RAFT Writing Template

RAFT Writing Template

About this printout

Students can utilize this printout to organize their writing as they learn to use the RAFT strategy .  This printout enables students to clearly define their role, audience, format, and topic for writing.

Teaching with this printout

More ideas to try, related resources.

By using this printout to organize their writing, students learn to respond to writing prompts that require them to write creatively, to consider a topic from a different perspective, and to gain practice writing for different audiences.

The four categories of focus for a RAFT include:

  • R ole of the Writer: Who are you as the writer? A movie star? The President? A plant?
  • A udience: To whom are you writing? A senator?  Yourself? A company?
  • F ormat: In what format are you writing? A diary entry? A newspaper?  A love letter?
  • T opic: What are you writing about?

Before having students write their own RAFT, use this printout to model how students should use this technique.  Discuss with your students the basic premise of the content for which you’d like to write, but allow students to help you pick the role, audience, format, and topic to write about.  Allow student input and creativity as you craft your piece of writing.  Have an in-depth discussion specifically about why you chose the different categories that you decided on ( R ole, A udience, F ormat, T opic).  Model a think-aloud about why having a certain role and audience might make your stance or ideas about a certain topic different and may alter your writing style and, therefore, your format. See the Strategy Guide titled Using the RAFT Writing Strategy for more information and ideas pertaining to this technique.

  • Give students a writing prompt (for which you have already chosen the role, audience, format, and topic) and have students react to the prompt either individually or in small groups, using this printout. It works best if at first, all students react to the same prompt so the students can learn from the varied responses of their classmates.  Hold a class discussion about how students created their personal version of the assignment.
  • As students become comfortable in reacting to RAFT prompts, you can create more than one prompt for students to respond to after a reading, lesson, or unit.  Or, you may choose to give students a list of choices for each area and let them pick and choose their role, audience, format, and topic.
  • Eventually, students may choose a role, audience, format, and topic entirely on their own.  Varied prompts allow students to compare and contrast multiple perspectives, deepening their understanding of the content.
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Anchor chart for the RAFT strategy

Reading and Writing Strategies

RAFT Writing

The RAFT strategy encourages students to write creatively, consider a topic from a different perspective, and to gain practice writing for different audiences.

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RAFT is a writing strategy that helps students understand their role as a writer, the audience they will address, the varied formats for writing, and the topic they’ll be writing about. 

  • R ole of the Writer: Who are you as the writer? A pilgrim? A soldier? The President?
  • A udience: To whom are you writing? A political rally? A potential employer?
  • F ormat: In what format are you writing? A letter? An advertisement? A speech?
  • T opic: What are you writing about?

Why use the RAFT strategy?

Students must think creatively and critically in order to respond to prompts, making RAFT a unique way for students to apply critical thinking skills about new information they are learning. RAFT writing can be used across disciplines as a universal writing approach.

How to create and use the strategy

  • Walk students through the acronym RAFT and why it’s important to consider various perspectives when completing any writing assignment.
  • Display a RAFT writing prompt to your class and model how you would write in response to the prompt.
  • Have students react to another writing prompt individually, or in small groups. It works best if all students react to the same prompt so the class can learn from each other’s responses.
  • As students become comfortable in reacting to RAFT prompts, you can create more than one prompt for students to respond to after reading, a lesson, or a unit of study. Varied prompts allow students to compare and contrast multiple perspectives, deepening their understanding of the content.

Sample RAFT prompts

R:  Citizen A:  Congress F:  Letter T:  Taxation
R:  Scout Finch  A:  Community of Monroeville, Alabama F:  Eulogy for Atticus Finch T:  Social Inequality

Strategy in action

For more RAFT prompts, review Doug Fisher and Nancy Frey’s compiled list of Picture Book RAFT prompts . You may also find a RAFT scoring rubric and additional RAFT examples helpful as you implement the RAFT strategy in your class. Now, let’s watch as a teacher uses the RAFT writing strategy in her science class.

