ppt on research article

Princeton Correspondents on Undergraduate Research

How to Make a Successful Research Presentation

Turning a research paper into a visual presentation is difficult; there are pitfalls, and navigating the path to a brief, informative presentation takes time and practice. As a TA for  GEO/WRI 201: Methods in Data Analysis & Scientific Writing this past fall, I saw how this process works from an instructor’s standpoint. I’ve presented my own research before, but helping others present theirs taught me a bit more about the process. Here are some tips I learned that may help you with your next research presentation:

More is more

In general, your presentation will always benefit from more practice, more feedback, and more revision. By practicing in front of friends, you can get comfortable with presenting your work while receiving feedback. It is hard to know how to revise your presentation if you never practice. If you are presenting to a general audience, getting feedback from someone outside of your discipline is crucial. Terms and ideas that seem intuitive to you may be completely foreign to someone else, and your well-crafted presentation could fall flat.

Less is more

Limit the scope of your presentation, the number of slides, and the text on each slide. In my experience, text works well for organizing slides, orienting the audience to key terms, and annotating important figures–not for explaining complex ideas. Having fewer slides is usually better as well. In general, about one slide per minute of presentation is an appropriate budget. Too many slides is usually a sign that your topic is too broad.

ppt on research article

Limit the scope of your presentation

Don’t present your paper. Presentations are usually around 10 min long. You will not have time to explain all of the research you did in a semester (or a year!) in such a short span of time. Instead, focus on the highlight(s). Identify a single compelling research question which your work addressed, and craft a succinct but complete narrative around it.

You will not have time to explain all of the research you did. Instead, focus on the highlights. Identify a single compelling research question which your work addressed, and craft a succinct but complete narrative around it.

Craft a compelling research narrative

After identifying the focused research question, walk your audience through your research as if it were a story. Presentations with strong narrative arcs are clear, captivating, and compelling.

  • Introduction (exposition — rising action)

Orient the audience and draw them in by demonstrating the relevance and importance of your research story with strong global motive. Provide them with the necessary vocabulary and background knowledge to understand the plot of your story. Introduce the key studies (characters) relevant in your story and build tension and conflict with scholarly and data motive. By the end of your introduction, your audience should clearly understand your research question and be dying to know how you resolve the tension built through motive.

ppt on research article

  • Methods (rising action)

The methods section should transition smoothly and logically from the introduction. Beware of presenting your methods in a boring, arc-killing, ‘this is what I did.’ Focus on the details that set your story apart from the stories other people have already told. Keep the audience interested by clearly motivating your decisions based on your original research question or the tension built in your introduction.

  • Results (climax)

Less is usually more here. Only present results which are clearly related to the focused research question you are presenting. Make sure you explain the results clearly so that your audience understands what your research found. This is the peak of tension in your narrative arc, so don’t undercut it by quickly clicking through to your discussion.

  • Discussion (falling action)

By now your audience should be dying for a satisfying resolution. Here is where you contextualize your results and begin resolving the tension between past research. Be thorough. If you have too many conflicts left unresolved, or you don’t have enough time to present all of the resolutions, you probably need to further narrow the scope of your presentation.

  • Conclusion (denouement)

Return back to your initial research question and motive, resolving any final conflicts and tying up loose ends. Leave the audience with a clear resolution of your focus research question, and use unresolved tension to set up potential sequels (i.e. further research).

Use your medium to enhance the narrative

Visual presentations should be dominated by clear, intentional graphics. Subtle animation in key moments (usually during the results or discussion) can add drama to the narrative arc and make conflict resolutions more satisfying. You are narrating a story written in images, videos, cartoons, and graphs. While your paper is mostly text, with graphics to highlight crucial points, your slides should be the opposite. Adapting to the new medium may require you to create or acquire far more graphics than you included in your paper, but it is necessary to create an engaging presentation.

The most important thing you can do for your presentation is to practice and revise. Bother your friends, your roommates, TAs–anybody who will sit down and listen to your work. Beyond that, think about presentations you have found compelling and try to incorporate some of those elements into your own. Remember you want your work to be comprehensible; you aren’t creating experts in 10 minutes. Above all, try to stay passionate about what you did and why. You put the time in, so show your audience that it’s worth it.

For more insight into research presentations, check out these past PCUR posts written by Emma and Ellie .

— Alec Getraer, Natural Sciences Correspondent

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How to Make a PowerPoint Presentation of Your Research Paper

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A research paper presentation is often used at conferences and in other settings where you have an opportunity to share your research, and get feedback from your colleagues. Although it may seem as simple as summarizing your research and sharing your knowledge, successful research paper PowerPoint presentation examples show us that there’s a little bit more than that involved.

In this article, we’ll highlight how to make a PowerPoint presentation from a research paper, and what to include (as well as what NOT to include). We’ll also touch on how to present a research paper at a conference.

Purpose of a Research Paper Presentation

The purpose of presenting your paper at a conference or forum is different from the purpose of conducting your research and writing up your paper. In this setting, you want to highlight your work instead of including every detail of your research. Likewise, a presentation is an excellent opportunity to get direct feedback from your colleagues in the field. But, perhaps the main reason for presenting your research is to spark interest in your work, and entice the audience to read your research paper.

So, yes, your presentation should summarize your work, but it needs to do so in a way that encourages your audience to seek out your work, and share their interest in your work with others. It’s not enough just to present your research dryly, to get information out there. More important is to encourage engagement with you, your research, and your work.

Tips for Creating Your Research Paper Presentation

In addition to basic PowerPoint presentation recommendations, which we’ll cover later in this article, think about the following when you’re putting together your research paper presentation:

  • Know your audience : First and foremost, who are you presenting to? Students? Experts in your field? Potential funders? Non-experts? The truth is that your audience will probably have a bit of a mix of all of the above. So, make sure you keep that in mind as you prepare your presentation.

Know more about: Discover the Target Audience .

  • Your audience is human : In other words, they may be tired, they might be wondering why they’re there, and they will, at some point, be tuning out. So, take steps to help them stay interested in your presentation. You can do that by utilizing effective visuals, summarize your conclusions early, and keep your research easy to understand.
  • Running outline : It’s not IF your audience will drift off, or get lost…it’s WHEN. Keep a running outline, either within the presentation or via a handout. Use visual and verbal clues to highlight where you are in the presentation.
  • Where does your research fit in? You should know of work related to your research, but you don’t have to cite every example. In addition, keep references in your presentation to the end, or in the handout. Your audience is there to hear about your work.
  • Plan B : Anticipate possible questions for your presentation, and prepare slides that answer those specific questions in more detail, but have them at the END of your presentation. You can then jump to them, IF needed.

What Makes a PowerPoint Presentation Effective?

You’ve probably attended a presentation where the presenter reads off of their PowerPoint outline, word for word. Or where the presentation is busy, disorganized, or includes too much information. Here are some simple tips for creating an effective PowerPoint Presentation.

  • Less is more: You want to give enough information to make your audience want to read your paper. So include details, but not too many, and avoid too many formulas and technical jargon.
  • Clean and professional : Avoid excessive colors, distracting backgrounds, font changes, animations, and too many words. Instead of whole paragraphs, bullet points with just a few words to summarize and highlight are best.
  • Know your real-estate : Each slide has a limited amount of space. Use it wisely. Typically one, no more than two points per slide. Balance each slide visually. Utilize illustrations when needed; not extraneously.
  • Keep things visual : Remember, a PowerPoint presentation is a powerful tool to present things visually. Use visual graphs over tables and scientific illustrations over long text. Keep your visuals clean and professional, just like any text you include in your presentation.

Know more about our Scientific Illustrations Services .

Another key to an effective presentation is to practice, practice, and then practice some more. When you’re done with your PowerPoint, go through it with friends and colleagues to see if you need to add (or delete excessive) information. Double and triple check for typos and errors. Know the presentation inside and out, so when you’re in front of your audience, you’ll feel confident and comfortable.

How to Present a Research Paper

If your PowerPoint presentation is solid, and you’ve practiced your presentation, that’s half the battle. Follow the basic advice to keep your audience engaged and interested by making eye contact, encouraging questions, and presenting your information with enthusiasm.

We encourage you to read our articles on how to present a scientific journal article and tips on giving good scientific presentations .

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How to present a research paper in PPT: best practices

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How to present a research paper in PPT: best practices

A research paper presentation is frequently used at conferences and other events where you have a chance to share the results of your research and receive feedback from colleagues. Although it may appear as simple as summarizing the findings, successful examples of research paper presentations show that there is a little bit more to it.

In this article, we’ll walk you through the basic outline and steps to create a good research paper presentation. We’ll also explain what to include and what not to include in your presentation of research paper and share some of the most effective tips you can use to take your slides to the next level.

Research paper PowerPoint presentation outline

Creating a PowerPoint presentation for a research paper involves organizing and summarizing your key findings, methodology, and conclusions in a way that encourages your audience to interact with your work and share their interest in it with others. Here’s a basic research paper outline PowerPoint you can follow:

1. Title (1 slide)

Typically, your title slide should contain the following information:

  • Title of the research paper
  • Affiliation or institution
  • Date of presentation

2. Introduction (1-3 slides)

On this slide of your presentation, briefly introduce the research topic and its significance and state the research question or objective.

3. Research questions or hypothesis (1 slide)

This slide should emphasize the objectives of your research or present the hypothesis.

4. Literature review (1 slide)

Your literature review has to provide context for your research by summarizing relevant literature. Additionally, it should highlight gaps or areas where your research contributes.

5. Methodology and data collection (1-2 slides)

This slide of your research paper PowerPoint has to explain the research design, methods, and procedures. It must also Include details about participants, materials, and data collection and emphasize special equipment you have used in your work.

6. Results (3-5 slides)

On this slide, you must present the results of your data analysis and discuss any trends, patterns, or significant findings. Moreover, you should use charts, graphs, and tables to illustrate data and highlight something novel in your results (if applicable).

7. Conclusion (1 slide)

Your conclusion slide has to summarize the main findings and their implications, as well as discuss the broader impact of your research. Usually, a single statement is enough.

8. Recommendations (1 slide)

If applicable, provide recommendations for future research or actions on this slide.

9. References (1-2 slides)

The references slide is where you list all the sources cited in your research paper.

10. Acknowledgments (1 slide)

On this presentation slide, acknowledge any individuals, organizations, or funding sources that contributed to your research.

11. Appendix (1 slide)

If applicable, include any supplementary materials, such as additional data or detailed charts, in your appendix slide.

The above outline is just a general guideline, so make sure to adjust it based on your specific research paper and the time allotted for the presentation.

Steps to creating a memorable research paper presentation

Creating a PowerPoint presentation for a research paper involves several critical steps needed to convey your findings and engage your audience effectively, and these steps are as follows:

Step 1. Understand your audience:

  • Identify the audience for your presentation.
  • Tailor your content and level of detail to match the audience’s background and knowledge.

Step 2. Define your key messages:

  • Clearly articulate the main messages or findings of your research.
  • Identify the key points you want your audience to remember.

