The assignments in this course are openly licensed, and are available as-is, or can be modified to suit your students’ needs. Selected answer keys are available to faculty who adopt Waymaker, OHM, or Candela courses with paid support from Lumen Learning. This approach helps us protect the academic integrity of these materials by ensuring they are shared only with authorized and institution-affiliated faculty and staff.
If you import this course into your learning management system (Blackboard, Canvas, etc.), the assignments will automatically be loaded into the assignment tool.
Half of the written assignments are based on a fictional business called “Sun City Boards.” The business is initially profiled in the Why It Matters and Putting It Together sections of the Planning and Mission module. Additional information about the business appears in the Scenario and Preparation sections of each assignment. While these assignments work well together as a common framework for applying knowledge and skills developed through the course, it is not required to use all of the Sun City Boards assignments. Each assignment can stand on its own with the background information provided in previous assignments.
The other written assignments and discussions use a variety of approaches, depending on the subject and learning outcome being assessed; many ask students to go beyond course content to form connections between research topics and what they’ve learned in class. We recommend assigning one discussion OR one assignment per chapter , rather than all of them.
You can view them below or throughout the course.
*This discussion invites conversation on race, which might require additional monitoring and involvement from instructors. This blog post from the Choices Program at Brown University contains links to helpful resources to facilitate talking about race in the classroom: “Approaching Race in the Classroom, Actively”
Rubrics for Written Assignments and Discussion Posts
For faculty using the assignments or discussions included here, there are also rubrics to assist you in grading. Instructors may download and modify these guidelines or use their own.
Grading Rubric for Discussion Posts
Written Assignment Rubric
- Assignments. Provided by : Lumen Learning. License : CC BY: Attribution
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Principles of Management
Copyright Year: 2015
ISBN 13: 9781946135186
Publisher: University of Minnesota Libraries Publishing
Conditions of use.
Learn more about reviews.
Reviewed by Anjali Chaudhry, Professor, Dominican University on 10/27/22
This open text covers all pertinent areas related to principles of management. Any core business class on management focuses on the four functions of management- planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. This material does a good job going... read more
Comprehensiveness rating: 3 see less
This open text covers all pertinent areas related to principles of management. Any core business class on management focuses on the four functions of management- planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. This material does a good job going over key concepts as well as terminology relevant in this area. Some of the examples may be outdated but that is understandable considering that this book was published in 2015 and the fact that the world of business has been experiencing a number of transitions. I am not too happy with the leadership chapter. Then again, in my opinion, most textbooks do a poor job with this topic.
Content Accuracy rating: 4
The content is error-free, unbiased, and for the most part accurate. I specially appreciate the links for research and other sources from which the text draws support.
Relevance/Longevity rating: 4
Content is mostly up-to-date and therefore, I am not too concerned about the lack of editions that such a format does not offer. My recommendation is to use the book as a basic text and then use other sources such as news articles, cases, and simulations to incorporate the role of current workplace context into the study of management. What aspects of management are relevant in the modern workplace (e.g., traditional organizational designs) or how new developments such as the gig economy can be understood using the management lens can easily be taught with a few additional resources that bolster this open source book material. If and when updates are needed, I am fairly certain that these can be done in a relatively easy and straightforward manner.
Clarity rating: 5
The text is written in a clear and easy to understand style. It introduces most of the key terms and accepted jargon from the field.
Consistency rating: 4
The text is internally consistent in terms of terminology and framework.
Modularity rating: 4
The text has been divided in chapters and sub-sections each with its own hyperlink that makes it easy to move from one section to the next.
Organization/Structure/Flow rating: 5
The logical organization and simple structure of the textbook is one of its strengths.
Interface rating: 4
The text uses relevant graphs and images that I frequently use to review key points from a section. The illustrations are meaningful and well-placed.
Grammatical Errors rating: 5
I did not notice any glaring grammatical errors.
Cultural Relevance rating: 4
The text has been written to be relevant for students in the US. I am not sure whether the examples will be too applicable for those studying management in other countries. I did not find any instances where the text could be perceived as culturally insensitive or offensive to any demographics.
I have adopted this book for my core management course, and I plan to continue to use it.
Reviewed by John Strifler, Associate Adjunct, University of Indianapolis on 4/22/21
The text is appears to be an excellent text to introduce the P-O-L-C management principles, and promote the key elements of strategy, entrepreneurship, and leadership development in students. Highlights: Chapter 1 introduces the concepts... read more
Comprehensiveness rating: 4 see less
The text is appears to be an excellent text to introduce the P-O-L-C management principles, and promote the key elements of strategy, entrepreneurship, and leadership development in students.
Highlights: Chapter 1 introduces the concepts thoroughly and sets the approach the rest of the book utilizes. A concise history of management thought is found in chapter 3. The summary element at end of each section ( Key Takeaway) is excellent reference for learner. With the references at the end of each section, one can pull a section out for use in a teaching setting and retain the references.
Content Accuracy rating: 5
The authors are clear in the beginning that they focus performance on the triple bottom line - financial, social, and environmental - and appear faithful in maintaining this approach throughout. There are no obvious errors in examples used to illustrate principles.
Examples remain accurate and relevant in explaining the concepts, however, I would utilize additional, more recent examples - noting that the text is substantially the same as its 2010 original publication.
For example, the section 3.4 addresses contemporary principles of management addressing social movements has the latest citation in 2007. Social networks have seen a significant shift.
Level of writing is suited for early college or even college prep use. A Key term summary at the end of each section or chapter would add to its usefulness.
Consistency rating: 5
The textbook follows a consistent formatting, allowing for scanning through thumbnails to find illustrations or desired summaries
Modularity rating: 5
The way the chapters are sectioned and summarized, makes for ease of modular use. Consistently starts each new section on new page, which allows for ease of sub-dividing the material. Again, the practice of placing citations at the end of each section further adds to the modularity.
The text follows logical approach in the order of topics, similar to other management texts.
Interface rating: 5
I viewed the text in its PDF format, and found it clean to view and all images were displayed properly. Searching and navigation had no issues. Having a full feature PDF viewer will simplify the process of accessing and using sections separately.
No obvious grammatical issues
Cultural Relevance rating: 5
A variety of images used with a diversity of individuals. The examples used appear to be "globally" recognized.
Will utilize sections of this text as supplemental material to provide students additional information.
Reviewed by JOE MESSER, Professor of Entrepreneurship, Manchester University on 4/2/21
I have been a business owner for 30 years and taught business management for the last 12 years. I found this text to cover all the important areas of management. Plan, Organize, Lead, and Control, were introduced early on (page 19) and each... read more
Comprehensiveness rating: 5 see less
I have been a business owner for 30 years and taught business management for the last 12 years. I found this text to cover all the important areas of management. Plan, Organize, Lead, and Control, were introduced early on (page 19) and each covered in detail in their own sections in the text.
This book is well suited for an entry level course in management. Students do not need a business background before reading this text. I appreciated the current examples that were used. This will keep students engaged.
Relevance/Longevity rating: 5
Management basics were covered very well. Examples were recent and relevant. The companies that were used as examples (SAS, Xerox, Toyota, Nucor, Google, etc. are companies that should be relevant businesses years from now.
The text was easy to read and the vocabulary was appropriate for an introductory course.
The flow and layout of the book stayed the same throughout all 16 chapters.
I found some of the sections within the chapters to be too verbose. I will cut out some of the sections (modules) in order to have time to go more in detail in other areas. For that reason the modularity is good.
The organization of the book made sense to me.
Interface rating: 2
I am still struggling trying to get access to any educational resources that go along with the book. Slides, exams, etc.
I did not run into any grammatical issues.
The text was culturally appropriate with no biases.
I intend to use this text assuming a can locate the teaching resources that go along with it. I look forward to saving my students money by using this text.
Reviewed by B'Ann Dittmar, Instructor, Clarke University on 1/7/21
Like most Principles of Management textbooks, this book has a wide breadth of topics that are covered that are relevant to the subject area. Consistent with a principles course, it does not go into great depth in most areas, as those deeper dives... read more
Like most Principles of Management textbooks, this book has a wide breadth of topics that are covered that are relevant to the subject area. Consistent with a principles course, it does not go into great depth in most areas, as those deeper dives are saved for more advanced courses. I currently use McGraw Hill's "Management: Leading & Collaborating in a Competitive World" 14th edition by authors, Thomas S. Bateman and Scott A. Snell, which is very comprehensive, and this text covers similar subject areas. The OpenStax text appears more succinct in the length of the chapters but provides adequate coverage without a lot of fluff / filler. The OpenStax text uses a couple of photo images per chapter, as well as several colorful graphics and illustrations, with adequate white space, to make it easy to read and to digest, as well as to maintain interest.