Tips for success

  • It’s important for students to learn how their writing may change for different perspectives. It’s helpful to show students examples of writings on the same topic and format but with different roles of the writer or audience.
  • Once students are fluent using the RAFT strategy, they can take any topic and choose the role, audience, and format on their own.

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How to Use the RAFT Strategy in the Classroom to Develop Reading and Writing Skills?

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Use the RAFT strategy in the classroom to encourage creative and organized writing. This writing activity will help develop the writing skills of students in a fun and creative way.

What is the RAFT strategy?

Writing is not easy for all students. In our classrooms, we see students struggling with the different phases or processes of writing. This strategy is used to help students understand the process of writing better. It teaches them the important concepts to consider when writing or reading a text. RAFT is an acronym that stands for Role, Audience, Format and Topic.

Why use the RAFT strategy?

This strategy is referred to as a “complete/one-stop” strategy, as it helps to address the most important concepts faced with writing. The application of the RAFT strategy has numerous benefits including helping students to:

  • Understand their role as a writer
  • Consider a topic for writing and analyze it from different perspectives
  • Consider the audience/reader they are writing for and understand what needs to be conveyed
  • Explore the different forms and styles of writing best suited for the assignment
  • Effectively communicate their ideas and thoughts so that the audience/reader is able to easily comprehend the writing.

In a nutshell, the RAFT strategy enables students to identify their voice in writing and to write creatively considering different perspectives for a variety of audiences.

What does RAFT stand for?

The acronym RAFT stands for the following prompts:

  • Role:  Who is the writer?
  • Audience:  To whom are you writing?
  • Format:  Are you writing to persuade, entertain, inform, or describe?
  • Topic:  What are you writing about?

How to use the RAFT strategy in the classroom

Write down the RAFT acronym on the board and explain each prompt with examples. Pick a portion from your current reading assignment and decide with your students what role, audience, format and topic you can write about. For example, pick a portion from The Tempestand ask your students to do a writing assignment with these prompts using the RAFT strategy:

Role: Miranda

Audience: To herself

Format: Diary

Topic: Being on the island

The students are now able to follow the prompts to help them write creatively. After the students are finished they are able to read aloud to the rest of the class what they wrote. This will show all the different stories that the students created. This develops the text they are reading while practicing their creative writing skills. Over time, encourage students to apply the strategy individually, choosing their own RAFTs and applying it across different classes.

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raft writing for elementary students

The RAFT Writing Process in the Foreign Language Classroom

Students Doing Homework

RAFT is an acronym for R ole, A udience, F orm, and T heme. Given a choice, students will compose a written piece from a number of options.

Here is an example how how this type of assignment would work. Students read a short story about a student named Delphine in Québec. She is very involved in all of her school activities and students read all the details about her school life. After engaging in reading activities (see Reading Activities in the Reading category), students are given a choice of topics and writing styles. Generally, the options get progressively more challenging, so a teacher may ask a student to choose two of the less challenging options or one of the more challenging assignments.

Based on the Delphine story, here are some RAFT writing options:

Screen Shot 2013-02-09 at 3.05.11 PM

Essentially, if a student were to choose number one, he would draw on details from the story to write a note from Delphine to friend about plans for Friday night. For number two, he would write an email from the Yearbook Adviser to Delphine about the sports page. If he were to choose number three he would write a speech by the principal to be delivered to families about an award that Delphine is receiving.

This type of writing assignment allows students the opportunity to write in different ways (formally, informally) on topics of interest to them, while remaining within the parameters of the assignment.

Detailed examples of RAFT Activities

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April 18, 2019 6-8-geometry

Printable raft writing surface area activity, grades 6–8, by: jeff todd.

Today I'm sharing a surface area activity I've used in middle school classrooms since the mid-90s. I have since developed it to become a RAFT writing assignment. In this article, you'll find free printable instructions and rubrics for scoring this toy company themed surface area activity!

Surface Area Activity That Incorporates The RAFT Writing Strategy

This surface area RAFT activity is perfect for middle school students learning about surface area of rectangular prisms. Students imagine that they are a marketing company president and are pitching to a toy company a design proposal for a box for shipping square toy blocks. They need to propose a shipping container for the toy blocks that is not too expensive (i.e., conserves surface area) and provides ample space for a powerful marketing message (i.e., has a large side to display the marketing message).

raft-writing-strategy-surface-area-activity-750px.png

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Using the raft writing strategy in mathematics.