Step 3. Design your research paper PPT presentation:

  • Use a clean and professional design that complements your research topic.
  • Choose readable fonts, consistent formatting, and a limited color palette.
  • Opt for PowerPoint presentation services if slide design is not your strong side.

Step 4. Put content on slides:

  • Follow the outline above to structure your presentation effectively; include key sections and topics.
  • Organize your content logically, following the flow of your research paper.

Step 5. Final check:

  • Proofread your slides for typos, errors, and inconsistencies.
  • Ensure all visuals are clear, high-quality, and properly labeled.

Step 6. Save and share:

  • Save your presentation and ensure compatibility with the equipment you’ll be using.
  • If necessary, share a copy of your presentation with the audience.

By following these steps, you can create a well-organized and visually appealing research paper presentation PowerPoint that effectively conveys your research findings to the audience.

What to include and what not to include in your presentation

In addition to the must-know PowerPoint presentation recommendations, which we’ll cover later in this article, consider the following do’s and don’ts when you’re putting together your research paper presentation:

  • Focus on the topic.
  • Be brief and to the point.
  • Attract the audience’s attention and highlight interesting details.
  • Use only relevant visuals (maps, charts, pictures, graphs, etc.).
  • Use numbers and bullet points to structure the content.
  • Make clear statements regarding the essence and results of your research.

Don’ts:

  • Don’t write down the whole outline of your paper and nothing else.
  • Don’t put long, full sentences on your slides; split them into smaller ones.
  • Don’t use distracting patterns, colors, pictures, and other visuals on your slides; the simpler, the better.
  • Don’t use too complicated graphs or charts; only the ones that are easy to understand.
  • Now that we’ve discussed the basics, let’s move on to the top tips for making a powerful presentation of your research paper.

8 tips on how to make research paper presentation that achieves its goals

You’ve probably been to a presentation where the presenter reads word for word from their PowerPoint outline. Or where the presentation is cluttered, chaotic, or contains too much data. The simple tips below will help you summarize a 10 to 15-page paper for a 15 to 20-minute talk and succeed, so read on!

Tip #1: Less is more

You want to provide enough information to make your audience want to know more. Including details but not too many and avoiding technical jargon, formulas, and long sentences are always good ways to achieve this.

Tip #2: Be professional

Avoid using too many colors, font changes, distracting backgrounds, animations, etc. Bullet points with a few words to highlight the important information are preferable to lengthy paragraphs. Additionally, include slide numbers on all PowerPoint slides except for the title slide, and make sure it is followed by a table of contents, offering a brief overview of the entire research paper.

Tip #3: Strive for balance

PowerPoint slides have limited space, so use it carefully. Typically, one to two points per slide or 5 lines for 5 words in a sentence are enough to present your ideas.

Tip #4: Use proper fonts and text size

The font you use should be easy to read and consistent throughout the slides. You can go with Arial, Times New Roman, Calibri, or a combination of these three. An ideal text size is 32 points, while a heading size is 44.

Tip #5: Concentrate on the visual side

A PowerPoint presentation is one of the best tools for presenting information visually. Use graphs instead of tables and topic-relevant illustrations instead of walls of text. Keep your visuals as clean and professional as the content of your presentation.

Tip #6: Practice your delivery

Always go through your presentation when you’re done to ensure a smooth and confident delivery and time yourself to stay within the allotted limit.

Tip #7: Get ready for questions

Anticipate potential questions from your audience and prepare thoughtful responses. Also, be ready to engage in discussions about your research.

Tip #8: Don’t be afraid to utilize professional help

If the mere thought of designing a presentation overwhelms you or you’re pressed for time, consider leveraging professional PowerPoint redesign services . A dedicated design team can transform your content or old presentation into effective slides, ensuring your message is communicated clearly and captivates your audience. This way, you can focus on refining your delivery and preparing for the presentation.

Lastly, remember that even experienced presenters get nervous before delivering research paper PowerPoint presentations in front of the audience. You cannot know everything; some things can be beyond your control, which is completely fine. You are at the event not only to share what you know but also to learn from others. So, no matter what, dress appropriately, look straight into the audience’s eyes, try to speak and move naturally, present your information enthusiastically, and have fun!

If you need help with slide design, get in touch with our dedicated design team and let qualified professionals turn your research findings into a visually appealing, polished presentation that leaves a lasting impression on your audience. Our experienced designers specialize in creating engaging layouts, incorporating compelling graphics, and ensuring a cohesive visual narrative that complements content on any subject.

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writing a research article

WRITING A RESEARCH ARTICLE

Apr 02, 2019

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WRITING A RESEARCH ARTICLE. Dr. Rob Danin Senior English Language Fellow www.robdanin.com. FORMAT FOR THE PAPER. TITLE Make your title specific enough to describe the contents of the paper. The title should be appropriate for the intended audience.

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WRITING A RESEARCH ARTICLE Dr. Rob Danin Senior English Language Fellow www.robdanin.com

FORMAT FOR THE PAPER TITLE • Make your title specific enough to describe the contents of the paper. The title should be appropriate for the intended audience. • The title usually describes the subject matter of the article: “Towards an Understanding of Culture in L2/FL Education” • Sometimes a title that summarizes the results is more effective: “How Native English Speakers Can Be Better English Teachers in Russia”

FORMAT FOR THE PAPER AUTHORS • The person who did the work and wrote the paper is generally listed as the first author of a research paper. • For published articles, other people who made substantial contributions to the work are also listed as authors.

FORMAT FOR THE PAPER ABSTRACT (Summary) • The abstract should be a little less technical than the article itself. • Your abstract should be one paragraph, of 100-250 words, which summarizes the purpose, methods, results and conclusions of the paper. • Start by writing a summary that includes whatever you think is important and then edit. • Don't use abbreviations or citations in the abstract. It should be able to stand alone without any footnotes.

FORMAT FOR THE PAPER INTRODUCTION • The introduction summarizes the relevant literature (lit review) so that the reader will understand why you were interested in this particular topic. • What is the focus of your article? • Why is it interesting? • Questions for further review • One to four paragraphs should be enough. • Make sure you address all the questions you posed in this section of the paper.

FORMAT FOR THE PAPER MATERIALS AND METHODS • How did you answer the questions in your introduction? • Look at other research papers that have been published in your field to get some idea of what is included in this section. • Do not put results in this section. • Mention relevant ethical/cultural considerations. • Various cultures view certain ethical practices differently (e.g., confidentiality)

FORMAT FOR THE PAPER RESULTS • Summarize your main findings in the text. • Do not discuss the results or speculate as to why something happened; that goes in the Discussion section of your paper. • This is where you present the results of your research. • Use diagrams, charts/tables or flowcharts to help clarify key points in your article if appropriate. • Don't use these just to be "fancy". If you can summarize the information in one sentence, then a visual representation is not necessary.

Table / Chart

FORMAT FOR THE PAPER DISCUSSION • Highlight the most significant results, but don't just repeat what you've written in the Results section. • How do these results relate to the original question(s)? • If your results were unexpected, try to explain why. • End with a one-sentence summary of your conclusion, emphasizing why it is relevant.

FORMAT FOR THE PAPER ACKNOWLEDGMENTS • This section is optional. You can thank those who either helped with your study or made other important contributions. REFERENCES (LITERATURE CITED) • Credit use of somebody else's words or ideas (Citations) • There are several possible ways to organize this section. • APA, MLA, Chicago http://myweb.wssu.edu/wallr/ms_form_comparison.htm USEFUL BOOK • William Strunk, Jr. and E. B. White, The Elements of Style, 3rd ed. Macmillan, New York, 1987. http://www.bartleby.com/141/ (online) http://faculty.washington.edu/heagerty/Courses/b572/public/StrunkWhite.pdf (PDF)

Other Considerations EDIT YOUR PAPER • "In my writing, I average about ten pages a day. Unfortunately, they're all the same page." Michael Alley, The Craft of Scientific Writing (1996) Write accurately • Although writing instructors may tell you not to use the same word twice in a sentence, it's okay for scientific writing. Make sure you say what you mean Use past tense except when referring to established facts • The paper will be submitted after all of the work is completed. Be careful with commonly confused words • Culture has an effect on language learning. • Culture affects language learning.

Other Considerations Write clearly • Write at a level that's appropriate for your audience. Use the first person •  Instead of: It is thought Write: I think Use short sentences • A sentence made of more than 40 words should probably be rewritten as two sentences. Check your grammar, spelling and punctuation • Use a spellchecker, but be aware that they don't catch all mmistakees. • Don't, use, unnecessary, commas. • Proofread carefully to see if you any words out. • Proof your paper by reading it from bottom to top

Other Considerations  Write succinctly Use concise terms

Other Considerations The top ten overused phrases: 1 - At the end of the day 2 - Fairly unique 3 - I personally 4 - At this moment in time 5 - It's not rocket science 6 - Absolutely 7 - It's a nightmare 8 - Shouldn't of 9 - 24/7 10 - With all due respect

Other Considerations Careful Using Clichés • Avoid it like the plague • Dead as a doornail • Take the tiger by the tail • Low hanging fruit • If only walls could talk • The pot calling the kettle black • Think outside the box • Thick as thieves • But at the end of the day • Plenty of fish in the sea • Every dog has its day • Like a kid in a candy store

Other ConsiderationsArticle Publication Juried Non-Juried • Any source that is not in a peer-reviewed research journal • Non-peer reviewed/non-juried/non-refereed (all of those words mean the same thing) • Such sources include newspapers, magazines, websites, non-academic books, etc. • The peer review process ensures that the information in an article is reliable • Submission to a professional research journal • Article is reviewed anonymously by a panel of other researchers in the same field • If approved by the reviewers, then article is published

Creating an Outline for Your Article Title (and Authors) • Make this as catchy as possible • Your reader will read this first then decide if he or she willcontinue reading the rest of the article Introduction • Introduce the problem you will be discussing or write a short story of your experience with the problem Body: this includes • Materials and methods • Results (use of visual graphics?) • Discussion • Acknowledgments and references Abstract (and title) • Consider writing this after the completion of the article • This may help more accurately align the abstract/title to the central theme of the article

Writer’s Workshop • In small groups, please do the following: • Generate possible article ideas • You may already have one! • Collect writing ideas from the group • Choose “seed ideas” that work for you • Plan and begin an article draft • With the article outline provided (or using another outline method), please take time to begin a draft of a possible article you may decide to write.

Best of luck!www.robdanin.com

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Published: December 2, 2021

  • https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1009554
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Fig 1

Citation: Naegle KM (2021) Ten simple rules for effective presentation slides. PLoS Comput Biol 17(12): e1009554. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1009554

Copyright: © 2021 Kristen M. Naegle. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Funding: The author received no specific funding for this work.

Competing interests: The author has declared no competing interests exist.