I did not see any inaccuracies within the OpenStax Principles of Management text. The text appears to remain updated with relevant examples for discussion purposes and for students to relate to.
The content provided is relevant and the examples / references to today's world provided seemed to span from 2016-2018, from what I saw. Example companies included Starbucks and Amazon, which are both relevant organizations that college students would know and have an interest in learning about. It is a contemporary text and does not feel dated. I would love to see some direct links within the text to the real-world topics that are being discussed, so students could click on them to get more information and an in-depth view, versus just a brief mention of a topic or issue. The student’s study guide contains some links like these, but it would be great to have some within the chapter, itself.
This text is easy to read, clear, and to the point. There are definitions provided for clarification, in the chapters, as well as in a list at the end of each chapter. A recommendation would be to put the chapter title and subject area on both the first page of the chapter, as well as listing it as a running head on the main window with the chapter readings. This information is currently listed along the left-hand side of the page in the table of contents, only and each chapter begins with an image and the learning outcomes on the page, but no mention of the chapter number or subject. I think this addition would provide more clarity.
Each chapter has consistency in layout and design. After each of the chapter concepts are covered, the chapter concludes with the following: • Key Terms • Summary of Learning Outcomes • Chapter Review Questions • Management Skills Application Exercises • Managerial Decision Exercises • Critical Thinking Case These resources provide a good review, as well as offering opportunities for students to synthesize / apply what they have learned. It also offers instructors the opportunity to use some of these tools for discussion.
This textbook would allow you to set up your course in a variety of modalities, as you can decide how many and which chapters you would like to use, depending on how many weeks long your course will be. It can certainly be used in a synchronous or asynchronous course, with online, hybrid, or in-person delivery. The Instructor Pack also includes several resources to take your course online and offers “cartridges” to integrate into several learning management systems, including Blackboard, Moodle, D2L Course, and Canvas.
The text appears to be well organized, overall. One chapter that could possibly be moved is the “History of Management” chapter, which is the third chapter. My current textbook addresses the history of management as an appendix to Chapter 1, which seems to make sense to me. The OpenStax text places it after Chapter 1, Managing and Performing, and after Chapter 2, Managerial Decision-Making. It may be appropriate to have Chapter 1 first, so students understand what management is, and then go into what happened in the history of management, as past events can be predictors for the future. The placement of the history chapter is not a real concern, but it just made me pause and wonder why it was placed where it was.
The interface appeared clear and functioned well. I tried it on both a laptop as well as on my iPhone. One thing I noticed as far as navigation is that when I wanted to jump to another chapter, I would click on the chapter link in the list on the left-hand tool bar, but it would not change the screen to take me there. Rather, it would open a list of drop downs for options of topics to select within that chapter. I think most people want to start at the beginning of a chapter and a click could be saved if they were taken to the beginning of the chapter when they click on the chapter title. That click could still also open the chapter options, and if they wanted to go somewhere else, they could do that.
I did not see any grammatical errors.
I appreciated that this text offered diverse images and examples that included a variety of demographics and cultural aspects. Further, you feel their commitment to diversity when you read their six-page Diversity and Representation Guidelines, which details their commitment to improving representation and diversity in OER materials. This is something that I appreciate and look for when reviewing textbook materials for use in my courses.
Overall, I believe this text is a great option for instructors and for students. I currently use the McGraw-Hill Connect access for online quizzes and exams, which include a built-in proctoring system to eliminate cheating in an online environment and would like an option for doing something similar with this open textbook. I appreciate that there are a variety of options for accessing this textbook, from an app, to a download, to viewing online, or even ordering a printed copy- all provide plenty of options for students. I also like that students can highlight within the chapters when viewing online. When I am looking to adopt a text, I am very interested in the Instructor Resources. This text offers guided lecture notes and PowerPoints as well as a test bank in Word format. Unfortunately, I found the PowerPoints to be lacking. I happen to teach Business Communications, which includes how to put together an effective PowerPoint, and typically "less is more." The PowerPoints that accompany this textbook have a plain white background with black text and no real template, so they don't look very interesting and they are inconsistent from slide to slide in their look. They also contain WAY too much text, often including full paragraphs. They should just have bullet points and save the "extra content" as lecture notes outside of the presentation slides. I did appreciate that some of the PowerPoint slides included embedded links to TED Talks and other example videos, including scenes from Apollo 13, as well as including discussion questions regarding those videos. If OpenStax: 1. Offered pre-made quiz and exam options vs. downloading a Word document with all the quiz questions and 2. They partnered with a low-cost proctoring service as an add-on solution, and 3. Updated the PowerPoint slide deck, I would be very interested in adopting this text. It offers a lot of value for an open resource.
Reviewed by Jose-Luis (Joe) Iglesias, Assistant professor of Management, USC-Beaufort on 8/25/20
I believe that the examples and cases are appropriate to demonstrate the applicability of management concepts. However, I wish that the authors could be able to update the examples and cases to a more recent world reality. Overall, the index and... read more
I believe that the examples and cases are appropriate to demonstrate the applicability of management concepts. However, I wish that the authors could be able to update the examples and cases to a more recent world reality. Overall, the index and organization works for junior students in business or someone interested in learning more about management.
I believe the content is appropriate for an introductory text in management.
The text provides the authors with the opportunity for updates.
Clarity rating: 4
The textbook uses an easy to understand verbatim and accessible concepts for non-business major students.
Consistency rating: 3
Terminology and frameworks are acceptable for an introduction to management. However, I would advise the authors to provide detailed information on the theories that support managerial functions.
I believe that modularity is an option. However, the instructor will need to add extra readings and complementary contents such as videos.
The sequence of managerial functions is well organized and explored in the text.
No interface issues noticed.
Grammatical Errors rating: 1
No grammatical mistakes noticed.
Cultural Relevance rating: 1
I believe that the diversity of examples and in the pictures represents a good example of inclusion.
I would consider the adoption of this textbook to an elective class in management, or management 101.
Reviewed by Linda Williamson, Program Lead, Business Administration, Klamath Community College on 3/13/19
I have reviewed numerous books related to management over the past 15 years and this text includes several components that I often need to add to the textbooks I am using. For example, there is wonderful language related to the "balanced... read more
I have reviewed numerous books related to management over the past 15 years and this text includes several components that I often need to add to the textbooks I am using. For example, there is wonderful language related to the "balanced scorecard" included in this text. I also like the depth of content related to innovation and strategic thinking that is referenced across several chapters.
I thoroughly read most chapters and carefully scanned the others; accuracy across words, figures, and exhibits appears to be strong. I did not detect any bias on the part of the authors, and in fact appreciated the wide array of business examples used to support their concepts.
The overall content in this textbook appears to be extremely relevant. Current and appropriate businesses are profiled throughout and related discussion questions seem to focus on real-world issues related to management. Chapter 2 in this text focuses on the individual student and includes substantial self-assessment; this is exactly how I teach my current Management Fundamentals course as I believe effective managers need to be aware of how they communicate with others before they can implement management tools and strategies.
This book does seem to be written in clear, concise prose, with good support and definition for new terms (and for jargon). References are provided throughout the content (including the business cases) with additional explanation for new or "involved" topics. I see consistency throughout the chapters in flow and tone, which is not always true when there are multiple authors.
This textbook appear to be consistent in the use of terminology and also in the overall framework of the content. For example, consistency in starting each chapter ("What's in it for me?"), the "Key Takeaways" at the end of each section, and the consistent reference to POLC (Planning, Organizing, Leading, Controlling) figure to consistently remind the reader how/where the new chapter content fits in to the overall role of management. Very effective!
I love the "chunks" and short chapter sections in this textbook! Each chapter has clearly defined sections (which a student can navigate directly to by using the tabs on the left of the page as soon as a "chapter" is selected) and yet the conclusion of each section and chapter still ties everything in to place. Very well designed.
Organization/Structure/Flow rating: 4
The text is well organized in content, though I tend to like the "POLC" sections to be more clearly defined as "sections" of the textbook (again, the POLC figure at the start of each chapter does clear show which element the new content attaches to). There is logical flow to the content within the chapters and throughout the text overall.
I like the navigation of this textbook. Like any electronic resource, it takes a bit of getting familiar with, but it appears to be very user-friendly. When I facilitate a class using an OER, I like to have the entire textbook available in the very first module of my course in addition to having each assigned chapter available for access directly within the module that includes that specific chapter. I did not experiment to see if that would be an option with this resource.