If you haven’t used the RAFT writing strategy in math before, let me introduce you to the format. RAFT stands for Role, Audience, Format, and Topic. With the RAFT writing strategy students are given a role in a real-life writing topic, a specific audience, a pre-defined format, and a specific topic.

Here is how this surface area activity works using a RAFT writing model:

Role—You are the President of a marketing company that is submitting a proposal to design the packaging for a product.

Audience—You are writing to the President of a toy company, who will make a decision on which proposal to accept.

Format—You are writing a business letter that includes an attachment showing your marketing design for the packaging of the product.

Topic—You are addressing two areas of concern about the package: the cost of the cardboard and the design of the main face (side) of the package.

The surface area activity is framed in this way: You are to create a design proposal for the packaging (a box) of ABC blocks (children’s toys) that will be used to display a set on the shelf of a store. The package contains 48 one-inch cubes. You must identify the dimensions of the box. The toy company wants to keep the cost of the cardboard used to make the packaging as low as possible, but would also like to have one face of the package designed to capture the customers’ attention.

Individual and Group Work

I have done this activity both as an individual and as a group activity. If it is used as group work, the surface area activity lends itself to having “departments.” There could an art department that designs the package, a writing department for writing the letter, a technical department calculating the dimensions of the package, and a manager to coordinate the group’s activities.

The scoring rubric for the RAFT activity includes criteria for students to communicate mathematically when writing the letter. Specifically, students can address the Standard for Mathematical Practice 3, which includes students constructing a viable argument as to why the toy company should use their design. These goals are also consistent with the ELA writing standards for grade 6–8, where students are required to write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.

In Conclusion

If you would like to use this RAFT writing surface area activity in your class, click on the link below to download the instructions for students and the scoring rubric to grade their work.

raft writing for elementary students

raft writing for elementary students

RAFT Writing prompt writing

RAFT Writing

The RAFT writing strategy goes beyond just creative projects showing content knowledge. RAFT can be applied to prompt and creative writing giving students practicing with a range of writing genres and strategies for being successful on the state writing test.

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Classroom Q&A

With larry ferlazzo.

In this EdWeek blog, an experiment in knowledge-gathering, Ferlazzo will address readers’ questions on classroom management, ELL instruction, lesson planning, and other issues facing teachers. Send your questions to [email protected]. Read more from this blog.

How to Help Students With Their Writing. 4 Educators Share Their Secrets

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Teaching students to write is no easy feat, and it’s a topic that has often been discussed on this blog.

It’s also a challenge that can’t have too much discussion!

Today, four educators share their most effective writing lessons.

‘Three Practices That Create Confident Writers’

Penny Kittle teaches first-year writers at Plymouth State University in New Hampshire. She was a teacher and literacy coach in public schools for 34 years and is the author of nine books, including Micro Mentor Texts (Scholastic). She is the founder and president of the Book Love Foundation, which annually grants classroom libraries to teachers throughout North America:

I write almost every day. Like anything I want to do well, I practice. Today, I wrote about the wild dancing, joyful energy, and precious time I spent with my daughter at a Taylor Swift concert. Then I circled back to notes on Larry’s question about teaching writers. I wrote badly, trying to find a through line. I followed detours and crossed out bad ideas. I stopped to think. I tried again. I lost faith in my words. I will get there , I told myself. I trust my process.

I haven’t always written this easily or this much. I wouldn’t say I’m a “natural” writer because I don’t believe they exist. Writing is work. When I entered college, I received a C-minus on my first paper. I was stunned. I had never worked at writing: I was a “first drafter,” an “only drafter.” And truthfully, I didn’t know how or what to practice. I was assigned writing in high school and I completed it. I rarely received feedback. I didn’t get better. I didn’t learn to think like a writer; I thought like a student.