Introduction

The “presentation slide” is the building block of all academic presentations, whether they are journal clubs, thesis committee meetings, short conference talks, or hour-long seminars. A slide is a single page projected on a screen, usually built on the premise of a title, body, and figures or tables and includes both what is shown and what is spoken about that slide. Multiple slides are strung together to tell the larger story of the presentation. While there have been excellent 10 simple rules on giving entire presentations [ 1 , 2 ], there was an absence in the fine details of how to design a slide for optimal effect—such as the design elements that allow slides to convey meaningful information, to keep the audience engaged and informed, and to deliver the information intended and in the time frame allowed. As all research presentations seek to teach, effective slide design borrows from the same principles as effective teaching, including the consideration of cognitive processing your audience is relying on to organize, process, and retain information. This is written for anyone who needs to prepare slides from any length scale and for most purposes of conveying research to broad audiences. The rules are broken into 3 primary areas. Rules 1 to 5 are about optimizing the scope of each slide. Rules 6 to 8 are about principles around designing elements of the slide. Rules 9 to 10 are about preparing for your presentation, with the slides as the central focus of that preparation.

Rule 1: Include only one idea per slide

Each slide should have one central objective to deliver—the main idea or question [ 3 – 5 ]. Often, this means breaking complex ideas down into manageable pieces (see Fig 1 , where “background” information has been split into 2 key concepts). In another example, if you are presenting a complex computational approach in a large flow diagram, introduce it in smaller units, building it up until you finish with the entire diagram. The progressive buildup of complex information means that audiences are prepared to understand the whole picture, once you have dedicated time to each of the parts. You can accomplish the buildup of components in several ways—for example, using presentation software to cover/uncover information. Personally, I choose to create separate slides for each piece of information content I introduce—where the final slide has the entire diagram, and I use cropping or a cover on duplicated slides that come before to hide what I’m not yet ready to include. I use this method in order to ensure that each slide in my deck truly presents one specific idea (the new content) and the amount of the new information on that slide can be described in 1 minute (Rule 2), but it comes with the trade-off—a change to the format of one of the slides in the series often means changes to all slides.

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Top left: A background slide that describes the background material on a project from my lab. The slide was created using a PowerPoint Design Template, which had to be modified to increase default text sizes for this figure (i.e., the default text sizes are even worse than shown here). Bottom row: The 2 new slides that break up the content into 2 explicit ideas about the background, using a central graphic. In the first slide, the graphic is an explicit example of the SH2 domain of PI3-kinase interacting with a phosphorylation site (Y754) on the PDGFR to describe the important details of what an SH2 domain and phosphotyrosine ligand are and how they interact. I use that same graphic in the second slide to generalize all binding events and include redundant text to drive home the central message (a lot of possible interactions might occur in the human proteome, more than we can currently measure). Top right highlights which rules were used to move from the original slide to the new slide. Specific changes as highlighted by Rule 7 include increasing contrast by changing the background color, increasing font size, changing to sans serif fonts, and removing all capital text and underlining (using bold to draw attention). PDGFR, platelet-derived growth factor receptor.

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1009554.g001

Rule 2: Spend only 1 minute per slide

When you present your slide in the talk, it should take 1 minute or less to discuss. This rule is really helpful for planning purposes—a 20-minute presentation should have somewhere around 20 slides. Also, frequently giving your audience new information to feast on helps keep them engaged. During practice, if you find yourself spending more than a minute on a slide, there’s too much for that one slide—it’s time to break up the content into multiple slides or even remove information that is not wholly central to the story you are trying to tell. Reduce, reduce, reduce, until you get to a single message, clearly described, which takes less than 1 minute to present.

Rule 3: Make use of your heading

When each slide conveys only one message, use the heading of that slide to write exactly the message you are trying to deliver. Instead of titling the slide “Results,” try “CTNND1 is central to metastasis” or “False-positive rates are highly sample specific.” Use this landmark signpost to ensure that all the content on that slide is related exactly to the heading and only the heading. Think of the slide heading as the introductory or concluding sentence of a paragraph and the slide content the rest of the paragraph that supports the main point of the paragraph. An audience member should be able to follow along with you in the “paragraph” and come to the same conclusion sentence as your header at the end of the slide.

Rule 4: Include only essential points

While you are speaking, audience members’ eyes and minds will be wandering over your slide. If you have a comment, detail, or figure on a slide, have a plan to explicitly identify and talk about it. If you don’t think it’s important enough to spend time on, then don’t have it on your slide. This is especially important when faculty are present. I often tell students that thesis committee members are like cats: If you put a shiny bauble in front of them, they’ll go after it. Be sure to only put the shiny baubles on slides that you want them to focus on. Putting together a thesis meeting for only faculty is really an exercise in herding cats (if you have cats, you know this is no easy feat). Clear and concise slide design will go a long way in helping you corral those easily distracted faculty members.

Rule 5: Give credit, where credit is due

An exception to Rule 4 is to include proper citations or references to work on your slide. When adding citations, names of other researchers, or other types of credit, use a consistent style and method for adding this information to your slides. Your audience will then be able to easily partition this information from the other content. A common mistake people make is to think “I’ll add that reference later,” but I highly recommend you put the proper reference on the slide at the time you make it, before you forget where it came from. Finally, in certain kinds of presentations, credits can make it clear who did the work. For the faculty members heading labs, it is an effective way to connect your audience with the personnel in the lab who did the work, which is a great career booster for that person. For graduate students, it is an effective way to delineate your contribution to the work, especially in meetings where the goal is to establish your credentials for meeting the rigors of a PhD checkpoint.

Rule 6: Use graphics effectively

As a rule, you should almost never have slides that only contain text. Build your slides around good visualizations. It is a visual presentation after all, and as they say, a picture is worth a thousand words. However, on the flip side, don’t muddy the point of the slide by putting too many complex graphics on a single slide. A multipanel figure that you might include in a manuscript should often be broken into 1 panel per slide (see Rule 1 ). One way to ensure that you use the graphics effectively is to make a point to introduce the figure and its elements to the audience verbally, especially for data figures. For example, you might say the following: “This graph here shows the measured false-positive rate for an experiment and each point is a replicate of the experiment, the graph demonstrates …” If you have put too much on one slide to present in 1 minute (see Rule 2 ), then the complexity or number of the visualizations is too much for just one slide.

Rule 7: Design to avoid cognitive overload

The type of slide elements, the number of them, and how you present them all impact the ability for the audience to intake, organize, and remember the content. For example, a frequent mistake in slide design is to include full sentences, but reading and verbal processing use the same cognitive channels—therefore, an audience member can either read the slide, listen to you, or do some part of both (each poorly), as a result of cognitive overload [ 4 ]. The visual channel is separate, allowing images/videos to be processed with auditory information without cognitive overload [ 6 ] (Rule 6). As presentations are an exercise in listening, and not reading, do what you can to optimize the ability of the audience to listen. Use words sparingly as “guide posts” to you and the audience about major points of the slide. In fact, you can add short text fragments, redundant with the verbal component of the presentation, which has been shown to improve retention [ 7 ] (see Fig 1 for an example of redundant text that avoids cognitive overload). Be careful in the selection of a slide template to minimize accidentally adding elements that the audience must process, but are unimportant. David JP Phillips argues (and effectively demonstrates in his TEDx talk [ 5 ]) that the human brain can easily interpret 6 elements and more than that requires a 500% increase in human cognition load—so keep the total number of elements on the slide to 6 or less. Finally, in addition to the use of short text, white space, and the effective use of graphics/images, you can improve ease of cognitive processing further by considering color choices and font type and size. Here are a few suggestions for improving the experience for your audience, highlighting the importance of these elements for some specific groups:

  • Use high contrast colors and simple backgrounds with low to no color—for persons with dyslexia or visual impairment.
  • Use sans serif fonts and large font sizes (including figure legends), avoid italics, underlining (use bold font instead for emphasis), and all capital letters—for persons with dyslexia or visual impairment [ 8 ].
  • Use color combinations and palettes that can be understood by those with different forms of color blindness [ 9 ]. There are excellent tools available to identify colors to use and ways to simulate your presentation or figures as they might be seen by a person with color blindness (easily found by a web search).
  • In this increasing world of virtual presentation tools, consider practicing your talk with a closed captioning system capture your words. Use this to identify how to improve your speaking pace, volume, and annunciation to improve understanding by all members of your audience, but especially those with a hearing impairment.

Rule 8: Design the slide so that a distracted person gets the main takeaway

It is very difficult to stay focused on a presentation, especially if it is long or if it is part of a longer series of talks at a conference. Audience members may get distracted by an important email, or they may start dreaming of lunch. So, it’s important to look at your slide and ask “If they heard nothing I said, will they understand the key concept of this slide?” The other rules are set up to help with this, including clarity of the single point of the slide (Rule 1), titling it with a major conclusion (Rule 3), and the use of figures (Rule 6) and short text redundant to your verbal description (Rule 7). However, with each slide, step back and ask whether its main conclusion is conveyed, even if someone didn’t hear your accompanying dialog. Importantly, ask if the information on the slide is at the right level of abstraction. For example, do you have too many details about the experiment, which hides the conclusion of the experiment (i.e., breaking Rule 1)? If you are worried about not having enough details, keep a slide at the end of your slide deck (after your conclusions and acknowledgments) with the more detailed information that you can refer to during a question and answer period.

Rule 9: Iteratively improve slide design through practice

Well-designed slides that follow the first 8 rules are intended to help you deliver the message you intend and in the amount of time you intend to deliver it in. The best way to ensure that you nailed slide design for your presentation is to practice, typically a lot. The most important aspects of practicing a new presentation, with an eye toward slide design, are the following 2 key points: (1) practice to ensure that you hit, each time through, the most important points (for example, the text guide posts you left yourself and the title of the slide); and (2) practice to ensure that as you conclude the end of one slide, it leads directly to the next slide. Slide transitions, what you say as you end one slide and begin the next, are important to keeping the flow of the “story.” Practice is when I discover that the order of my presentation is poor or that I left myself too few guideposts to remember what was coming next. Additionally, during practice, the most frequent things I have to improve relate to Rule 2 (the slide takes too long to present, usually because I broke Rule 1, and I’m delivering too much information for one slide), Rule 4 (I have a nonessential detail on the slide), and Rule 5 (I forgot to give a key reference). The very best type of practice is in front of an audience (for example, your lab or peers), where, with fresh perspectives, they can help you identify places for improving slide content, design, and connections across the entirety of your talk.

