements ; MIMO, UWB, and hybrid antennas ... Paper Submission Deadline: February 7, 2022,February 14, 2022, February 21 ...

  18. Research Study on RFID and its Future Applications

    The introduction of RFID systems in industrial manufacturing has already been taken up more than ten years ago. RFID is a smart and promising technology in various applications like asset tracking, animal tracking, in wall mart and in inventory management. This paper is a roadmap for new learners in RFID technology. Download Free PDF.

  19. Latest RF & RFID Based Projects List

    NevonProjects provides this free list of rfid projects topics for your study and research. With the world moving on to wireless technologies rf based systems will be playing an important role in future of wireless communications. These rfid based projects help students and researchers learn about rfid based systems in no time.

  20. Innovative RFID Projects Ideas for Engineers and Students

    Object Locators. 18. Implantable RFID Chip for Animal Identification. 1. RFID-based Security System. In a security access system, RFID is inductively coupled with the reader. When a card is swiped against the reader, modulated data from the card is sent to the reader which in turn is fed to the microcontroller.

  21. Research on RFID technology security

    In recent years, the Internet of Things technology has developed rapidly. RFID technology, as an important branch of the Internet of Things technology, is widely used in logistics, medical, military and other fields. RFID technology not only brings convenience to people's production and life, but also hides many security problems. However, the current research on RFID technology mainly focuses ...

  22. Rfid Research Paper Topics

    Rfid Research Paper Topics - Free download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free. This document discusses writing a thesis and getting help from BuyPapers.club. It states that writing a thesis can be difficult due to the extensive research and articulation of complex ideas required. BuyPapers.club specializes in providing writing services to help students with every step ...

  23. How to Optimize Your RFID Mandate Labeling within the Supply Chain

    Unlock supply chain success by joining SATO America, Loftware, and GS1 Global experts to master new RFID mandates, retail labeling, and compliance strategies. SCMR Staff · May 23, 2024 ·. The success of your supply chain rests with your barcode and RFID labeling. It drives track-and-trace initiatives, sustainability, and cloud-first strategies.

  24. Old Moats for New Models: Openness, Control, and Competition in

    Pierre Azoulay, Joshua L. Krieger & Abhishek Nagaraj. Working Paper 32474. DOI 10.3386/w32474. Issue Date May 2024. Drawing insights from the field of innovation economics, we discuss the likely competitive environment shaping generative AI advances. Central to our analysis are the concepts of appropriability—whether firms in the industry are ...

  25. When Protectionism Kills Talent

    DOI 10.3386/w32466. Issue Date May 2024. We examine the repercussions of protectionist policies implemented in the United States since 2018 on the composition of workforce and career choices within the semiconductor industry. We find that the shift towards protectionism, aimed at reviving domestic manufacturing and employment, paradoxically ...


    Radio frequency identification (RFID) is a matured technological knowhow that accommodates. the use of electromagnetic or electrostatic coupling in the radio frequency portion of the ...

  27. How Much Research Is Being Written by Large Language Models?

    That's why we wanted to study how much of those have been written with the help of AI.". In two papers looking at LLM use in scientific publishings, Zou and his team* found that 17.5% of computer science papers and 16.9% of peer review text had at least some content drafted by AI. The paper on LLM usage in peer reviews will be presented at ...

  28. Child Tax Benefits and Labor Supply: Evidence from California

    Based on BFI Working Paper No. 2024-49, "Child Tax Benefits and Labor Supply: Evidence from California". View Research Brief. In the United States today, some of the largest social welfare programs focused on children - including the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) and Child Tax Credit (CTC) - require that parents earn income from work.

  29. What Went Wrong with Federal Student Loans?

    The increase in aggregate student debt and the struggles of today's student loan borrowers can be traced to changes in federal policies intended to broaden access to federal aid and educational opportunities, and which increased enrollment and borrowing in higher-risk circumstances. Starting in the late 1990s, policymakers weakened ...

  30. Math discovery provides new method to study cell activity, aging

    Math discovery provides new method to study cell activity, aging. Date: May 21, 2024. Source: Mississippi State University. Summary: New mathematical tools revealing how quickly cell proteins ...