I’ve now spent 40 years studying writing and teaching writers in kindergarten, elementary school, middle school, and high school, as well as teachers earning graduate degrees. Despite their age, writers in school share one remarkably similar trait: a lack of confidence. Confidence is a brilliant and fiery light; it draws your eyes, your heart, and your mind. But in fact, it is as rare as the Northern Lights. I feel its absence every fall in my composition courses.

We can change that.

Confidence blooms in classrooms focused on the growth of writers.

This happens in classrooms where the teacher relies less on lessons and more on a handful of practices. Unfortunately, though, in most classrooms, a heap of time is spent directing students to practice “writing-like” activities: restrictive templates for assignments, with detailed criteria focused on rules. Those activities handcuff writers. If you tell me what to do and how to do it, I will focus on either completing the task or avoiding it. That kind of writing work doesn’t require much thinking; it is merely labor.

Practice creating, on the other hand, is harder, but it is how we develop the important ability to let our ideas come and then shaping them into cohesive arguments, stories, poems, and observations. We have misunderstood the power of writing to create thinking. Likewise, we have misunderstood the limitations of narrow tasks. So, here are my best instructional practices that lead to confidence and growth in writers.

1. Writing Notebooks and Daily Revision. Writers need time to write. Think of it as a habit we begin to engage in with little effort, like serving a tennis ball from the baseline or dribbling a basketball or sewing buttonholes. Writers need daily time to whirl words, to spin ideas, to follow images that blink inside them as they move their pen across the page. In my classroom, writing time most often follows engagement with a poem.

Likewise, writers need guidance in rereading their first drafts of messy thinking. I’ve seen teachers open their notebooks and invite students to watch them shape sentences. They demonstrate how small revisions increase clarity and rhythm. Their students watch them find a focus and maintain it. Teachers show the effort and the joy of writing well.

Here’s an example: We listen to a beautiful poem such as “Montauk” by Sarah Kay, her tribute to growing up. Students write freely from lines or images that spring to them as they listen. I write in my notebook as students write in theirs for 4-5 minutes. Then I read my entry aloud, circling subjects and detours ( I don’t know why I wrote so much about my dog, but maybe I have more to say about this … ). I model how to find a focus. I invite students to do the same.

2. Writers Study Writing . Writers imitate structures, approaches, and ways of reaching readers. They read like writers to find possibilities: Look what the writer did here and here . A template essay can be an effective tool to write for a test, but thankfully, that is a very small and insignificant part of the whole of writing for any of us. Real writing grows from studying the work of other writers. We study sentences, passages, essays, and articles to understand how they work, as we create our own.

3. Writers Have Conversations as They Work . When writers practice the skills and embrace the challenges of writing in community, it expands possibilities. Every line read from a notebook carries the mark of a particular writer: the passion, the voice, the experiences, and the vulnerability of each individual. That kind of sharing drives process talk ( How did you think to write about that? Who do you imagine you are speaking to? ), which showcases the endless variation in writers and leads to “writerly thinking.” It shifts conversations from “right and wrong” to “how and why.”

Long ago, at a local elementary school, in a workshop for teachers, I watched Don Graves list on the chalkboard subjects he was considering writing about. He read over his list and chose one. From there, he wrote several sentences, talking aloud about the decisions he was making as a writer. Then he turned to accept and answer questions.

“Why do this?” someone asked.

“Because you are the most important writer in the room,” Don said. “You are showing students why anyone would write when they don’t have to.” He paused, then added, “If not you, who?”

confidenceblooms

Developing ‘Student Voice’

A former independent school English teacher and administrator, Stephanie Farley is a writer and educational consultant working with teachers and schools on issues of curriculum, assessment, instruction, SEL, and building relationships. Her book, Joyful Learning: Tools to Infuse Your 6-12 Classroom with Meaning, Relevance, and Fun is available from Routledge Eye on Education:

Teaching writing is my favorite part of being a teacher. It’s incredibly fun to talk about books with kids, but for me, it’s even more fun to witness students’ skills and confidence grow as they figure out how to use written language to communicate what they mean.