Rule 10: Design to mitigate the impact of technical disasters

The real presentation almost never goes as we planned in our heads or during our practice. Maybe the speaker before you went over time and now you need to adjust. Maybe the computer the organizer is having you use won’t show your video. Maybe your internet is poor on the day you are giving a virtual presentation at a conference. Technical problems are routinely part of the practice of sharing your work through presentations. Hence, you can design your slides to limit the impact certain kinds of technical disasters create and also prepare alternate approaches. Here are just a few examples of the preparation you can do that will take you a long way toward avoiding a complete fiasco:

  • Save your presentation as a PDF—if the version of Keynote or PowerPoint on a host computer cause issues, you still have a functional copy that has a higher guarantee of compatibility.
  • In using videos, create a backup slide with screen shots of key results. For example, if I have a video of cell migration, I’ll be sure to have a copy of the start and end of the video, in case the video doesn’t play. Even if the video worked, you can pause on this backup slide and take the time to highlight the key results in words if someone could not see or understand the video.
  • Avoid animations, such as figures or text that flash/fly-in/etc. Surveys suggest that no one likes movement in presentations [ 3 , 4 ]. There is likely a cognitive underpinning to the almost universal distaste of pointless animations that relates to the idea proposed by Kosslyn and colleagues that animations are salient perceptual units that captures direct attention [ 4 ]. Although perceptual salience can be used to draw attention to and improve retention of specific points, if you use this approach for unnecessary/unimportant things (like animation of your bullet point text, fly-ins of figures, etc.), then you will distract your audience from the important content. Finally, animations cause additional processing burdens for people with visual impairments [ 10 ] and create opportunities for technical disasters if the software on the host system is not compatible with your planned animation.

Conclusions

These rules are just a start in creating more engaging presentations that increase audience retention of your material. However, there are wonderful resources on continuing on the journey of becoming an amazing public speaker, which includes understanding the psychology and neuroscience behind human perception and learning. For example, as highlighted in Rule 7, David JP Phillips has a wonderful TEDx talk on the subject [ 5 ], and “PowerPoint presentation flaws and failures: A psychological analysis,” by Kosslyn and colleagues is deeply detailed about a number of aspects of human cognition and presentation style [ 4 ]. There are many books on the topic, including the popular “Presentation Zen” by Garr Reynolds [ 11 ]. Finally, although briefly touched on here, the visualization of data is an entire topic of its own that is worth perfecting for both written and oral presentations of work, with fantastic resources like Edward Tufte’s “The Visual Display of Quantitative Information” [ 12 ] or the article “Visualization of Biomedical Data” by O’Donoghue and colleagues [ 13 ].

Acknowledgments

I would like to thank the countless presenters, colleagues, students, and mentors from which I have learned a great deal from on effective presentations. Also, a thank you to the wonderful resources published by organizations on how to increase inclusivity. A special thanks to Dr. Jason Papin and Dr. Michael Guertin on early feedback of this editorial.

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  • 9. Cravit R. How to Use Color Blind Friendly Palettes to Make Your Charts Accessible. 2019. Available from: https://venngage.com/blog/color-blind-friendly-palette/ .
  • 10. Making your conference presentation more accessible to blind and partially sighted people. n.d. Available from: https://vocaleyes.co.uk/services/resources/guidelines-for-making-your-conference-presentation-more-accessible-to-blind-and-partially-sighted-people/ .
  • 11. Reynolds G. Presentation Zen: Simple Ideas on Presentation Design and Delivery. 2nd ed. New Riders Pub; 2011.
  • 12. Tufte ER. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information. 2nd ed. Graphics Press; 2001.

Guide to Research Methods

About the guide

This guide will

  • Introduce you to a range of research methods
  • Help you think about the value and limitations of different research methods
  • Identify when to use alternative research methods

You should use the guide

  • After or while you establish your research questions (See the Guide to Research Questions )
  • When you are completing your Research Design Framework
  • When you are thinking about who you want to talk to and why (See the Guide to Sampling )

You should print or read this guide

These slides are set up so that they can be printed back to back (two/four sided) to give:

  • A short hand overview about when to use each method
  • A summary of the method, what it’s good for and limitations (linking to other slides in this pack)

Choosing research methods

When you need to think about which method is best in theory and in practice

Choosing Research Methods

Providing a rationale for the methods you choose to use and how you employ them.

  • What are your research goals? If you are looking to influence experts or policy makers, quantitative approaches will add weight to your findings. If you are looking to understand problems, inform innovation or develop a prototype, look at qualitative methods or user research
  • What are your research questions? If they begin with ‘explore’ or ‘what’ look at qualitative methods (talking). If they begin with ‘identify’ or ‘why’ look at quantitative (see guide to research questions )
  • What research traditions exist? You may choose to follow or challenge them. Think about whether you want your research to be noted for its quality and robustness or creative approach and unique insights
  • What are your/your teams skills? You may not be an expert in the most appropriate method so consider asking for other team members or commissioning out research
  • Who are you research participants? Think about your relationship to participants (especially if you are doing qualitative research) and how they will respond to you and the method. Consider if they are often consulted or surveyed and whether if could be helpful or unhelpful to stick with their comfort zone or not.

Using online tools

When you need to decide which tools to use for research

What to think about when choosing a tool to conduct research

  • What’s the cost to the research quality ? Most tools are ‘freemium’, use a basic version for free. BUT these are designed to annoy you to pay to do good research. Consider privacy settings, data access, storage and value for money. Survey tools will have no option to filter participants (if yes/no answer this q), a 10Q limit, no branding. Mapping/visualisations are published online and open source tools aren’t always user friendly
  • Start with user needs, understand the context and think about everyone. Consider what technology they have, how they will access the tool and what they need to do this. Do they have internet, data, time?
  • Be creative: Online tools may not be designed for research, but Google Forms, Trello, Workflowy and Slack are all valuable collaboration tools. Twitter and Facebook polls may increase participation in research. However, think about what they are missing, what they can’t do and pilot your analysis approach first
  • See what’s out there: This online sheet of Applied Social Research Guides and Resources includes a list of online tools for research and evaluation to test. Those widely used for your research method or sector are likely to be the best starting point. Some tools allow you to do research (see Tags for Twitter data capture), analyse it or present it in new ways (see Raw Graph s for data visualisation)

Contents: Methods summary

  • Structured Interviews : When you want to gain a broad range of perspectives about specific questions
  • Semi-Structured Interviews : When you want to gain in-depth insights about broad questions
  • Unstructured Interviews : When you want to gain in-depth insights about a complex research topics
  • Telephone Interviews : A tool for when you want to interview people quickly and easily
  • Guerilla Interviews : When you want to carry out user research or explore general perspectives quickly
  • Contextual Interviews : When you want to understand actions and particular experiences indepth and in context
  • Focus Groups : When you want to understand shared experiences and different perspectives
  • Participant Observation : When you want to ‘learn by doing’ or observe social interactions and behaviour
  • Ethnography : When you want to experience social practices, interactions and behaviour with minimal influence
  • Surveys: When you want to generate numerical data about the scale of people’s opinions and feelings
  • Mixed Methods: When one method cannot fully answer your main research question
  • User Research : When you want to learn about the behaviours and motivations of your target audience
  • Service Design Research : When you want to design a service to meet people’s needs.
  • Content Analysis : When you want to understand public discourse through secondary or online data
  • Workshops : When you want to engage stakeholders in research, generate ideas or codesign solutions
  • Usability tests : When you want to test prototypes or learn about problems with an existing service

Find out more

How to do good…

  • Applied social research: A curated online sheet of Applied Social Research Guides and Resources
  • Surveys : Guide to creating questions here and here , build on existing data/questions , analysis guide
  • Interviews : A nice overview here which includes how to structure an interview
  • User research : The GDS for intro guides and DisAmbiguity blog
  • Service design: This is Service Design Doing has great tools and formats for workshops

Inspiration for emerging research methods and creative formats for research

  • Ethnography and mixed methods presented well: Ikea At Home Report
  • User mapping techniques as a social research method NPC Report
  • User Research to understand domestic abuse experiences and the potential for technology Tech Vs Abuse
  • Using Twitter data for social research Demos
  • Data visualisation as a tool for research communication - Nesta data visualisation and Women’s Aid Map
  • Data journalism and data storytelling - Guardian reading the riots
  • An online games to shift perspective on a social problem - Financial Times Uber Story
  • Content analysis to map trends - Nesta analysed creative skills in job adverts
  • Issue mapping online - networks of websites and people on Twitter - Warwick University Issue Mapping

Structured Interviews

When you want to gain a broad range of perspectives about specific questions

Also consider

Semi-structured interviews

A conversation with a set structure (a script of fixed questions) and specific purpose. Can be a method to undertake a survey or called a ‘directed’ interview.

  • Asking standardised questions across many participants makes data easier to analyse and compare
  • Giving participants a clear guide about what you want to learn from them
  • Topics that would be too complex to capture in a questionnaire tick box/short response
  • Respondents with limited time, who want to consider responses in advance or do not want to write
  • The quality of the interview is less dependent on the interviewer and their rapport with the interviewee

Limitations (and how to avoid or what to consider instead)

  • The structure prevents participants from bringing in other ideas (consider semi-structured interviews )
  • Whilst quicker to conduct and analyse than semi-structured interviews, they are still resource intensive and only possible to do with limited numbers of people (consider questionnaires online - see surveys )

Semi-Structured Interviews

When you want to gain in-depth insights about broad questions

Participant Observation

User research

Focus groups

Semi-Structured interviews

Conversation with a structure (set of open questions) and clear purpose. Also called directed interviews.

  • Exploring a range of perspectives on research questions, engaging experts and getting buy-in to research
  • Gaining in-depth insights about how people feel or interpret complex issues
  • Topics which are sensitive, difficult to express in writing or to articulate views about in a survey
  • Allowing participants to respond in their words, framing what they see as important

Limitations

  • Quality can depend on interviewer skills and put people on the spot (consider setting topics in advance)
  • The set-up affects the quality of engagement and discussion (consider location, relationship with the interviewee and whether you should do a face to face or Telephone/Online interview )
  • Time consuming to do, analyse and compare (consider Structured Interviews or Focus groups )
  • Can lack validity as evidence (consider Surveys )
  • Explore what people say, think and remember, not what they actually do (consider Participant Observation contextual interviews or User Research ) or shared perspectives (consider Focus groups )
  • Easy to provide too much structure and prevent open exploration of a topic (see unstructured interviews )

Unstructured Interviews

When you want to gain in-depth insights about a complex research topics

Contextual interviews

Unstructured interviews

A loosely structured open conversation guided by research topics (also called non-directed interviews)

  • Very exploratory research and broad research questions
  • Letting the participant guide the interview according to their priorities and views
  • In-depth and broad discussion about a person's expertise, experiences and opinions
  • Participant can feel like the they are not saying the ‘right’ thing (explain technique and rationale well)
  • Whilst useful for expert interviews, an unstructured approach can give the impression that the interviewer is unprepared, lacks knowledge or the research purpose is unclear (consider semi-structured interviews )
  • Interviews are longer, resource intensive and only smaller numbers are possible (consider focus groups )
  • Generates in-depth insights that are difficult to analyse and compare
  • A lack of structure can encourage participants to focus in-depth on one thing they are positive about or know very well in-depth (consider using desk research to inform the interview topics)

Guerilla Interviews

When you want to carry out user research or explore general perspectives quickly and easily

An ‘impromptu’ approach to interviewing, often talking to real people on the street or at a key site

  • Gaining immediate responses to a tool or design and insights into a problem
  • Informal method means participants can be more relaxed and open
  • Speaking to a lot of people, simply, quickly and cheaply about one key question
  • User research and user experience of interacting with digital products
  • Speaking to people for convenience (users are available in a single place and time) introduces sample bias (but you can add more targeting and profiling of participants, see the Guide to Sampling )
  • The lack of formal structure can mean that you miss important questions or insights
  • Findings are often unreliable and not generalisable because they rely on a single type of user
  • Difficult to understand complexity or gain contextual insights

Telephone / online interviews

A tool for when you want to interview people quickly and easily

Telephone or Online interviews

A tool to conduct an interview (it is not a method in itself) which is not in person/ face to face

  • Conducting interviews without the costs of travel and meeting time (often shorter)
  • Expert and stakeholder interviews, when you already know the participant well or they are short of time
  • Taking notes and looking up information whilst interviewing is less disruptive than in person, easy to record
  • Sending informed consent information and interview questions in advance
  • Can be difficult to undertake an engaging interview (hard to build rapport on the phone)
  • Often need to be shorter and put alongside other meetings

What method are you using?