None that I could find!
I found several examples that supported very respectful references to different cultures/people. My favorite actually involves a story of Goodwill...rather than do the traditional focus on who Goodwill serves, the authors instead focus on how the company is innovative in their strategic planning. In my opinion, that reference not only shows a different light on this company but also reminds the reader of the need for nonprofit organizations to be focused on innovation. A win-win!
I will likely select this textbook next year for my Management Fundamentals course. The authors stress upfront the necessity of determining competitive advantage and continue that theme throughout the book, which is incredibly relevant for management. The cases, discussion questions, and indepth content related to assessments (for personal growth and also for company performance such as the balanced scorecard) add a great array of materials to incorporate into this course. I really like this textbook!
Reviewed by Jeanine Parolini, Teaching Partner, Bethel University on 12/3/18
Principles of Management provides a comprehensive overview of key management and leadership principles for my professional adult undergraduate students. In our program, it is vital that we offer students a progressive big picture overview of the... read more
Principles of Management provides a comprehensive overview of key management and leadership principles for my professional adult undergraduate students. In our program, it is vital that we offer students a progressive big picture overview of the areas they need to consider in leading and managing others, and Principles of Management is that resource for our students. It is easy to access the information in this resource.
Our professional adult students need a resource that they are able to connect with and apply directly to their professional lives. Principles of Management addresses current topics that my students are dealing with in their workplaces, and it offers insights into the personal and professional management and leadership issues that pertain to most organizations today.
My adult professional undergraduate students are able to engage with the content and apply it to their personal and professional lives. The cases and examples in this resources are also relevant to students' experiences and contexts. At the same time, please keep the book up to date with considering a future revision in 2 to 5 years so that the information, examples and cases remain current.
The information is presented to my professional adult undergraduate students in a way that is engaging, practical, and accessible. The books connects well with business students and business issues.
When I engage the students in using the terminology and frameworks from Principles of Management in their papers and presentations, I am finding that students are digesting and utilizing the information properly and insightfully. They are applying it to their personal and professional lives. As I interact with students in both face to face and online venues, my experience is that students are remembering and practically using the terms and frameworks in real life applications.
Presently, I am using most of the book in my professional adult undergraduate business management course. I am able to offer several chapters in Principles of Management each week as I integrate in other articles and videos to support the week's topics. Students have commented in their evaluations that the reading is accessible, practical, interconnected with the week's topic, and a fair amount of reading for the course.
The chapters are well organized in Principles of Management and the topics in each chapter build upon each other throughout the chapter. The progression of the information in each chapter flows well and supports the practical outcomes such as discussion forums, presentations or writing assignments in my course.
For the most part the text is free from navigation issues. The one area for development is to make sure it is clear when it is a chapter subheading and when it is a figure subheading. Perhaps using a different size font or bolding or italicizing the font for one of those titles may be helpful. I have been confused at times when a figure title falls on the previous page of the actual figure, yet the chapter subheading is at the top of the figure. I have also experienced students' questions on this as well when they are being asked to assess a certain figure in the reading material and want to be sure they have the correct figure. I'd appreciate clearing this up in the next version to avoid confusion.
The text appears to be free from mechanical issues and grammatical errors. I am proud of the way the text presents itself to our professional adult undergrad students.
Cultural inclusion is important to me so I am sensitive to inclusivity of races, ethnicities and backgrounds in my approach to resources and the classroom environment. Principles of Management provides support to cultural inclusion in it's discussion of globalization and global trends, values-based leadership, and to some level related to ethics and culture. At the same time, this is a key area to keep up to date on and to realize that the globe is in our workplaces everyday with our diversity. In future revisions, I suggest taking this area to another level in helping readers to manage an innovative and diverse workplace to a greater level by being aware of cultural bias and learning through differences. I supplement the books information with additional material related to bias, insecurity and personal/cultural maturity.
Principles of Management is an engaging resource for my professional adult undergrad business students because it provides a general overview of key management and leadership topics with the opportunity for practical application through examples, cases, questions, and relevant frameworks that I can then incorporate into my weekly assignments.
Reviewed by Valerie Wallingford, Professor, Bemidji State University on 6/19/18
There should be a chapter devoted to the 4 functions of management (planning, leading, organizing & controlling) versus just one chapter covering all four primary functions of management so that is why I have ranked it a 3. read more
There should be a chapter devoted to the 4 functions of management (planning, leading, organizing & controlling) versus just one chapter covering all four primary functions of management so that is why I have ranked it a 3.
Text is accurate, case studies are outdated.
Textbook is up-to-date except cases.
The book's clarity is good as provides adequate context for terminology utilized. Easy to understand and comprehend.
Yes, the text is consistent throughout.
Yes, the text is easily readable and chapters are easily divisible into smaller reading sections which makes it nice if the professor doesn't want to cover the entire chapter just sections. There are pictures, charts, etc. that also break up the reading.
The organization/flow/structure are similar to many principles of management texts with possibly moving mission/vision chapter earlier but professor can assign chapters in the order they prefer.
The interface is good, as I had no issues with navigation, distortion, or display features.
No grammatical errors were found.
The text was not culturally insensitive or offensive in any way. It was inclusive of a variety of races, ethnicities, and backgrounds.
Reviewed by K Doreen MacAulay, Instructor II, University of South Florida on 3/27/18
The material covers all the basic requirements for a principles of management course. The concepts and applications are on par with what is being taught. I feel the examples are a little dated, but that is something that could easily be augmented... read more
The material covers all the basic requirements for a principles of management course. The concepts and applications are on par with what is being taught. I feel the examples are a little dated, but that is something that could easily be augmented through classroom.
The content of this book is very accurate and I did not find any errors in the delivery of the information.
Relevance/Longevity rating: 3
The concepts are up to date with what is important and covered in a principles of management course. The examples, although relevant to the material, could be a little more up to date. As note, however, this is something that could easily be addressed through classwork.
The concepts, theories and general knowledge delivered in this book as exactly what one would expect to find in a good Principles of Management book.
There are no consistency issues that I found throughout the reading of this book.
The segments within each of the chapters of the book made for an easy and logical flow to the material. Each segment lends itself easily to the learning process for the reader.
Organization/Structure/Flow rating: 2
The actually order of the book chapters, however, did not seem to fit a traditional model. I would not teach the chapters in the order that they are provided, however, I would use all the material provided. Example: I would have motivating after leading; the structure chapter near the end and make chapter 13 - chapter 14 and chapter 14 be chapter 13.
To me a logical concept flow goes from a general introduction, strategy and the go micro level to macro level. This book's order of chapters does not seem to have a clear path.
Some of the pictures seemed out of place because they were small. As well, there was not a uniformed look to the pictures which took away a little from the appearance, but overall the material was easy to read and that is the main point.
Grammatical Errors rating: 4
Easy to read and understand.
Clearly based in a American capitalist approach to knowledge, this book is on par with most American textbooks in this area.
I look forward to incorporating this textbook into my class. I believe for a survey course like this, this work is the ideal foundation to help the students learn.
Reviewed by Debby Thomas, Assistant Professor of Management, George Fox University on 2/1/18
The text covers the basics that other Principles of Management texts do. read more
The text covers the basics that other Principles of Management texts do.
I have found this textbook to be clear and accurate. The case studies are a bit dated, but relevant.
The content of this book is organized around management concepts and principles that will not quickly go out of date. The case studies are concise, practical and relevant and should be fairly easy for the publishers to update occasionally.
This book is written in a way that the concepts are covered thoroughly without being verbose or difficult to understand. The concepts are presented in a way that is easy to comprehend and encourages application.
The terminology and framework of the text are consistent. One minor improvement would be to have a comprehensive table of contents at the beginning of the book (presently there is a table of contents of each chapter at the beginning of the chapter). This would help students follow the overall flow of the text more easily.
This text provides numbered sections for each chapter. I find this helpful and I don't always assign the whole chapter as reading for one class. I can be precise about exactly which parts of which chapters I want the students to read. The text has pictures and charts or graphs to break up the text, and the sections are generally short enough to hold a student's attention.
The topics are presented in a logical fashion. As with most Principles of Management textbooks its impossible to get through all of the content in one semester, but the set up works well to emphasize certain chapters more than others.
The book comes in multiple formats for the convenience of the reader. The PDF is usable only with the use of the built in table of contents (no clickable links to chapters in the PDF).
The text does not contain grammatical errors.
The pictures in the text include people of a variety of ethnicities. I have not found anything in the book that is insensitive or offensive in any way. It also introduces the concepts of unconscious bias early in the text.