A lesson I used to like doing was in “voice.” My 8th graders had a hard time understanding what I meant when I asked them to consider “voice” in their writing. The best illustration I came up with was playing Taylor Swift’s song “Blank Space” for students. Some students groaned while others clapped. (Doesn’t this always happen when we play music for students? There’s no song that makes everyone happy!) But when they settled down, I encouraged them to listen to the style: the arrangement, her voice as she sang, the dominant instruments.

Then, I played a cover of “Blank Space” by Ryan Adams. Eyes rolled as the song unfurled through the speakers, but again I reminded students to listen to the arrangement, voice, and instruments. After about 60 seconds of the Adams version, heads nodded in understanding. When the music ended and I asked students to explain voice to me, they said it’s “making something your own … like your own style.” Yes!

The next step was applying this new understanding to their own writing. Students selected a favorite sentence from the books they were reading, then tried to write it in their own voice. We did this a few times, until everyone had competently translated Kwame Alexander into “Rosa-style” or Kelly Link into “Michael-style.” Finally, when it was time for students to write their own longer works—stories, personal essays, or narratives—they intentionally used the words and sentence patterns they had identified as their own voice.

I’m happy to report this method worked! In fact, it was highly effective. Students’ papers were more idiosyncratic, nuanced, and creative. The only change to this lesson I’d make now is trying to find a more zeitgeist-y song with the hope that the groans at the beginning die down a little faster.

itsfun

Teaching ELLs

Irina McGrath, Ph.D., is an assistant principal at Newcomer Academy in the Jefferson County school district in Kentucky and the president of KYTESOL. She is also an adjunct professor at the University of Louisville, Indiana University Southeast, and Bellarmine University. She is a co-creator of the ELL2.0 site that offers free resources for teachers of English learners:

Reflecting on my experience of teaching writing to English learners, I have come to realize that writing can be daunting, especially when students are asked to write in English, a language they are learning to master. The most successful writing lessons I have taught were those that transformed the process into an enjoyable experience, fostering a sense of accomplishment and pride in my students.

To achieve this, I prioritized the establishment of a supportive learning environment. At the beginning of each school year, I set norms that emphasized the importance of writing for everyone, including myself as their teacher. I encouraged students to write in English and their native language and I wrote alongside my English learners to demonstrate that writing is a journey that requires hard work and dedication, regardless of age or previous writing experiences. By witnessing my own struggles, my students felt encouraged to persevere.

My English learners understood that errors were expected and that they were valuable opportunities for growth and improvement. This created a comfortable atmosphere where students felt more confident taking risks and experimenting with their writing. Rather than being discouraged by mistakes, they viewed them as steppingstones toward progress.

In my most effective writing lessons, I provided scaffolds such as sentence stems, sentence frames, and word banks. I also encouraged my students to use translation tools to help generate ideas on paper. These scaffolds empowered English learners to independently tackle more challenging writing assignments and nurtured their confidence in completing writing tasks. During writers’ circles, we discussed the hard work invested in each writing piece, shared our work, and celebrated each other’s success.

Furthermore, my most successful writing lessons integrated reading and writing. I taught my students to read like writers and utilized mentor texts to emulate the craft of established authors, which they could later apply to their own writing. Mentor texts, such as picture books, short stories, or articles, helped my students observe how professional writers use dialogue, sentence structure, and descriptive language to enhance their pieces.

Instead of overwhelming students with information, I broke down writing into meaningful segments and taught through mini lessons. For example, we analyzed the beginnings of various stories to examine story leads. Then, collaboratively, my students and I created several leads together. When they were ready, I encouraged them to craft their own leads and select the most appropriate one for their writing piece.

Ultimately, my most effective lessons were those in which I witnessed the joyful smiles on my English learners’ faces as they engaged with pages filled with written or typed words. It is during those moments that I knew my writers were creating and genuinely enjoying their work.