  • Structured interviews : When you want to gain a broad range of perspectives about specific questions
  • Semi-structured interviews : When you want to gain in-depth insights about broad questions
  • Unstructured interviews : When you want to gain in-depth insights about a complex research topics

Further guides to Interviews : A nice overview here , including how to structure an interview

Contextual Interview

When you want to understand actions and particular experiences in-depth and in context

Ethnography

Interviews conducted with people in a situational context relevant to the research question; also known as contextual inquiry.

  • Understanding what happens, experiences and emotions whilst interacting with a tool, service or event.
  • Easier for research participants to show rather than explain, participants are active and engaged
  • Uncover what happens, what people do, how they behave in the moment, rather than how they remember this and give meaning to these responses later.
  • Open and flexible method giving depth of insights about a tool or specific interaction
  • Time and resource intensive for the researcher
  • Each context is unique - making it difficult to generalise from or to answer broader research questions about experiences (consider semi-structured interviews )
  • The researcher influences the interactions and events (consider ethnography or participant observation )

When you want to understand shared experiences and different perspectives

Focus Groups

An organised discussion with a group of participants, led by a facilitator around a few key topics

  • Gaining several perspectives about the same topic quickly
  • Research contexts and topics where familiarity between participants can generate discussion about similar experiences (or different ones) which may not arise in a one to one interview
  • When attitudes, feelings and beliefs are more likely to be revealed in social gathering and interactions
  • Including tasks and creative methods to elicit views (e.g. shared ranking of importance of statements)
  • Difficult to identify the individual view from the group view (consider semi-structured interviews )
  • Group dynamics will affect the conversation focus and participation levels of different members
  • The role of the moderator is very significant. Good levels of group leadership and interpersonal skill are required to moderate a group successfully.
  • The group set-up is an ‘artificial’ social setting and discussion (consider Participant Observation )

Participant observation

When you want to ‘learn by doing’ and observe social interactions and behaviour

Participant observation/ shadowing

The researcher immerses themselves in lives of participants as an ‘observer’ of their behaviours, practices and interactions. A type of ethnography. The people being observed know about the research.

  • Understanding everyday behaviours, interactions and practice in the context that they occur
  • Gaining an intuitive understanding of what happens in practice and what this means for those involved
  • Allowing research participants to show you what they do, when they can’t describe and remember this well
  • Establishing topics for further investigation through more structured or focused research methods
  • If explicit (shadowing for example) the research situation is still ‘artificial’
  • Your audience may not respect it and can be difficult to generalise from (consider mixed methods)
  • The quality of the data is dependent on the researchers’ skills and relationships with participants

When you want to experience social practices, interactions and behaviour with minimal influence on what happens

The systematic study of a group of people or cultures to understand behaviours and interactions. The researcher becomes an ‘insider’. It is a way of presenting research findings, as well as a method, which can include participant observation, document analysis and visual methods.

  • When you need to be an ‘insider’ to fully access the research context (such as organisational cultures)
  • Presenting how everyday behaviours, interactions and practice occur in context
  • Gaining an in-depth knowledge of your research context, participants and social relationships
  • When little is known about a research context or topic
  • If covert (at a conference or workplace for example) it has implications for informed consent
  • If explicit (shadowing for example) the researcher’s presence can affect the interactions and findings

Example use case : Ikea At Home research study to understand how people feel about their home

When you want to generate numerical data about the scale of people’s opinions and feelings

Mixed Methods

A process of systematically collecting information from a large number of different people. Responses are summarised as statistics (online surveys automate this analysis for you).

  • Targeting specific types of research participant and providing data about their views
  • If designed well, they can be quick, simple and non intrusive for research participants
  • Findings can have more credibility than other methods because of their breadth
  • Describing, measuring and understanding (a basic questionnaire)
  • Statistical analysis, modelling cause and effect (large scale survey designed to represent the population)
  • Can raise more questions about what happens and why, lack depth of insight (consider mixed methods )
  • Hard to design well and require a lot of time upfront and data skills to analyse the results
  • Low completion rates and people feel ‘over surveyed’ (consider incentives )
  • Assumes people will be honest and sufficiently aware of the research context to provide credible answers.

Further information: A great guide to creating questions here and here , build on existing data/questions here

When one research method cannot fully answer your main research question

Mixed methods

Combining different methods to answer your research questions, can be a mix of quantitative or qualitative methods or both. It may mean working with different types of data, research designs or being part of a research team (covering different research disciplines)

  • Overcoming the limitation of relying on a single research method or approach
  • Triangulating findings (i.e. using an additional method) can give them more validity
  • Accessing different types of research participants
  • A more holistic understanding about how, why and the extent to which something happens
  • Answering different types of research questions about frequency and perceptions
  • Giving findings more validity and influence because of the range of data and insights
  • Requires a broader range of skills and more time to deliver, analyse and report on
  • Research design must have strong sequencing (when each method is used and analysed , why) to make the most of a mixed methods approach - not always possible in a tight timescale or short research project

User Research

When you want to learn about people’s needs, behaviours and motivations for using a service

Service Design

S emi-Structured Interviews

Usability testing

A research approach employed to understand users and their needs, motivations and behaviours, primarily to inform service design.

  • User-centered design processes which look to ensure services meet the needs of their audience
  • Gaining specific insights into how a person interacts with a digital tool or service
  • Exploring general needs, behaviours and motivations for a specific target group using a range of services
  • Focus on a tool or service can prevent wider analysis, relevance and applicability
  • Research can lack credibility due to small numbers, set up, documentation (often highly specific focus)
  • Can overlook those who do not use a service for a whole range of reasons

What method?

  • User research involves any method which looks at who users are, the problems they face, what they are trying to do and how they use existing services. This can create user personas, user journeys and user experience maps. It largely includes qualitative research methods.

When you want to design a service to meet people’s needs, including planning, organising, infrastructure, communication and components)

A research approach employed in the activity of planning and organising of people, infrastructure, communication and material components of a service, in order to improve quality and interaction.

  • Gaining a holistic picture of all components (infrastructure, people, organisations, culture) affecting how a person interacts with a service
  • Service design often begins with user research but participants in research include all those involved in delivering (not just using) a service, such as employees and stakeholders in an organisation as well as looking at the context and system which affect how a service works and its effectiveness

Content analysis

When you want to understand public discourse through secondary or online data

A systematic process of classifying and interpreting documents, text or images to analyse key discourses (their meaning) or to quantify patterns (such as word frequencies). This can be done manually or it can be automated.

  • Exploring the focus of messages, text or imagery and change over time
  • Secondary data sources, such as archives, online social media data (such as Tweets) and news articles
  • Gaining a qualitative or quantitative insights about key messages
  • Focuses on public and documented interpretations of events and experiences
  • Documents are not exhaustive and not all are accessible (or available online/freely)
  • Qualitative coding is time intensive to manually classify, reliant on researcher interpretation
  • Automated coding for key words can miss nuances and difficult to produce meaningful findings

When you want to engage stakeholders in research, generate ideas or codesign solutions

Also consider:

A tool to undertake research. It is an interactive session, often taking a full day, in which research participants sor stakeholders work intensively on an issue or question. The process can combine elements of qualitative research, brainstorming or problem solving.

  • Engaging stakeholders - building empathy with and understanding of research findings
  • Understanding problems or prototyping solutions, linked to user research and service design approaches
  • Participatory research, allowing participants to shape agendas and outcomes
  • Creative, collaborative and engaging activities to build rapport and understanding with participants
  • Participatory design, enabling participants to co-design solutions which work for them
  • Highly dependent on the right people attending and the facilitation skills
  • Can be a lot of time and effort to coordinate a workshop effectively and analyse findings
  • The immersive and collaborative environment makes it difficult to document effectively
  • Collaborative solutions may duplicate existing problems or solutions

When you want to test prototypes or learn about problems with an existing service

A user research method where you watch participants try to complete specific tasks using your service. Moderated testing involve interaction with the research participant, asking them to explain what they are doing, thinking and feeling. Unmoderated testing is completed alone by the participant.

  • Identify any usability issues with a digital service - for example, problems with the language or layout
  • Seeing if users understand what they need to do in order to complete designated tasks
  • Generating ideas to improve a prototype of existing digital service
  • Assessing user experience
  • Focus is not on ‘natural’ use (consider contextual interviews , participant observation , ethnography )
  • Data is about a specific design and interaction with a tool at that moment
  • Findings cannot be generalised or applicable more broadly to understand users and behaviours

30+ Best Research Presentation Templates for PowerPoint (PPT)

Finding the right PowerPoint template plays an important part in getting your message across to the audience during a presentation. And it’s especially true for research presentations.

Using the right colors, graphs, infographics, and illustrations in your slides is the key to delivering information more effectively and making your presentation a success.

Today, we handpicked a great collection of research presentation PowerPoint templates for you to make the perfect slideshows for various types of research papers and studies.

Whether you’re preparing for a presentation at a school, event, or conference, there are templates in this list for all purposes. Let’s dive in.

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Explore PowerPoint Templates

Science & Research Presentation PowerPoint Template

Science & Research Presentation PowerPoint Template

This PowerPoint template is a perfect choice for preparing a research presentation to share your scientific findings and reports.

The template has 30 unique slides with unlimited color options. There are a few infographics included in the slideshow as well.

Why This Is A Top Pick

The presentation has a very modern and creative design where you can showcase your data and information in an attractive way. You won’t be making boring research presentations ever again.

Labvire – Research Presentation PowerPoint Template

Labvire - Research Presentation Powerpoint Template

Labvire is another modern PowerPoint template you can use for various types of research presentations. It’s also ideal for laboratory-related research presentations. The template has fully customizable slide layouts with editable charts, graphs, and more. You can choose from more than 40 unique slide designs as well.

Novalabs – Science Research PowerPoint Template

Novalabs - Science Research Powerpoint Template

Novalabs PowerPoint template features a highly visual and attractive design. The template includes 36 different slides that feature large image placeholders for adding a more visual look to your presentations. There are lots of editable graphics, shapes, and tables included in the template too. Feel free to customize them however you like.