Reviewed by Mindy Bean, Faculty, Linn-Benton Community College on 6/20/17
The Principles of Management heavily relies of the POLC method of Planning, Organizing, Leading, and Controlling. The text was unique in covering the basics of each area within each context while tying it in with many factors that managers deal... read more
The Principles of Management heavily relies of the POLC method of Planning, Organizing, Leading, and Controlling. The text was unique in covering the basics of each area within each context while tying it in with many factors that managers deal with. It had many concepts of most Principles of Management resources for assisting students in learning.
The books content was very accurate to the date that the sources were presented. A lot of resources were during the recession or before the recession. I feel like an OER that was adapted from 2010 should have included a few more updated examples.
The books concepts will keep for a while, when it comes to management theories there are always more being presented (fades) and there are those that keep the core concepts. I believe this book covers on the hard fundamentals of management while expressing the common trends of management in certain business industries. With technological advances and competitive nature of business, this book's relevance and longevity is based more on the subject matter.
The writing is adequate for the topics being presented. The many examples of firm situations and how they applied the concepts were well placed and had a good consistency until the end of the text. The jargon was appropriate for the subject matter.
The book carried consistent terminology and framework. The rhythm in which the reader gets used to is consistent except for two chapters toward the end in which it extended on my laptop to being about 25 pages. The way in which terms are presented are not in bold but mainly italic or overly emphasized. I believe it to be an easier read then most materials I have came across.
The book was easy and readily divisible into smaller reading sections besides the two chapters I previously mentioned towards the end. I personally would use the OER in that way due to its design to prevent good amounts of information without disruption.
The organization of the text was presented well. It was different from other materials that focus on the POLC and cover each section individually in order. I was impressed by the clear fashion that information was laid out by relating each topic outside of POLC that managers have to deal with and correlating to how it works with POLC when necessary.
The interface worked well. I pulled the book up on three different forms and systems. It was consistent, the visual aids/charts were presented well and I was able to see them all clearly. The only thing I personally didn't like was downloaded on iBooks you had to swipe versus clicking to turn the page.
The cultural relevance was accurate. I did not see any insensitive or offensive material.
I did have problems trying to get this on my Kindle.
Reviewed by Irene Seto, Faculty, Portland Community College on 6/20/17
I was involved with modifying an existing course to utilizes Open Education Resources in our introduction to Management Supervisory course. This text book is one that we selected a few chapters from for our course. I found this book covers all the... read more
I was involved with modifying an existing course to utilizes Open Education Resources in our introduction to Management Supervisory course. This text book is one that we selected a few chapters from for our course. I found this book covers all the major fundamental concepts required in a typical introduction Management course.
I did not encounter any biased or inaccurate information in the textbook.
The principles of Business be the same, but the business world and our technology is constantly changing. I would imagine minor updates of examples and case studies would be needed every 2-3 years.
I found the chapters easy to read and follow. Key terminologies were highlighted and explained well.
Each chapter's layout is consistent and created an easy to follow framework.
The chapters are well organized, similar to many introductory Management textbook. The learning objective and summary for each chapter is good.
The flow of the chapters are fine. But we did not use all of the chapters for our course. Personally, I would put Globalization and Valued Based Leadership (Chapter 3) toward the end.
The embedded links that I came across to and tested were fine. There were not many graphics.
I did not found grammatical errors.
Nothing really stood out that seem to be culturally insensitive.
Page numbers would be helpful!
Reviewed by Holly Jean Greene, Lecturer, University of Tennessee, Knoxville on 6/20/17
The textbook covers subject matter found in most management texts such as the four foundations of management - planning, organizing, leading and controlling ( P-O-L-C). In fact, each chapter links back to P-O-L-C very well. The textbook covers... read more
The textbook covers subject matter found in most management texts such as the four foundations of management - planning, organizing, leading and controlling ( P-O-L-C). In fact, each chapter links back to P-O-L-C very well.
The textbook covers organizational structure & culture, planning & goal setting, strategy & decision making, teams, leadership & motivation too. A few additional topics covered are social media and communication. One of the text strengths is in it's brevity: It covers a swath of terrain succinctly and would work well in course where an instructor wants to add additional learning tools such as videos and case studies.
I didn't find any areas of obvious inaccuracy or bias. In fact, I find the text is written without the opinion of the authors.
Each chapter includes a "case in point" story that's current or at least covers an event that's occurred within the last ten years.
I like the style in which the text is written - simple, easy to read prose. There are instances where I felt as if the text was written for an 8th grader, yet, if an instructor's goal is to use a text that simply introduces students to the foundations of management and they plan on adding additional learning tools, this is a great text to use.
I didn't see any obvious areas of inconsistency.
Using this text modularity and assigning just the sections students need is one of the text strengths. Each chapter stands on its own.
Organization of the text is clear and logical. In some instances, the text is not in the order I would assign but structuring the subject matter to an instructor's discretion is one of the advantages of using this text.
A few of the images seem small and I believe more images could have been used.
I didn't find any glaring grammatical errors.
Another one of the text strengths is its focus on helping students understand their own behavior. Each chapter contains an activity for students to complete that allows them the opportunity to learn more about their own behavior and biases.
This text in combination with additional learning materials - videos, case studies, self-assessment assignment - is a solid choice to use.
Reviewed by Paul Jacques, Associate Professor, Rhode Island College on 4/11/17
Each of the concepts that are typically covered in a Principles of Management course are included in this manuscript. The table of contents, chapter index, are helpful. Glossary of key terms is embedded within each chapter and could perhaps be... read more
Each of the concepts that are typically covered in a Principles of Management course are included in this manuscript. The table of contents, chapter index, are helpful. Glossary of key terms is embedded within each chapter and could perhaps be broken out in a separate chapter section (end of chapter?) to aid comprehension. There was no index included in this reviewer’s copy of the text.
The concepts included are presented accurately.
To be sure, each of the topics covered in this text are within the scope of the body of knowledge that an Introduction to Management student would be expected to master. The references are quite dated, however, with the bulk of the most recent references being from 2008. That said, and perhaps in the interest of providing the most updated references possible, citations from seminal work (example: NEO-PI, Costa and McCrae, 1985) are largely ignored in lieu of more recent, but relatively lightweight, work s. While major concepts are explained, the impact of these concepts on the world of work/management are given much less emphasis. To the reader, this approach can be perceived as being presented with a stream of facts, one after the other, with little attempt at anchoring the concepts to applications.
Clarity rating: 3
What’s here is good with my main concern being that there’s large sections of pure, unbroken text. I would think that the “Key takeaway” segments could be more numerous throughout the chapter. The Moreover, these takeaways would seem to benefit from several “key implications for managers” summaries throughout the chapter. As it stands now, it appears to be left to the student to pull out the relevance of the various concepts explained.
It seems apparent that there was a great deal of work involved in the preparation of the book manuscript. Each chapter’s flow and appearance are similar to that in each of the other chapters.
Each chapter appears to be designed to stand alone.
The “What’s in it for me?” chapter introductions are a useful and clever way of avoiding the more sterile term “chapter learning objectives.” The significant challenge to the student, however, is to internalize the chapter readings so that he/she sees the applicability.
Not sure if it’s a browser/printer issue, but some of the images were inordinately small (ex: figure 2.11, p. 63). Moreover, several of the figures are orphaned in the text – no reference/support afforded by surrounding paragraphs.
This reviewer observed no instances of grammatical errors which, in a work of this size (over 600 pages) is compelling evidence of polished, thoughtful preparation.
There were no examples of cultural insensitivity. To the contrary, the authors added to the reader’s understanding of the topic by presentation of findings related to the GLOBE study. Perhaps a more comprehensive treatment of the topic would have resulted had the authors presented the idea of diversity from a “levels of analysis” perspective – individual, dyad, group/collective. This approach would seem to result in a more efficient presentation of the topic and one that is applicable to all levels of management.
Overall, it seems that a strength of this text is that it encompasses a full gamut of topics that are typically included in a Principles of Management course at the undergraduate level. This reviewer found the content to be quite strong, but the interface between content and learner to be the main opportunity that exists with this title. Specifically, cases are interspersed throughout the text/chapters, but there are no questions related to any of the cases and so the cases come across more as stories than they do point of convergence/learning. In addition, the segments that are labelled “Exercises” at the end of each chapter’s segments would be more aptly referred to as simply “chapter segment questions.” The reality that there is no real deep thought required to answer the questions nor are they reflective of any experiential/active learning. The word that this reviewer keeps coming back to is “Application.” The text boasts truly excellent content, but the application portion is largely missing.