To access a self-checklist that students and EL teachers can use when teaching or creating a writing piece in English, you can visit the infographic at bit.ly/ABC_of_Writing .

iprovided

‘Model Texts’

Anastasia M. Martinez is an English-language-development and AVID Excel teacher in Pittsburg, Calif.:

As a second-language learner, writing in English had not always been my suit. It was not until graduate school that I immersed myself in a vast array of journals, articles, and other academic works, which ultimately helped me find my academic voice and develop my writing style. Now, working as an ESL teacher with a diverse group of middle school multilingual learners, I always provide a model text relevant to a topic or prompt we are exploring.

When students have a model text, it gives them a starting point for their own writing and presents writing as less scary, where they get stuck on the first sentence and do not know how to start.

At the start of the lesson, prior to using a model text, I create a “do now” activity that guides my students’ attention to the topic and creates a relevant context for the text. After students share their ideas with a partner and then the class, we transition to our lesson objectives, and I introduce the model text. We first use prereading strategies to analyze the text, and students share what they notice based on the title, images, and a number of paragraphs. Then, depending on the students’ proficiency level, I read the text to the class, or students read the text as partners, thinking about what the text was mostly about.

After students read and share their ideas with partners and then the whole class, we transition to deconstructing the text. These multiple reengagements with the text help students become more familiar with it, as well as help students build reading fluency.

When deconstructing the model text, I guide my students through each paragraph and sentence. During that time, students orally share their ideas determining the meaning of specific paragraphs or sentences, which we later annotate in the model text using different colored highlighters or pens. Color coding helps visually guide students through similar parts of the model text. For instance, if we highlight evidence in paragraph 2 in one color, we also highlight evidence in the same color in the following paragraph. It helps students see the similarities between the paragraphs and discover the skeleton of the writing. Additionally, color coding helps students during their writing process and revision. Students can check if they used all parts of the writing based on the colors.

Furthermore, one of the essential pieces during deconstructing model texts that I draw my students’ attention to is transition words and “big words,” or academic vocabulary. We usually box them in the text, and I question students about why the author used a particular word in the text. Later, when students do their own writing, they can integrate new vocabulary and transition words, which enhances their vocabulary and language skills.

As the next step, I invite students to co-create a similar piece of writing with a partner or independently using our model text as their guide. Later, our model text serves as a checklist for individual and partner revisions, which students could use to give each other feedback.

Model texts are an essential part of the writing process in any content-area class. As educators, we should embrace the importance of model texts, as they provide a solid foundation upon which students can develop their unique writing skills, tone, and voice.

modeltexts

Thanks to Penny, Stephanie, Irina, and Anastasia for contributing their thoughts!

Consider contributing a question to be answered in a future post. You can send one to me at [email protected] . When you send it in, let me know if I can use your real name if it’s selected or if you’d prefer remaining anonymous and have a pseudonym in mind.

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The Enterprise

Not just Brockton High: Teachers 'hopeless' as chaos extends to elementary, middle schools

B ROCKTON — More than a dozen Brockton Public Schools teachers and staff members expressed to state legislators Thursday night that many of the issues Brockton High School is facing — including students verbally and physically assaulting teachers, causing constant violent fights, swearing, vaping, smoking, stealing, breaking school property and leaving the building freely — are also rocking elementary and middle schools across the district.

Multiple employees from various BPS elementary schools and middle schools spoke at a public meeting on Feb. 15 regarding Massachusetts General Law Sec. 84 C. 37H - 3/4: a recent student discipline law nicknamed "Chapter 222 " that limits schools' ability to use out-of-school suspension.

Four state government officials who represent Brockton — Rep. Gerard Cassidy, Rep. Michelle DuBois, Rep. Rita Mendes and Sen. Michael Brady — attended the meeting, where they heard 15 BPS teachers and staff discuss the behavior they've seen in schools across Brockton.

"A lot of Brockton teachers are feeling hopeless," said Athena Deltano, a special education teacher at Arnone Elementary School who said she recently was bitten by a student not in her class.

"I think we're all looking for a life raft right now."

BPS teachers have spoken at school committee meetings since October about the violent fights, physical attacks and constant disrespect toward teachers of roughly 300 to 700 students at Brockton High. Thursday's meeting showed the problems are engulfing schools at every grade level.