Research & Development PowerPoint Template

Research & Development Powerpoint Template

The minimal and clean design of this PowerPoint template makes it a great choice for delivering more effective research presentations. With fewer distractions in each slide, you’ll be able to convey your message more easily. The template comes with 30 unique slides. You can change the colors, fonts, and shapes to your preference as well.

Marketing Research Presentation PowerPoint Template

Marketing Research Presentation PowerPoint Template

When talking about research presentations, we can’t forget about marketing research. Most sales and marketing meetings usually include a sophisticated marketing research presentation. This PowerPoint template will help you design those research presentations without effort. It includes a total of 150 slides, featuring 30 unique slides in 5 different color schemes.

Free Business Market Research Presentation Template

Free Business Market Research Presentation Template

This is a free PowerPoint template designed for making business market research presentations. It gives you 27 different and fully customizable slides to create professional slideshows for your business meetings.

Free Business Data Analysis & Research Presentation

Free Business Market Research Presentation Template

With this PowerPoint template, you can create colorful and creative business research and data analysis presentation without any design skills. It includes 35 unique slides with lots of infographics and editable shapes. The template is free to use as well.

Lernen – Research Thesis PowerPoint Presentation

Lernen Research Thesis PowerPoint Presentation

Larnen is the ideal PowerPoint template for making research slideshows for your thesis presentations. It includes 30 unique slides that are available in light and dark color themes. It also has editable charts and graphs.

Aristo – Research Academic PowerPoint Presentation

Aristo - Research Academic PowerPoint Presentation

This PowerPoint template is also made with academic research presentations in mind. The template has a professional design with clean layouts and light colors. It comes with more than 30 different slides.

Biosearch – Science Research PowerPoint Template

Biosearch - Science Research PowerPoint Template

You can use this PowerPoint template to make professional presentations to present research data and results. It lets you choose from 40 different slides and 90 color themes. The slides are available in both light and dark color themes as well.

Neolabs – Laboratory & Science Research PPT

Neolabs - Laboratory & Science Research PPT

Neolabs is another science research presentation made with laboratory research teams in mind. You can use it to make effective slideshows to present your research findings. There are 30 unique slides in this template.

Free Business Cost Analysis PowerPoint Template

Free Business Cost Analysis PowerPoint Template

This is a free PowerPoint and Google Slides template that comes with 35 unique slides. It’s ideal for making research presentations related to business financials.

Research & Case Study PowerPoint Template

Research & Case Study Powerpoint Template

Create the perfect case study presentation using your research data with this PowerPoint template. It includes a modern slide design with infographics and charts for effectively presenting your data.

Liron Labs – Laboratory Research PowerPoint Template

Liron Labs - Laboratory Research PowerPoint Template

Another PowerPoint template for laboratory research presentations. This template includes 15 useful slide layouts with editable graphics, free fonts, and image placeholders. You can edit and customize the colors and text as well.

Research Thesis PowerPoint Template

Research Thesis Powerpoint Template

Make an attractive and creative research thesis presentation using this PowerPoint template. There are over 30 unique slides in this template. You can either use dark or light color themes to create your presentations.

Colorful Thesis Research PowerPoint Template

Colorful Thesis Research PowerPoint Template

If you want to make your research presentations look more colorful and creative, this PowerPoint template is for you. It has 15 different slides with fully customizable layouts. It has editable shapes, free fonts, and image placeholders too.

Free Data Analysis Research PowerPoint Template

Free Data Analysis Research PowerPoint Template

This PowerPoint template is also free to download. You can also customize it using PowerPoint or Google Slides. This template is ideal for marketing agencies and teams for presenting research and data analysis.

Laboratory & Science Research PowerPoint Template

Laboratory & Science Research PowerPoint Template

You can make more convincing and unique lab research presentations using this PowerPoint template. It features a creative design that will easily attract the attention of your audience. You can use it to make various other science and research presentations too. The template includes 30 unique slides.

The Biologist – Research Presentation PowerPoint Template

The Biologist - Research Presentation Powerpoint Template

Just as the name suggests, this PowerPoint template is designed with biology and science-related presentations in mind. It includes many useful slide layouts that can be used to make various types of research presentations. There are 30 different slide designs included in this template with editable shapes and colors.

Modern Science & Research PowerPoint Template

Modern Science & Research PowerPoint Template

If you’re looking for a PowerPoint template to create a modern-looking research presentation, this template is perfect for you. It features a collection of modern and attractive slides with lots of space for including images, icons, and graphs. There are 30 unique slides in the template with light and dark color themes to choose from.

Marketing Report & Research PowerPoint Template

Marketing Report & Research PowerPoint Template

This PowerPoint template doubles as both a research and report slideshow. You can use it to create various marketing reports as well as marketing research presentations. It comes with 30 slides that feature minimal and clean designs. It includes lots of editable charts, infographics, and tables as well.

Market Research Presentation PowerPoint Template

Market Research Presentation PowerPoint Template

Another modern PowerPoint template for making market research presentations. This template includes 25 unique slides with master slides, image placeholders, and editable colors. The template is ideal for marketing agencies and corporate businesses.

Free Academic Research Thesis PowerPoint Template

Free Academic Research Thesis Defense PowerPoint Template

This free PowerPoint template is designed for defending your academic research thesis dissertation. Needless to say, it’s a useful template for academics as well as teachers. The template features 23 unique slide layouts with customizable designs.

Free Economics Research Thesis Presentation Template

Free Economics Research Thesis Presentation Template

You can use this free template to create thesis and research presentations related to economics. It’s useful for academic students and gives you the freedom to choose from 21 slide layouts to make your own presentations.

Labia – Research Presentation Powerpoint Template

Labia - Research Presentation Powerpoint Template

Labia is a research presentation template made for professionals. It comes with a set of modern slides with multipurpose designs. That means you can customize them to make many different types of research presentations. There are 30 unique slides included in this template that come in 5 different color themes.

Medical Research Infographics & Powerpoint Slides

Medical Research Infographics & Powerpoint Slides

You’ll be using lots of charts, graphs, and infographics in your presentations to showcase data in visual form. Not to mention that visuals always work well for attracting the audience’s attention. You can use the infographic slides in this template to create better research presentations. Each slide features a unique infographic with animated designs.

Foreka – Biology Education & Research Presentation PPT

Foreka - Biology Education & Research PPT

Foreka is a PowerPoint template made for educational presentations, especially for covering topics related to biology. But it can also be customized to present your research presentations. The slides have very useful layouts that are most suitable for making research slide designs. There are 30 slides included with light and dark color themes.

Maua – Aesthetic Business Research PowerPoint Template

Maua - Aesthetic Business Research PowerPoint Template

This PowerPoint template is suitable for making elegant and stylish business reports and business research presentations. It’s especially great for making background research and competitor research slideshows. The template comes with 30 slides featuring master slides, image placeholders, and more.

World Data Scientist Powerpoint Presentation Template

World Data Scientist Powerpoint Presentation Template

You can use this PowerPoint template to create research presentations for many different types of topics, industries, and projects. The template includes lots of data-centric slides where you can easily showcase your data in visual form. There are 30 unique slides included with the template as well.

Free SWOT Analysis Infographics PowerPoint Template

Free SWOT Analysis Infographics PowerPoint Template

SWOT analysis is a commonly used methodology in business research presentations. With this free PowerPoint template, you can create stylish SWOT analysis infographics for your presentations. It includes SWOT infographics in 30 different styles.

Free Market Research Presentation Infographics PPT

Free Market Research Presenattion Infographics PPT

This is a collection of free PowerPoint slides that feature various styles of infographics you can use in your business and market research presentations. There are 30 different infographic slides included in this template. You can edit, change colors, and customize them however you like.

Sinara – Science & Research Powerpoint Template

Sinara - Science & Research Powerpoint Template

Sinara is a brilliant PowerPoint template you can use to craft a professional presentation for science-related research and reports. It’s available in 3 different color schemes as well as the option to customize the colors to your preference. The template comes in light and dark themes too.

Political Science and Research PowerPoint Template

Political Science and Research PowerPoint Template

This PowerPoint template will be quite useful to political science and international relations students. It features a total of 150 slides you can use to create attractive presentations for your research and methodologies. There are slides in 5 different color schemes.

How to Make a Research Poster in PowerPoint

We bet you didn’t know that you could actually design posters in PowerPoint. Well, you can and it’s very easy to do so.

How to Make a Research Poster in PowerPoint

The easiest way to make a poster in PowerPoint is to use a pre-made template like the one above.

You can easily copy one of the slides from a template, and resize the slide dimensions to create a vertical poster. Then add a title with a few lines of text and you’ll have yourself a poster.

Or, if you want to craft a poster from scratch, you can read our complete guide on how to create posters in PowerPoint with step-by-step instructions.

For more useful presentation templates, be sure to check out our best educational PowerPoint templates collection.

How to Convert Academic Research papers to PowerPoint for effective Presentation delivery

Unlock the art of presenting research papers with ease! Learn to convert them into PowerPoint.

Step 1: Visit Google Slides

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Step 2: Download MagicSlides Extension

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Step 3: Locate Your Research Paper

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Step 4: Upload the Research Paper

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Step 5: Click "Generate Presentation"

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Step 6: Your Research Paper is Now a PowerPoint Presentation

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Conclusion:

Frequently asked questions:.

Sanskar Tiwari

Sanskar Tiwari

Founder at MagicSlides

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Art of Presentations

[Guide] How to Present Qualitative Research Findings in PowerPoint?

By: Author Shrot Katewa

[Guide] How to Present Qualitative Research Findings in PowerPoint?

As a researcher, it is quite pointless to do the research if we are unable to share the findings with our audience appropriately! Using PowerPoint is one of the best ways to present research outcomes. But, how does one present qualitative research findings using PowerPoint?

In order to present the qualitative research findings using PowerPoint, you need to create a robust structure for your presentation, make it engaging and visually appealing, present the patterns with explanations for it and highlight the conclusion of your research findings.

In this article, we will help you understand the structure of your presentation. Plus, we’ll share some handy tips that will make your qualitative research presentation really effective!

How to Create a Structure for your Qualitative Research Presentation?

Creating the right structure for your presentation is key to ensuring that it is correctly understood by your audience.

The structure of your Research Presentation not only makes it easier for you to create the document, it also makes it simple for the audience to understand what all will be covered in the presentation at the time of presenting it to your audience.

Furthermore, having a robust structure is a great way to ensure that you don’t miss out on any of the points while working on creating the presentation.

But, what structure should one follow?

Creating a good structure can be tricky for some. Thus, I’m sharing what has worked well for me during my previous research projects.

NOTE – It is important to note that although the following structure is highly effective for most research findings presentation, it has been generalized in order to serve a wide range of research projects. You may want to take a look at points that are very specific to the nature of your research project and include them at your discretion.

Here’s my recommended structure to create your Research Findings presentation –

1. Objective of the Research

A great way to start your presentation is to highlight the objective of your research project.

It is important to remember that merely sharing the objective may sometimes not be enough. A short backstory along with the purpose of your research project can pack a powerful punch ! It not only validates the reasoning for your project but also subtly establishes trust with your audience.