Reviewed by David Bess, Professor, University of Hawaii on 8/21/16
The text covers the major topics taught in a typical introduction to management course quite thoroughly. read more
The text covers the major topics taught in a typical introduction to management course quite thoroughly.
It read well and seemed to be quite accurate in terms of the theories/concepts and their applications.
It is up to date...other than maybe some cases.
It is easy to read; has nice summary sections; flows well./
It is consistent.
It is easy to read and has nice short sections with summaries.
The topics are presented in a logical fashion. They are offered in the rough order found in many principles texts. It is not the order in which I teach them...but it is logical and clear.
The interface is sound.
The grammar is sound.
I believe it is ;culturally relevant for most cultures.
I wish it had page numbers....it is a bit difficult to navigate.
Reviewed by Kim bishop, Adjunct Faculty, Portland Community College on 8/21/16
Yes, the subjects match up with what our school has for Course content and outcome Guides, for this course. It covers all subjects adequately. read more
Yes, the subjects match up with what our school has for Course content and outcome Guides, for this course. It covers all subjects adequately.
I did not find any errors and I did not see it as biased in any way. I guess it would depend on what you call accuracy and unbiased. For my needs, from what I have been taught and from what I have learned in the working world, I found it adequate.
The only things that would need updating would be case studies that could be more current since it was written in 2010. Having more current up to date case studies would be more interesting to the students and more engaging since it would be current or within the last couple of years at least.
very easy to read and understand. There were a couple of acronyms that were new to me, but the way they were laid out in the objectives and then addressed were helpful.
I love the way it is laid out. each chapter was easy to navigate and set up. It is the same for each objective and chapter giving you lots of options for discussion and for assigning work.
It is organized excellently. as mentioned before I like how it is laid out with learning objectives, content, key take away and exercises for each section. I like the What's in it for Me, at the beginning of the chapter so it shows students what they will get out of the chapter and then it ties in with each section. I really like how this book is laid out.
Yes, very logical and easy to read as mentioned before. Student gets to see what they will learn and how they can apply it, then each section is broken down to address the learning objectives.
There was not a lot of graphics or pictures, but the links do work that are embedded for external work.
I could not find any glaring grammatical errors.
I did not find any examples of cultural insentitivity
I really like this book and I am going to use for my course in the fall as a resource. I really like how it is laid out and the case studies the exercises, discussion points as well as the external resources like finding out what your learning style is. I like that it does not have a bunch of fluff and pictures and graphics as I will use this as a resource. It is intuitive and as current as it can be. Management concepts do not change much over time, but how they are implemented and communicated do and I feel this addresses that need for change. it was an easy read and did not feel like you were reading a textbook but interesting information about management. There are enough outside links to other information that you do not really need the textbook and the online content they have extra that you have to pay for. I would recommend the book, with some updates periodically to the case studies.
Reviewed by Brian Richardson, Adjunct Faculty, University of Hawaii at Manoa on 8/21/16
In the introduction to Principles of Management, the authors state that there are three themes in the book: strategic thinking, entrepreneurial thinking, and active management. The entrepreneurial theme is not as prevalent as their introduction... read more
In the introduction to Principles of Management, the authors state that there are three themes in the book: strategic thinking, entrepreneurial thinking, and active management. The entrepreneurial theme is not as prevalent as their introduction would suggest. There is some discussion of creativity, although references to writers and books beyond the single book by Edward De Bono would have enhanced the section. Sections that stand out as useful include the discussions of fairness, groupthink, employee performance review, and predictors of job performance. Some sub-sections and minor topics should have been separate sections with more details, such as the discussion of meetings, of interviewing, and of HR rules and policies. Finally, sections that would have useful additions to the textbook include how to write a good survey, how to deal with very difficult employees, and how to improve morale, which was referenced superficially but not focused on. The selection of management writers and level of detail provided for their positions is uneven. Maslow's hierarchy of needs is given three pages while Collins' discussion of changing good companies into great ones has two passing references and a short summary of the idea of a BAHG (big, hairy, audacious goal). Some thinkers were left out or not considered. Senge is not mentioned, even in the short section on "Learning Organizations". Likewise, academic writers and many historical thinkers, such as Max Weber, are not mentioned at all. Also lacking was a sense of how these different thinkers or ideas might disagree with each other or people outside of the management field. Instead, the text offers a series of disconnected concepts and models, which likely improved the modularity of the overall book, but at the cost of limiting the interactions between the topics and positions. As a result, there was little logical or conceptual analysis and the book relied on exposition.
Much of the textbook is made up of summaries of different concepts and models connected to management, with an emphasis on contemporary writers and psychosocial theories. There were no obvious inaccuracies in the summaries of the concepts and thinkers, although some sections could be criticized as limited, vague, superficial, or uncritical.
A textbook on management principles will become less relevant over time as updated information becomes available and new thinkers offer different concepts and models. One reference that stood out was the quote that "According to one source, there will be 11.5 million more jobs than workers in the United States by 2010." Given that this is a book last updated in 2015, the data should have been updated as well, especially given how wrong it turned out to be. Interestingly, this source is a Wired magazine article from 2007, published just before the economic crash. The examples and illustrations may become dated fairly quickly. References to specific CEOs and other leaders, for instance, will become less relevant over time. In this edition, there is a reference to and picture of Condoleeza Rice but no mention of Obama, for instance. Obama only occurs as a marginal participant in a group shot of world leaders
The clarity of the discussion is generally good, although there is some room for improvement. The photographs, for instance, do not support the text very well. A glossary would have been useful for clarifying all of terms used while an index would have helped readers access specific sections more effectively. The choice of examples is sometimes not clear. For instance, the examples used to illustrate organizations dealing with uncertain conditions, and thus needing flexible strategies were "a gang of car thieves or a construction company located in the Gaza Strip" (page 182). Both of these examples are strange and much better examples taken from businesses could have been provided and then discussed in some detail. Likewise, the example that they give of resistance to change was that people have been unwilling to adopt Dvorak keyboard and have stuck with the QWERT keyboard, despite the obvious efficiency of the Dvorak system (page 281). This is a great example of resistance to change, but one wonders why the authors could not find an example from business, such as how the railroads ignored the rise of the airplane.
While the book is generally consistent overall, it book sometimes strays from a discussion of the "principles" of management and does not adopt a consistent idea of what kinds of businesses are being talked about. The book would have been clearer if the authors had started with a classification of types of business that they are talking about (manufacturing, marketing, services, non-profits, perhaps) and be clear about what they were not covering (like government bureaucracies). For instance, I was thinking of using this textbook to support a course in Library management, and while some of it was useful, much of it would have been irrelevant or confusing. Had the book been clearer on how the different topics connected to different types of organizations, it would have been clearer which topics were relevant to specific readers or situations
The textbook is very modular, although there are times when this modularity breaks down. For instance, the discussion of data in the early part of the book was useful, but it would have been more appropriately connected to the discussion of budgeting, which occurs much later in the section on control. Another example is the discussion of globalization and intercultural issues, which occurs sporadically throughout the book and is never really brought into focus.
Organization/Structure/Flow rating: 3
The overall structure of the textbook follows Fayol's POLC model of management (Planning, Organizing, Leading, and Controlling) with the overall narrative following the different stages in the process. Each section includes learning objectives, key takeaways, and discussion questions. These parts are very good at focusing the conversation in the larger sections. However, these additional parts are sometimes longer than the main text for that section and seem unnecessarily repetitive. The shift between institutional management and personal management is a bit strained at times, making it unclear whether the focus of the book is management or the personal growth of the manager. Each section included a list of references. In one section, there is simply a reference to the Columbia Encyclopedia, which was not helpful. Typically, however, there are a lot of references in each section. In fact, there are too many references that have minimal value. With some exceptions, the references are to short articles that could easily be retrieved by a Google search. Given that this is an introductory textbook, it would have been better to have an annotated "Further Reading" section that could lead readers to important writings and videos that expend on the different modules.
Interface rating: 3
The layout of the textbook follows standard page layout formatting. There are some things that could be improved. First, some of the text, such as some paragraph headers and keywords, are blue, which suggests that it is hyperlinked (as are the captions for pictures), but this is not the case. The full URLs in the text, also blue, are the only hyperlinks in the textbook. Another feature that could be improved is the way that the text, at least in the PDF version, has line breaks at the end of each line, which means that copying text leads to broken paragraphs that require additional editing if they are copied to another document or web page. The greatest issue with the interface, however, is the amount of white space that is included in the text. Given how short the different sections are and the way that the layout is organized, there is likely 100 pages worth of unnecessary white space in the text, which turns a 500-odd page book into over 600 pages. Added to this that the pictures and list of references are not that relevant, and the book appears to be laid out very inefficiently.