"We are not able to do our jobs safely," Deltano said. "We're literally, all of us, begging you."

What is Chapter 222? New state law makes suspending students hard. Is that tying Brockton's hands?

'Mini BHS': Middle, elementary teachers describe violence

Adriana Alicea, a counselor at Arnone Elementary, said the same student who bit Deltano also kicked Alicea earlier in the school year. She said the Arnone School is "a mini BHS."

"I want to see change happen," Alicea said at the meeting Thursday night. "We need physical, tangible change by the end of the school year."

Alicea said many BPS staff are considering leaving the district if these issues aren't fixed by the end of the 2023-24 school year.

Allison Russell, a first-year music teacher at West Middle School where Thursday's meeting was held, said when she gave her music students drumsticks, they threw them at the back of her legs so hard that she was bruised. She said she can't give her students ukuleles because they'll likely break them.

"I'm watching my job turn into babysitting instead of teaching," Russell said. "This does not start in high school."

At Downey Elementary School, fifth grade teacher Gitana Snow said she's heard students swearing, yelling and threatening to harm each other. She said she's seen students throw chairs, punch walls, steal teacher's items and constantly disrespect staff.

"Administration has been as helpful as possible, but as we know their hands are tied," Snow said.

Shocking levels of violence and chaos Emotional teachers describe life inside Brockton High School

Is Chapter 222 harming schools?

The state law "Chapter 222" sets restrictions on how principals and superintendents can respond to incidents that occur within the school buildings, with the aim to keep students in school so they can continue learning.

Before a student can be suspended outside of school, administrators must exhaust all “alternative remedies” and keep them inside the school building, according to the law. These remedies can include mediation, conflict resolution, restorative justice and collaborative problem solving.

"[It] was changed in November of 2022 as part of a broader piece of legislation in the state to address the mental health needs of children," said Paige Tobin, an attorney for Murphy, Lamere & Murphy, the law firm that represents Brockton Public Schools.

"Students were being suspended out of school more than they should be," Tobin said. "Particularly because of the aftermath of COVID, it was important to try to keep students in school as much as possible."

'Watch the repairs' Here's what new Brockton High principal plans to do to end the chaos

But according to Karen Guzman, a math teacher a Brockton Virtual Learning Academy who used to teach in BHS, when the law was first enacted, BHS administrators told teachers they couldn't write behavior referrals anymore, and if students were misbehaving teachers "were told to suck it up."

"Chapter 222, it took away the rights of all the other kids that want to learn," Guzman said to applause from the crowd of over 50 teachers. "We need to revamp what Chapter 222 has done to us."

Ninth grade BHS teacher Eleri Merrikin said that in a class of 30 students, five or six will have "extreme behavior problems" and misbehave in class every day all semester long.

"When are we going to wake up and realize suspension is a tool," Merikin. "Schools are reeling out of control and it's making it bad for everyone."

This article originally appeared on The Enterprise: Not just Brockton High: Teachers 'hopeless' as chaos extends to elementary, middle schools

Arnone School teacher Athena Deltano has questions for State Sen. Michael Brady and representatives Michelle DuBois, Rita Mendes and Gerry Cassidy at a meeting at West Middle School in Brockton with state legislators about severe student behavior problems on Thursday, Feb. 15, 2024.

IMAGES

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COMMENTS

  1. RAFT

    RAFT is a writing strategy that helps students understand their role as a writer, the audience they will address, the varied formats for writing, and the topic they'll be writing about. The four elements of RAFT are: R ole of the Writer: Who are you as the writer? A pilgrim? A soldier? The President? A udience: To whom are you writing? A friend?

  2. 25 Great RAFT Writing Prompts

    RAFT writing prompts engage critical thinking and creativity as students use their imaginations plus knowledge to mold information in new ways. Following you will find many great RAFT writing prompt examples. Example #1 Role: Butterfly Audience: Flower Format: Book report Topic: Life cycle of a butterfly

  3. RAFT Writing

    ~Write a story as a water droplet going through the water cycle. ~Pretend you are a child in 1774 in what will eventually be America. Describe what your life is like. RAFT Writing is commonly used as essay responses at the end of units to measure students' content knowledge.