However, do make sure that you’re not reading the backstory from the slide. Let it flow naturally when you are delivering the presentation. Keep the presentation as minimalistic as possible.

2. Key Parameters Considered for Measurement

Once you’ve established the objective, the next thing that you may want to do is perhaps share the key parameters considered for the success of your project.

Every research project, including qualitative research, needs to have a few key parameters to measure against the objective of the research.

For example – If the goal of your project is to gather the sentiments of a certain group of people for a particular product, you may need to measure their feelings. Are they happy or unhappy using the product? How do they perceive the branding of the product? Is it affordable?

Make sure that you list down all such key parameters that were considered while conducting the qualitative research.

In general, laying these out before sharing the outcome can help your audience think from your perspective and look at the findings from the correct lens.

3. Research Methodology Adopted

The next thing that you may want to include in your presentation is the methodology that you adopted for conducting the research.

By knowing your approach, the audience can be better prepared for the outcome of your project. Ensure that you provide sound reasoning for the chosen methodology.

This section of your presentation can also showcase some pictures of the research being conducted. If you have captured a video, include that. Doing this provides further validation of your project.

4. Research Outcomes (Presenting Descriptive Analysis)

ppt on research article

This is the section that will constitute the bulk of the your presentation.

Use the slides in this section to describe the observations, and the resulting outcomes on each of the key parameters that were considered for the research project.

It is usually a good idea to dedicate at least 1 or more slides for each parameter . Make sure that you present data wherever possible. However, ensure that the data presented can be easily comprehended.

Provide key learnings from the data, highlight any outliers, and possible reasoning for it. Try not to go too in-depth with the stats as this can overwhelm the audience. Remember, a presentation is most helpful when it is used to provide key highlights of the research !

Apart from using the data, make sure that you also include a few quotes from the participants.

5. Summary and Learnings from the Research

Once you’ve taken the audience through the core part of your research findings, it is a good practice to summarize the key learnings from each of the section of your project.

Make sure your touch upon some of the key learnings covered in the research outcome of your presentation.

Furthermore, include any additional observations and key points that you may have had which were previously not covered.

The summary slide also often acts as “Key Takeaways” from the research for your audience. Thus, make sure that you maintain brevity and highlight only the points that you want your audience to remember even after the presentation.

6. Inclusions and Exclusions (if any)

While this can be an optional section for some of the researchers.

However, dedicating a section on inclusions and exclusions in your presentation can be a great value add! This section helps your audience understand the key factors that were excluded (or included) on purpose!

Moreover, it creates a sense of thoroughness in the minds of your audience.

7. Conclusion of the Research

The purpose of the conclusion slide of your research findings presentation is to revisit the objective, and present a conclusion.

A conclusion may simply validate or nullify the objective. It may sometimes do neither. Nevertheless, having a conclusion slide makes your presentation come a full circle. It creates this sense of completion in the minds of your audience.

8. Questions

Finally, since your audience did not spend as much time as you did on the research project, people are bound to have a few questions.

Thus, the last part of your presentation structure should be dedicated to allowing your audience to ask questions.

Tips for Effectively Presenting Qualitative Research Findings using PowerPoint

For a presentation to be effective, it is important that the presentation is not only well structured but also that it is well created and nicely delivered!

While we have already covered the structure, let me share with you some tips that you can help you create and deliver the presentation effectively.

Tip 1 – Use Visuals

ppt on research article

Using visuals in your presentation is a great way to keep the presentations engaging!

Visual aids not only help make the presentation less boring, but it also helps your audience in retaining the information better!

So, use images and videos of the actual research wherever possible. If these do not suffice or do not give a professional feel, there are a number of resources online from where you can source royalty-free images.

My recommendation for high-quality royalty-free images would be either Unsplash or Pexels . Both are really good. The only downside is that they often do not provide the perfect image that can be used. That said, it can get the job done for at least half the time.

If you are unable to find the perfect free image, I recommend checking out Dreamstime . They have a huge library of images and are much cheaper than most of the other image banks. I personally use Dreamstime for my presentation projects!

Tip 2 – Tell a Story (Don’t Show Just Data!)

I cannot stress enough on how important it is to give your presentation a human touch. Delivering a presentation in the form of a story does just that! Furthermore, storytelling is also a great tool for visualization .

Data can be hard-hitting, whereas a touching story can tickle the emotions of your audience on various levels!

One of the best ways to present a story with your research project is to start with the backstory of the objective. We’ve already talked about this in the earlier part of this article.

Start with why is this research project is so important. Follow a story arc that provides an exciting experience of the beginning, the middle, and a progression towards a climax; much like a plot of a soap opera.

Tip 3 – Include Quotes of the Participants

Including quotes of the participants in your research findings presentation not only provides evidence but also demonstrates authenticity!

Quotes function as a platform to include the voice of the target group and provide a peek into the mindset of the target audience.

When using quotes, keep these things in mind –

1. Use Quotes in their Unedited Form

When using quotes in your presentation, make sure that you use them in their raw unedited form.

The need to edit quotes should be only restricted to aid comprehension and sometimes coherence.

Furthermore, when editing the quotes, make sure that you use brackets to insert clarifying words. The standard format for using the brackets is to use square brackets for clarifying words and normal brackets for adding a missing explanation.

2. How to Decide which Quotes to Consider?

It is important to know which quotes to include in your presentation. I use the following 3 criteria when selecting the quote –

  • Relevance – Consider the quotes that are relevant, and trying to convey the point that you want to establish.
  • Length – an ideal quote should be not more than 1-2 sentences long.
  • Choose quotes that are well-expressed and striking in nature.

3. Preserve Identity of the Participant

It is important to preserve and protect the identity of the participant. This can be done by maintaining confidentiality and anonymity.

Thus, refrain from using the name of the participant. An alternative could be using codes, using pseudonyms (made up names) or simply using other general non-identifiable parameters.

Do note, when using pseudonyms, remember to highlight it in the presentation.

If, however, you do need to use the name of the respondent, make sure that the participant is okay with it and you have adequate permissions to use their name.

Tip 4 – Make your Presentation Visually Appealing and Engaging

It is quite obvious for most of us that we need to create a visually appealing presentation. But, making it pleasing to the eye can be a bit challenging.

Fortunately, we wrote a detailed blog post with tips on how to make your presentation attractive. It provides you with easy and effective tips that you can use even as a beginner! Make sure you check that article.

7 EASY tips that ALWAYS make your PPT presentation attractive (even for beginners)

In addition to the tips mentioned in the article, let me share a few things that you can do which are specific to research outcome presentations.

4.1 Use a Simple Color Scheme

Using the right colors are key to make a presentation look good.

One of the most common mistakes that people make is use too many colors in their presentation!

My recommendation would be to go with a monochromatic color scheme in PowerPoint .

4.2 Make the Data Tables Simple and Visually Appealing

When making a presentation on research outcomes, you are bound to present some data.

But, when data is not presented in a proper manner, it can easily and quickly make your presentation look displeasing! The video below can be a good starting point.

Using neat looking tables can simply transform the way your presentation looks. So don’t just dump the data from excel on your PowerPoint presentation. Spend a few minutes on fixing it!

4.3 Use Graphs and Charts (wherever necessary)

When presenting data, my recommendation would be that graphs and charts should be your first preference.

Using graphs or charts make it easier to read the data, takes less time for the audience to comprehend, and it also helps to identify a trend.

However, make sure that the correct chart type is used when representing the data. The last thing that you want is to poorly represent a key piece of information.

4.4 Use Icons instead of Bullet Points

Consider the following example –

ppt on research article

This slide could have been created just as easily using bullet points. However, using icons and representing the information in a different format makes the slide pleasing on the eye.

Thus, always try to use icons wherever possible instead of bullet points.

Tip 5 – Include the Outliers

Many times, as a research project manager, we tend to focus on the trends extracted from a data set.

While it is important to identify patterns in the data and provide an adequate explanation for the pattern, it is equally important sometimes to highlight the outliers prominently.

It is easy to forget that there may be hidden learnings even in the outliers. At times, the data trend may be re-iterating the common wisdom. However, upon analyzing the outlier data points, you may get insight into how a few participants are doing things successfully despite not following the common knowledge.

That said, not every outlier will reveal hidden information. So, do verify what to include and what to exclude.

Tip 6 – Take Inspiration from other Presentations

I admit, making any presentation can be a tough ask let alone making a presentation for showcasing qualitative research findings. This is especially hard when we don’t have the necessary skills for creating a presentation.

One quick way to overcome this challenge could be take inspiration from other similar presentations that we may have liked.

There is no shame in being inspired from others. If you don’t have any handy references, you can surely Google it to find a few examples.

One trick that almost always works for me is using Pinterest .

But, don’t just directly search for a research presentation. You will have little to no success with it. The key is to look for specific examples for inspiration. For eg. search for Title Slide examples, or Image Layout Examples in Presentation.

Tip 7 – Ask Others to Critic your Presentation

The last tip that I would want to provide is to make sure that you share the presentation with supportive colleagues or mentors to attain feedback.

This step can be critical to iron out the chinks in the armor. As research project manager, it is common for you to get a bit too involved with the project. This can lead to possibilities wherein you miss out on things.

A good way to overcome this challenge is to get a fresh perspective on your project and the presentation once it has been prepared.

Taking critical feedback before your final presentation can also prepare you to handle tough questions in an adept manner.

Final Thoughts

It is quite important to ensure that we get it right when working on a presentation that showcases the findings of our research project. After all, we don’t want to be in a situation wherein we put in all the hard-work in the project, but we fail to deliver the outcome appropriately.

I hope you will find the aforementioned tips and structure useful, and if you do, make sure that you bookmark this page and spread the word. Wishing you all the very best for your project!

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Writing an Abstract

Oral presentation, compiling a powerpoint.

Abstract : a short statement that describes a longer work.

  • Indicate the subject.
  • Describe the purpose of the investigation.
  • Briefly discuss the method used.
  • Make a statement about the result.

Oral presentations usually introduce a discussion of a topic or research paper. A good oral presentation is focused, concise, and interesting in order to trigger a discussion.

  • Be well prepared; write a detailed outline.
  • Introduce the subject.
  • Talk about the sources and the method.
  • Indicate if there are conflicting views about the subject (conflicting views trigger discussion).
  • Make a statement about your new results (if this is your research paper).
  • Use visual aids or handouts if appropriate.

An effective PowerPoint presentation is just an aid to the presentation, not the presentation itself .