Beyond a few minor typos, the book was clearly written. The prose was a straightforward expository style, although at times it could have been more concise. The writers would often begin their paragraphs with rhetorical questions and then answer them right away, which did not help clarify the prose and typically made the writing more verbose. On page 279, the caption and the picture do not match.
Cultural Relevance rating: 3
The book is focused on ideas and problems connected to American private-sector management. As a result, it is largely uncritical of large-scale organizations. Non-profits are discussed on a single page in the context of internal controls. Bureaucracy, as a term with negative connotations, is only mentioned in passing as an example of mechanistic structures, which are seen as an exception. Discrimination, likewise, is mentioned in passing three times, once in terms of how issues of discrimination have become a broader concern for "diversity management". Finally, unions are mentioned a few times in a long list of stakeholders (pages 150 and 151), even though the sample table for tracking stakeholders (page 148) does not mention them. Unions are seen as a punishment for businesses that appear to be unjust (page 529). At-will employment, on the other hand, is discussed in a focused paragraph in a way that does not consider the debate between union and at-will employment. For a textbook on industrial-focused management, the relative silence to the contrast between union and at-will employment conditions is unfortunate. When the book discusses global trends, it tends to be simplistic, taking trends such as "becoming more connected" as more important than such things as economic inequality, resource depletion, surveillance, war and terrorism, or social instability. In that sense, the book would not be very useful to people outside of the United States or to those who were actively engaged in intercultural management. At best, the book points to some of the problems that could be faced.
Table of Contents
Chapter 1: Introduction to Principles of Management
- 1.1 Introduction to Principles of Management
- 1.2 Case in Point: Doing Good as a Core Business Strategy
- 1.3 Who Are Managers?
- 1.4 Leadership, Entrepreneurship, and Strategy
- 1.5 Planning, Organizing, Leading, and Controlling
- 1.6 Economic, Social, and Environmental Performance
- 1.7 Performance of Individuals and Groups
- 1.8 Your Principles of Management Survivor's Guide
Chapter 2: Personality, Attitudes, and Work Behaviors
- 2.1 Chapter Introduction
- 2.2 Case in Point: SAS Institute Invests in Employees
- 2.3 Personality and Values
- 2.4 Perception
- 2.5 Work Attitudes
- 2.6 The Interactionist Perspective: The Role of Fit
- 2.7 Work Behaviors
- 2.8 Developing Your Positive Attitude Skills
Chapter 3: History, Globalization, and Values-Based Leadership
- 3.1 History, Globalization, and Values-Based Leadership
- 3.2 Case in Point: Hanna Andersson Corporation Changes for Good
- 3.3 Ancient History: Management Through the 1990s
- 3.4 Contemporary Principles of Management
- 3.5 Global Trends
- 3.6 Globalization and Principles of Management
- 3.7 Developing Your Values-Based Leadership Skills
Chapter 4: Developing Mission, Vision, and Values
- 4.1 Developing Mission, Vision, and Values
- 4.2 Case in Point: Xerox Motivates Employees for Success
- 4.3 The Roles of Mission, Vision, and Values
- 4.4 Mission and Vision in the P-O-L-C Framework
- 4.5 Creativity and Passion
- 4.6 Stakeholders
- 4.7 Crafting Mission and Vision Statements
- 4.8 Developing Your Personal Mission and Vision
Chapter 5: Strategizing
- 5.1 Strategizing
- 5.2 Case in Point: Unnamed Publisher Transforms Textbook Industry
- 5.3 Strategic Management in the P-O-L-C Framew
About the book.
Principles of Management teaches management principles to tomorrow's business leaders by weaving three threads through every chapter: strategy, entrepreneurship and active leadership.
Strategic — All business school teachings have some orientation toward performance and strategy and are concerned with making choices that lead to high performance. Principles of Management will frame performance using the notion of the triple bottom-line — the idea that economic performance allows individuals and organizations to perform positively in social and environmental ways as well. The triple bottom line is financial, social, and environmental performance. It is important for all students to understand the interdependence of these three facets of organizational performance.
The Entrepreneurial Manager — While the "General Management" course at Harvard Business School was historically one of its most popular and impactful courses (pioneered in the 1960s by Joe Bower), recent Harvard MBAs did not see themselves as "general managers." This course was relabeled "The Entrepreneurial Manager" in 2006, and has regained its title as one of the most popular courses. This reflects and underlying and growing trend that students, including the undergraduates this book targets, can see themselves as entrepreneurs and active change agents, but not just as managers.
By starting fresh with an entrepreneurial/change management orientation, this text provides an exciting perspective on the art of management that students can relate to. At the same time, this perspective is as relevant to existing for-profit organizations (in the form intrapreneurship) as it is to not-for-profits and new entrepreneurial ventures.
Active Leadership — Starting with the opening chapter, Principles of Management shows students how leaders and leadership are essential to personal and organizational effectiveness and effective organizational change. Students are increasingly active as leaders at an early age, and are sometimes painfully aware of the leadership failings they see in public and private organizations. It is the leader and leadership that combine the principles of management (the artist's palette, tools, and techniques) to create the art of management.
This book's modular format easily maps to a POLC (Planning, Organizing, Leading, and Controlling) course organization, which was created by Henri Fayol (General and industrial management (1949). London: Pitman Publishing company), and suits the needs of both undergraduate and graduate course in Principles of Management.
This textbook has been used in classes at: College of Alameda, Columbia Basin College, Flagler College, Johnson County Community College, Pasadena City College, Penn State University, Renton Technical College, San Diego Mesa College, Sierra College, Yuba College.
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- Background and Context: Discuss type of industry, products/services, and how organizational vision and strategies have influenced their management.
- Analysis of current managerial style and organizational culture.
- One NEW recommendation by you that the company can embark on in the near future meaning the next one to three years. This can be a goal to fix issues the company may be experiencing, or to address new endeavors from a growth perspective. Ensure that these align with the organization’s vision and values. This recommendation must not be identical or very similar to anything the organization is planning already or is currently involved in. The management involves the four functions of management being applied to achieve some type of organizational goal.
- For your recommendation you will select one goal that will be accomplish. This goal must be a specific goal following the SMART goal setting theory. That means the goal must be specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time bound.
- Once your goal is selected for your new strategic initiative you will complete the following four areas regarding the four functions of management.
List and describe the 4 functions of management. Then, for each of the functions describe how your goal will be achieved by the organization. This section should be approximately eight paragraphs. Four paragraphs to describe the four functions, and then four paragraphs to apply the four functions to how the organization will address your recommendation.
A published SWOT report or company profile is always a good starting point for your company analysis. These reports will also provide the name of the top management executives at your company.
To Locate SWOT Reports:
- Business Insights - From the main page in Business Insights, select a company or search for the name of your company. There are Company Profiles for 400,000+ companies, and the largest 1000 public companies have a SWOT analysis right next to the Company Overview.
- ProQuest Central - From the main search page in ProQuest Central, type the name of your company and SWOT into the search bar. From the results, choose the relevant record
To Locate Company Profiles:
Business Market Research Collection - This collection includes Hoover’s Company Profiles for thousands of public and non-public companies. From the main search page, type the name of your company and HOOVERS into the search bar. From the results, choose the relevant record.
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- Last Updated: Feb 21, 2024 2:19 PM
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Article • 10 min read
Henri Fayol's Principles of Management
Understanding historical administrative theory.
By the Mind Tools Content Team
As your career progresses, you may find you do fewer technical tasks and spend more time guiding a team or planning strategy.
While that's often a given today, in the 19th century most companies promoted the best technicians. But Henri Fayol recognized that the skills that made them good at their jobs didn't necessarily make them good managers.
Who Was Henri Fayol?
Fayol was an engineer who worked his way up to become manager of the Compagnie de Commentry-Fourchambault-Decazeville mining company in France, at the tail end of the industrial revolution. Under his watch, the struggling firm prospered.
He wrote, "When I assumed the responsibility for the restoration of Decazeville, I did not rely on my technical superiority... I relied on my ability as an organizer [and my] skill in handling men." 
Fayol's 14 Principles of Management identified the skills that were needed to manage well. As well as inspiring much of today's management theory, they offer tips that you can still implement in your organization. Fayol also created a list of the five primary Functions of Management , which go hand in hand with the Principles.
What Is Administrative Theory?
Fayol called managerial skills "administrative functions." In his 1916 book, "Administration Industrielle et Générale," he shared his experiences of managing a workforce.