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    RAFT Writing Template Grades 5 - 12 Printout Type Writing Starter View Printout About this printout Students can utilize this printout to organize their writing as they learn to use the RAFT strategy . This printout enables students to clearly define their role, audience, format, and topic for writing. Teaching with this printout More ideas to try

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    R.A.F.T. can help you identify and incorporate the elements of effective writing. The R.A.F.T. strategy engages students in explaining what they know about a topic and then elaborating. In addition, it provides students with a choice that is on grade level.

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  8. RAFT Writing Strategy

    RAFT Writing Strategy & Examples. The RAFT writing strategy is a powerful tool for students to use when composing a variety of writing pieces. The acronym RAFT stands for Role, Audience, Format, and Topic. By considering these elements, students can create a clear and focused writing piece that effectively communicates their message to their ...

  9. RAFT Writing

    RAFT is a writing strategy that helps students understand their role as a writer, the audience they will address, the varied formats for writing, and the topic they'll be writing about. R ole of the Writer: Who are you as the writer? A pilgrim? A soldier? The President? A udience: To whom are you writing? A political rally? A potential employer?

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    How to write a RAFT for your students RAFTs are relatively easy to put together for any subject matter. You can find lists of them online, but they're also quick to write and customize for your students. Here's how: Topic Choose the topic. What do you want your students to show they understand. Look at the examples above.

  12. Raft Writing Printable Prompts

    Hi! I'm Tessa! I've spent the last 15 years teaching in 1st, 2nd, and 3rd grades, and working beside elementary classrooms as an instructional coach and resource support. I'm passionate about math, literacy, and finding ways to make teachers' days easier.I share from my experiences both in and out of the elementary classroom. Read more About Me.

  13. How to Use the RAFT Strategy in the Classroom to Develop Reading and

    What does RAFT stand for? The acronym RAFT stands for the following prompts: Role: Who is the writer? Audience: To whom are you writing? Format: Are you writing to persuade, entertain, inform, or describe? Topic: What are you writing about? How to use the RAFT strategy in the classroom

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    RAFT Writing Template Type name(s) Role Audience Format Topic Writing Assignment. Title: Microsoft Word - RAFTWritingTemplate-1.docx Author: kdeckert Created Date: 12/23/2014 11:50:48 AM ...

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    Lesson Preparation Collect samples of short pieces of writing in which the role, audience, format and topic are clear. Develop a RAFT prompt for the current unit of study. Develop or identify a RAFT prompt that you can use to model how to write to the prompt. Lesson Whole Group Instruction Share a short piece of writing with the class.

  21. The RAFT Writing Process in the Foreign Language Classroom

    The RAFT is a way of giving students a choice of topic and style while still maintaining the focus of the writing objective. RAFT is an acronym for Role, Audience, Form, and Theme. Given a choice, students will compose a written piece from a number of options. Here is an example how how this type of assignment would work.

  22. Printable RAFT Writing Surface Area Activity, Grades 6-8

    This surface area RAFT activity is perfect for middle school students learning about surface area of rectangular prisms. Students imagine that they are a marketing company president and are pitching to a toy company a design proposal for a box for shipping square toy blocks. They need to propose a shipping container for the toy blocks that is ...

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  24. How to Help Students With Their Writing. 4 Educators Share Their

    Real writing grows from studying the work of other writers. We study sentences, passages, essays, and articles to understand how they work, as we create our own. 3. Writers Have Conversations as ...

  25. What records are exempted from FERPA?

    What records are exempted from FERPA? Records which are kept in the sole possession of the maker of the records, are used only as a personal memory aid, and are not accessible or revealed to any other person except a temporary substitute for the maker of the records. Records of the law enforcement unit of an educational agency or institution ...

  26. Not just Brockton High: Teachers 'hopeless' as chaos extends to ...

    Multiple employees from various BPS elementary schools and middle schools spoke at a public meeting on Feb. 15 regarding Massachusetts General Law Sec. 84 C. 37H - 3/4: a recent student discipline ...