Fayol’s book – and his 14 Principles of Management – helped to form what became known as Administrative Theory . It looks at the organization from the top down, and sets out steps for managers to get the best from employees and to run a business efficiently.
Administrative Theory is characterized by people "on the ground" who share personal experiences, improve practices, and help others to run an organization. This contrasts with the Scientific Management school led by Frederick Taylor , which experimented with how individuals work to boost productivity.
What Are Fayol's 14 Principles of Management?
It was the reality of Fayol's day-to-day managing, seeing what worked and what didn't, that informed his 14 Principles of Management. By focusing on administrative over technical skills, the Principles are some of the earliest examples of treating management as a profession. They are:
- Division of Work. Assign each employee a task that they can become proficient at. Productivity increases as employees become more skilled, assured and efficient. Today, experts still warn against multi-tasking.
- Authority. Managers must possess the authority to give orders, and recognize that with authority comes responsibility. As well as rank, Fayol argues that a manager's intelligence, experience and values should command respect.
- Discipline. Everyone should follow the rules . To help, you can make agreements between the organization and employees clear for all to see. 
- Unity of Command. Fayol wrote that "an employee should receive orders from one supervisor only." Otherwise, authority, discipline, order, and stability are threatened.
- Unity of Direction. Teams with the same objective should be working under the direction of one manager, using one plan. That, Fayol wrote, "is the condition essential to unity of action, coordination of strength and focusing of effort."
- Collective Interest Over Individual Interest. Individuals should pursue team interests over personal ones – including managers.
- Remuneration. Employee satisfaction depends on fair remuneration for everyone – financial and non-financial. Fayol said pay should be fair and reward "well-directed effort."
- Centralization. Balancing centralized decision making (from the top) with letting employees make decisions. Or as Fayol wrote, "A place for everyone and everyone in his place."
- Scalar Chain. Employees should know where they stand in the organization's hierarchy and who to speak to within a chain of command. Fayol suggested the now-familiar organization chart as a way for employees to see this structure clearly. 
- Order. Fayol wrote that, "The right man in the right place" forms an effective social order. He applied the same maxim to materials: right one, right place. Academics note that this principle pre-empted the Just in Time (JIT) strategy for efficient production. 
- Equity. Managers should be fair to all employees through a "combination of kindliness and justice." Only then will the team "carry out its duties with... devotion and loyalty."
- Stability of Tenure of Personnel. Organizations should minimize staff turnover and role changes to maximize efficiency. If people are secure and good at their jobs, they are happier and more productive.
- Initiative. Employees should be encouraged to develop and carry out plans for improvement. As Fayol wrote, "At all levels of the organizational ladder, zeal and energy on the part of employees are augmented by initiative."
- Esprit de Corps. Organizations should strive to promote team spirit, unity, and morale.
What are Fayol's Five Functions of Management?
While Fayol's 14 Principles look at the detail of day-to-day management, his Five Functions of Management provide the big picture of how managers should spend their time. They are:
- Planning: the need "to assess the future and make provision for it." That includes a flexible action plan that considers a firm's resources, work in progress, and future market trends.
- Organizing: laying out lines of authority and responsibility for employees. This covers recruitment and training, coordinating activities, and making employees' duties clear.
- Commanding: getting the most from people. So, managers must know their employees' skills, delegate to tap into these skill sets, and set a good example.
- Coordinating: in a well-coordinated organization, departments know their responsibilities, the needs of other teams, and their obligations to them.
- Controlling: continually checking that rules, plans and processes are working as well as they should be.
Is Fayolism Still Relevant Today?
You only have to look at the language he used to see that Fayol was writing over 100 years ago. For example, he refers to employees as "men."
But, as Daniel Wren writes, "Without the contributions of these pioneers, such as Fayol, we would probably be teaching industrial engineering, sociology, economics, or perhaps ergonomics to those who aspire to manage. To be doing so would push us back to the 19th century when technical know-how reigned supreme as a path to managerial responsibility." 
And if you look closer, you'll discover that many of Fayol's points are fresh and relevant. Such as:
- His Principles advocate teamwork and working together for the mutual benefit of the business.
- The Five Functions reveal the need for organizations to plan and be agile in the face of changing market conditions.
- Fayol was one of the first people to recognize that management is a continuous process.
- Before human resources management, Fayol wrote about motivating people by inspiring initiative, commanding respect through values, and ensuring that people have the time and training they need to be happy and productive at work.
- The manager who is respected for their values leads by example , makes time to get to know their employees, and gives them the training they need, sounds a lot like a modern manager. Some of these ideas may seem a bit obvious, but at the time they were groundbreaking. And the fact that they've stuck shows just how well Fayol's Principles work.
Criticism of Fayol's Principles of Management
That's not to say that everyone is a fan of Fayol's Administrative Theory. Some detractors claim that:
It's unscientific. Fayol's critics question whether you can ground a theory in the observations of one person. But Fayol stressed that he was laying a foundation for others to build on.
This is just what Luther Gulick and Lyndall Urwick did in 1937 when they used Fayol's ideas to form their POSDCORB model for working efficiently. And research shows that more modern critics of Fayol – such as Mintzberg, Kotter and Hales – in fact use many of his ideas.
It's too prescriptive. If some of Fayol's Principles look dated, there's a reason for that. Many critics argue that one set of Principles can't govern all managers. In fact, Fayol wrote that his list was "incomplete," and that the Principles were flexible and adaptable.
Today, academics have shown how Fayol's work can be updated to complement modern management theorists, such as Porter. 
It's cold and inhuman. Critics of historical management theories point to an emphasis on efficiency over the social and psychological needs of workers. But managing with kindness, instilling a sense of initiative, and building morale reveal a level of consideration for workers that was enlightened at the time.
Fayol highlighted the differences between managerial and technical skills. What's more, he was one of the first people to recognize that "manager" is a profession – one whose skills need to be researched, taught and developed.
Fayol's 14 Principles and Five Functions helped to form Administrative Theory. It was progressed by workers and managers alike – non-academics who shared and learned from their experiences.
 Fayol, H. (2013). ' Administration Industrielle et Générale (General and Industrial Management) ,' Eastford, CT: Martino Fine Books.
 Yoo, J-W., Lemak, David J., & Choi. Y. (2006). 'Principles of Management and Competitive Strategies: Using Fayol to Implement Porter,' Journal of Management History . Available here .
 Lunenburg, F.C. & Ornstein, A. (2021). ' Educational Administration Concepts and Practices ,' New York: Sage Publishing.
 Fells, M.J. (2000). 'Fayol Stands the Test of Time,' Journal of Management History (Archive) . Available here .
 Wren, Daniel A. (1995). 'Henri Fayol: Learning From Experience,' Journal of Management History (Archive) . Available here .
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1.1 Introduction to Principles of Management
Managers make things happen through strategic and entrepreneurial leadership.
Unsplash – CC0 Public Domain.
What’s in It for Me?
Reading this chapter will help you do the following:
- Learn who managers are and about the nature of their work.
- Know why you should care about leadership, entrepreneurship, and strategy.
- Know the dimensions of the planning-organizing-leading-controlling (P-O-L-C) framework.
- Learn how economic performance feeds social and environmental performance.
- Understand what performance means at the individual and group levels.
- Create your survivor’s guide to learning and developing principles of management.
We’re betting that you already have a lot of experience with organizations, teams, and leadership. You’ve been through schools, in clubs, participated in social or religious groups, competed in sports or games, or taken on full- or part-time jobs. Some of your experience was probably pretty positive, but you were also likely wondering sometimes, “Isn’t there a better way to do this?”
After participating in this course, we hope that you find the answer to be “Yes!” While management is both art and science, with our help you can identify and develop the skills essential to better managing your and others’ behaviors where organizations are concerned.
Before getting ahead of ourselves, just what is management, let alone principles of management? A manager’s primary challenge is to solve problems creatively, and you should view management as “the art of getting things done through the efforts of other people.” 1 The principles of management , then, are the means by which you actually manage, that is, get things done through others—individually, in groups, or in organizations. Formally defined, the principles of management are the activities that “plan, organize, and control the operations of the basic elements of [people], materials, machines, methods, money and markets, providing direction and coordination, and giving leadership to human efforts, so as to achieve the sought objectives of the enterprise.” 2 For this reason, principles of management are often discussed or learned using a framework called P-O-L-C, which stands for planning, organizing, leading, and controlling.
Managers are required in all the activities of organizations: budgeting, designing, selling, creating, financing, accounting, and artistic presentation; the larger the organization, the more managers are needed. Everyone employed in an organization is affected by management principles, processes, policies, and practices as they are either a manager or a subordinate to a manager, and usually they are both.
Managers do not spend all their time managing. When choreographers are dancing a part, they are not managing, nor are office managers managing when they personally check out a customer’s credit. Some employees perform only part of the functions described as managerial—and to that extent, they are mostly managers in limited areas. For example, those who are assigned the preparation of plans in an advisory capacity to a manager, to that extent, are making management decisions by deciding which of several alternatives to present to the management. However, they have no participation in the functions of organizing, staffing, and supervising and no control over the implementation of the plan selected from those recommended. Even independent consultants are managers, since they get most things done through others—those others just happen to be their clients! Of course, if advisers or consultants have their own staff of subordinates, they become a manager in the fullest sense of the definition. They must develop business plans; hire, train, organize, and motivate their staff members; establish internal policies that will facilitate the work and direct it; and represent the group and its work to those outside of the firm.
1 We draw this definition from a biography of Mary Parker Follett (1868–1933) written by P. Graham, Mary Parker Follett: Prophet of Management (Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1995). Follett was an American social worker, consultant, and author of books on democracy, human relations, and management. She worked as a management and political theorist, introducing such phrases as “conflict resolution,” “authority and power,” and “the task of leadership.”
2 The fundamental notion of principles of management was developed by French management theorist Henri Fayol (1841–1925). He is credited with the original planning-organizing-leading-controlling framework (P-O-L-C), which, while undergoing very important changes in content, remains the dominant management framework in the world. See H. Fayol, General and Industrial Management (Paris: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, 1916).
Principles of Management Copyright © 2015 by University of Minnesota is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.
WRITTEN ASSIGNMENT UNIT 2. PRINCIPLES OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENT.
- 1.1 What Do Managers Do?
- 1.2 The Roles Managers Play
- 1.3 Major Characteristics of the Manager's Job
- Summary of Learning Outcomes
- Chapter Review Questions
- Management Skills Application Exercises
- Managerial Decision Exercises
- Critical Thinking Case
- 2.1 Overview of Managerial Decision-Making
- 2.2 How the Brain Processes Information to Make Decisions: Reflective and Reactive Systems
- 2.3 Programmed and Nonprogrammed Decisions
- 2.4 Barriers to Effective Decision-Making
- 2.5 Improving the Quality of Decision-Making
- 2.6 Group Decision-Making
- 3.1 The Early Origins of Management
- 3.2 The Italian Renaissance
- 3.3 The Industrial Revolution
- 3.4 Taylor-Made Management
- 3.5 Administrative and Bureaucratic Management
- 3.6 Human Relations Movement
- 3.7 Contingency and System Management
- 4.1 The Organization's External Environment
- 4.2 External Environments and Industries
- 4.3 Organizational Designs and Structures
- 4.4 The Internal Organization and External Environments
- 4.5 Corporate Cultures
- 4.6 Organizing for Change in the 21st Century
- 5.1 Ethics and Business Ethics Defined
- 5.2 Dimensions of Ethics: The Individual Level
- 5.3 Ethical Principles and Responsible Decision-Making
- 5.4 Leadership: Ethics at the Organizational Level
- 5.5 Ethics, Corporate Culture, and Compliance
- 5.6 Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)
- 5.7 Ethics around the Globe
- 5.8 Emerging Trends in Ethics, CSR, and Compliance
- 6.1 Importance of International Management
- 6.2 Hofstede's Cultural Framework
- 6.3 The GLOBE Framework
- 6.4 Cultural Stereotyping and Social Institutions
- 6.5 Cross-Cultural Assignments
- 6.6 Strategies for Expanding Globally
- 6.7 The Necessity of Global Markets
- 7.1 Entrepreneurship
- 7.2 Characteristics of Successful Entrepreneurs
- 7.3 Small Business
- 7.4 Start Your Own Business
- 7.5 Managing a Small Business
- 7.6 The Large Impact of Small Business
- 7.7 The Small Business Administration
- 7.8 Trends in Entrepreneurship and Small-Business Ownership
- 8.1 Gaining Advantages by Understanding the Competitive Environment
- 8.2 Using SWOT for Strategic Analysis
- 8.3 A Firm's External Macro Environment: PESTEL
- 8.4 A Firm's Micro Environment: Porter's Five Forces
- 8.5 The Internal Environment
- 8.6 Competition, Strategy, and Competitive Advantage
- 8.7 Strategic Positioning
- 9.1 Strategic Management
- 9.2 Firm Vision and Mission
- 9.3 The Role of Strategic Analysis in Formulating a Strategy
- 9.4 Strategic Objectives and Levels of Strategy
- 9.5 Planning Firm Actions to Implement Strategies
- 9.6 Measuring and Evaluating Strategic Performance
- 10.1 Organizational Structures and Design
- 10.2 Organizational Change
- 10.3 Managing Change
- 11.1 An Introduction to Human Resource Management
- 11.2 Human Resource Management and Compliance
- 11.3 Performance Management
- 11.4 Influencing Employee Performance and Motivation
- 11.5 Building an Organization for the Future
- 11.6 Talent Development and Succession Planning
- 12.1 An Introduction to Workplace Diversity
- 12.2 Diversity and the Workforce
- 12.3 Diversity and Its Impact on Companies
- 12.4 Challenges of Diversity
- 12.5 Key Diversity Theories
- 12.6 Benefits and Challenges of Workplace Diversity
- 12.7 Recommendations for Managing Diversity
- 13.1 The Nature of Leadership
- 13.2 The Leadership Process
- 13.3 Leader Emergence
- 13.4 The Trait Approach to Leadership
- 13.5 Behavioral Approaches to Leadership
- 13.6 Situational (Contingency) Approaches to Leadership
- 13.7 Substitutes for and Neutralizers of Leadership
- 13.8 Transformational, Visionary, and Charismatic Leadership
- 13.9 Leadership Needs in the 21st Century
- 14.1 Motivation: Direction and Intensity
- 14.2 Content Theories of Motivation
- 14.3 Process Theories of Motivation
- 14.4 Recent Research on Motivation Theories
- 15.1 Teamwork in the Workplace
- 15.2 Team Development Over Time
- 15.3 Things to Consider When Managing Teams
- 15.4 Opportunities and Challenges to Team Building
- 15.5 Team Diversity
- 15.6 Multicultural Teams
- 16.1 The Process of Managerial Communication
- 16.2 Types of Communications in Organizations
- 16.3 Factors Affecting Communications and the Roles of Managers
- 16.4 Managerial Communication and Corporate Reputation
- 16.5 The Major Channels of Management Communication Are Talking, Listening, Reading, and Writing
- 17.1 Is Planning Important
- 17.2 The Planning Process
- 17.3 Types of Plans
- 17.4 Goals or Outcome Statements
- 17.5 Formal Organizational Planning in Practice
- 17.6 Employees' Responses to Planning
- 17.7 Management by Objectives: A Planning and Control Technique
- 17.8 The Control- and Involvement-Oriented Approaches to Planning and Controlling
- 18.1 MTI—Its Importance Now and In the Future
- 18.2 Developing Technology and Innovation
- 18.3 External Sources of Technology and Innovation
- 18.4 Internal Sources of Technology and Innovation
- 18.5 Management Entrepreneurship Skills for Technology and Innovation
- 18.6 Skills Needed for MTI
- 18.7 Managing Now for Future Technology and Innovation
Managing and Performing
Managerial decision-making, the history of management, external and internal organizational environments and corporate culture, ethics, corporate responsibility, and sustainability, international management, entrepreneurship, strategic analysis: understanding a firm’s competitive environment, the strategic management process: achieving and sustaining competitive advantage, organizational structure and change, human resource management, diversity in organizations, work motivation for performance, managing teams, managerial communication, organizational planning and controlling, management of technology and innovation.
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Access for free at https://openstax.org/books/principles-management/pages/1-introduction
- Authors: David S. Bright, Anastasia H. Cortes
- Publisher/website: OpenStax
- Book title: Principles of Management
- Publication date: Mar 20, 2019
- Location: Houston, Texas
- Book URL: https://openstax.org/books/principles-management/pages/1-introduction
- Section URL: https://openstax.org/books/principles-management/pages/references
© Jan 9, 2024 OpenStax. Textbook content produced by OpenStax is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License . The OpenStax name, OpenStax logo, OpenStax book covers, OpenStax CNX name, and OpenStax CNX logo are not subject to the Creative Commons license and may not be reproduced without the prior and express written consent of Rice University.