  • Be brief and concise.
  • Focus on the subject.
  • Attract attention; indicate interesting details.
  • If possible, use relevant visual illustrations (pictures, maps, charts graphs, etc.).
  • Use bullet points or numbers to structure the text.
  • Make clear statements about the essence/results of the topic/research.
  • Don't write down the whole outline of your paper and nothing else.
  • Don't write long full sentences on the slides.
  • Don't use distracting colors, patterns, pictures, decorations on the slides.
  • Don't use too complicated charts, graphs; only those that are relatively easy to understand.
  • << Previous: Writing the Research Paper
  • Last Updated: May 16, 2024 10:20 AM
  • URL: https://guides.library.ucla.edu/research-methods

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Top 10 Research Presentation Templates with Examples and Samples

Top 10 Research Presentation Templates with Examples and Samples

Simran Shekhawat

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Research organizes all your thoughts, suggestions, findings and innovations in one area that postulates to determining the future applicability. A crucial part of strategic planning is research. It aids organizations in goal setting, decision-making, and resource allocation. Research allows us to uncover and discover many segments of society by establishing facts and generating data that effectively determine future outcomes and progress.

Here's an ultimate guide to conduct market research! Click to know more!

Research primarily comprises gathering and analysing information about consumer behaviour, industry dynamics, economic conditions, and other elements that affect how markets and businesses behave in the context of understanding market trends. Understanding market trends requires market research, which is likely to be successful. Research can reveal prospective market dangers and difficulties, enabling organizations to create backup plans and decide on market entry or expansion with more excellent knowledge. By understanding market trends, businesses can create marketing and advertising efforts that resonate with their target audience. 

Learn about product market research templates. Click here .

Additionally, it aids in determining the best customer-reach methods. Businesses can better satisfy market demands by customizing their products or services by studying consumer behaviours, preferences, and feedback. Assessing Market Size and Potential research can shed light on a market's size, potential for expansion, and competitive environment. Businesses aiming to expand or enter new markets need to know this information.

SlideTeam introduces you with their newly launch research templates that has been extensively built to enhance the quality of company’s research and development area by forging to bring answers related to every ‘how’ and ‘why’. The sole purpose of these is to inform, gather information and contributes towards the development and knowledge about the field of study. These templates are professionally design to disseminate knowledge to provide better judgements.

Template 1: Clinical Research Trial PowerPoint Template

Clinical Research Trial Stages

Use this premium PPT template to captivate your audience. Download this well-created template to raise your presenting threshold. Establish your milestones with workflows designed to ease the overburdening of tasks. State clear-cut objectives to specify your aim and deliver a timeline. Use these 58-page PowerPoint slides to launch your product success and deliver a presentation that awakes the audience with your research performance and goals.

Click here!

Template 2: Company Stock Analysis and Equity Research Report Slide

Company Stock Analysis and Equity Research Report

Uncover impacts about the stock markets and analyze company-related specific and general equity design using this ready-made template. Understanding the technicality of maintenance and presentation of stocks and equity research, we at SlideTeam have designed an equity research PowerPoint slide to ease your presentation load. This presentation aims to analyze the target company's financial performance, ratios, and financial model to welcome investment in the company. Provide an extensive company summary, income statement, balance sheet, vertical and horizontal analysis, organization shareholding structure, SWOT analysis, and share price performance throughout history through this template.

Download Now!

Template 3: IT Services Research and Development Template

IT Services Research and Development Company Profile

Showcase the power of your company's services, expertise achievement and future goals using this PPT template. This PPT slide provides you with a summary, key statistics, targets, and overview of your IT service Company. Allow this template to lay out values mission, categorize solutions, and enlist a range of services provided along with expenditure incurred on Research development. The deck also includes a business model canvas that depicts the company's historical development, global reach, management team, organizational structure, employee breakdown, and ownership structure.

Template 4: Research Proposal Steps PowerPoint Template

Research Proposal Steps

If you are looking to learn how to draft a research proposal, this slide is the ultimate fit for a newbie to comprehend about - 'what', 'where', and 'how' of research. Download this slide to learn about the format and structure of the research proposal. Use this template to illustrate the goal of the research proposal. Furthermore, our PPT sample file aids in instructing students on how to write a research proposal. Furthermore, you may quickly persuade the audience about the proposal's limitations, objectives, and research gap.

Template 5: Research Proposal for Thesis Template

Research Proposal for Thesis

Provide a clear idea and concise summary of your research with the help of this premium template. A well-written thesis statement frequently paves the way for discussion and debate. It can be the foundation for academic dialogue, enabling others to interact with and challenge your ideas—essential for developing knowledge across all disciplines. Your thesis statement will determine the depth of your study and conclusion while enabling you to attract your targeted audience.

Template 6: Market Research PowerPoint Template

Market Research

To understand the trends and techniques of market structure, companies need to be aware of the trends and to enable that, and market research is one such profitable asset to invest in to allow numerous investments from companies across. Use this template to highlight the key drivers of growth that define the ultimate indicators of market trends. Use this PPT slide to solve marketing issues and make company decisions, incorporating polished business analysis PPT visuals. Get this template to connect business operations with your company's strategic goals.

Template 7: Establish Research Objective Template

Establish Research Objectives Example Of PPT Presentation

For an effective and meaningful research, clarity is essential. Deploy this template to facilitate that research objectives should specify the precise goals and targets of the study to assist in limiting its scope. To ensure the study's readability and comprehensibility, SlideTeam has crafted a flowchart template design to help you elucidate the study's objective, providing a basis for measuring and evaluating the success of well-defined research. Define and design your research with the help of this four-stage design pattern.

Template 8:  A Company Research Venn Chart Presentation

Company Research Venn Chart PPT Presentation

Establish relationships between the sets and groups of data while comparing and contrasting the company's research analysis. This template is helpful as it helps to understand the abstract, objectives, limitations, methodologies, research gap, etc., of the research effectively while focusing on postulating future recommendations and suggestions.

Template 9: Sample Research Paper Outline in a One-Pager Summary Presentation

Sample Research Paper Outline in One Page Summary

How effortless it is to study a research paper without turning several pages? Grab this PPT template to research any topic and jot down your findings in a simple and concise format. Most importantly, a significant amount of their precious time can now be dedicated to critical tasks, aiding them in accelerating the research process. This incredibly well-curated one-pager template includes information about the introduction, problem, literature review, suggestions, and conclusions.

Template 10: Big Data Analytics Market Research Template

Big Data Analytics Market Research PowerPoint Presentation

Deploy this template to introduce your company's extensive data analysis to understand the industry landscape, identify objectives, and make informed business decisions. Use this template slide to determine the current market size and growth rate. Consider the variables influencing this expansion, such as the rising volume of data produced and the demand for data-driven insights. Give information about the big data analysis market's prospects for the future. Over the coming few years, forecast growth trajectories, rising technologies, and market dynamics. Recognize the intended client base's demographics. Summarize your research and include suggestions for companies wishing to enter or grow in the big data analysis market.

PS: Provide an extensive statistical analysis for your research with this template. Check out now!

Refine your Research with SlideTeam.

SlideTeam introduces to its extensively built research templates that not only refines your search capability but also contributes towards the authenticity and development of your organization. It helps you to uncover veils of possibilities of growth while determining the bottlenecks and deriving appropriate solutions for future deliverables.

One of the attractive features about SlideTeam’s template are they are 100% customisable and editable as per the needs.

Download now!

PS: Provide an extensive statistical analysis for your research with this template . Check out now!

FAQs on Research Presentation

What is a research presentation.

Research Presentation is a visual representation of an individual or a team's observational findings or invocation in a particular subject.

What are the steps in research presentation?

To effectively convey your research findings to your audience, various phases are involved in creating a research presentation. Whether you're giving a presentation at a conference or a business meeting,

  • Define your audience - Identify your audience's interests and level of knowledge. Make sure to adjust your presentation to fit their wants and needs.
  • Outline What You Present - Create a clear structure with an introduction, three main ideas, and a conclusion. Choose the most essential points you want your audience to remember.
  • Research and Data Collection - Gather and arrange the pertinent information, facts, and proof. Make sure your sources are reliable and current.
  • Develop Visuals - To improve understanding, create visual aids like slides, charts, graphs, and photographs. Keep visuals straightforward, clutter-free, and with a distinct visual hierarchy.
  • Get Your Audience Active - Take advantage of storytelling, anecdotes, or pertinent instances to draw in your audience. If appropriate, encourage audience participation and questions during the lecture.
  • Present your argument - Start with a compelling introduction. Follow your outline while ensuring a logical and obvious flow.
  • Keep an open line of communication, communicate clearly, and change your tone and pace. Improve your communication by making gestures and using body language. Respond to comments and questions as they come up or after the presentation.
  • Recap and Draw a Conclusion - Summarize the core ideas and principal conclusions. Reiterate the importance of your study and its consequences.

How do you research a topic for a presentation?

To begin with, the idea of research presentation, choosing topics that align with your expertise and knowledge is the first and foremost. After understanding the topic, collect core factual and empirical data for proper understanding. After gauging information, it creates a place for every subtopic that must be introduced.

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18+ Best Research PowerPoint Presentation Templates

Find the best PowerPoint templates to download for your research presentations.

ppt on research article

Save the time designing research presentation PowerPoint slides by using a premium template. When using a research presentation template , all you’ve got to do is add your research and any customizations. Get professional results fast, and discover the best options from Envato Elements and GraphicRiver.

4 Best PowerPoint PPT Research Templates From Envato Elements for 2024

Here’s a hand-picked list of research PowerPoint presentation templates. Use these online or offline:

1. World Data Research Presentation Template PPT

World Data Scientist Powerpoint Presentation Templ

Present your research in style with World Data . See how good your information could look in this template from the gallery above.

World Data is a top research PowerPoint presentation template. It comes with 30 unique slides that are customizable. That gives you room to add your data and research to the presentation template.

If you’ve got a lot of data, this research template PPT comes with many charts. Customization is easy, and so is adding animations and images.

2. Marketing Research PowerPoint V239

MARKETING RESEARCH - Powerpoint  V239

This market research presentation PowerPoint template comes with 150 total editable slides. With the number of slides that come with this template, you’ll have plenty of room to add all your research. This research paper PowerPoint presentation template comes with five color schemes. Easily add any image of your choice by dragging and dropping the image into the placeholder.

3. Scientist Research Presentation PowerPoint Template

Scientist - Powerpoint Template (2 version)

Scientist is a research presentation template PPT for anyone in the world of science or related fields. Here are some key features of this research PPT template:

  • fully and easily editable
  • comes with over 30 slides
  • comes in widescreen format
  • minimal design

This is one of the best PowerPoint templates for scientific presentations. All you need to do is add your research to the template PPT.

4. University Research PowerPoint Presentation PPT Template

University School College Training Education PPT

This research presentation PowerPoint example keeps your audience’s attention on your key points. This PPT template for your research will help you present in a more interesting and memorable way. Here are some highlights of this research presentation PPT example:

  • seven premade color schemes
  • high definition

This research proposal presentation PPT template works for students, professors, or other professionals.

15 More Great Research PowerPoint Presentation Templates From GraphicRiver for 2024

GraphicRiver has hundreds of research presentation PowerPoint templates that you can buy individually. They can help you make slideshows quickly without compromising on quality.

Here are a few research presentation PPT examples to consider.

1. Biopharm: Laboratory & Science Research PowerPoint Template

Biopharm

Biopharm is a research presentation template with a minimalist design. Here are some key features of this template:

  • 30 unique slides
  • editable graphics
  • device mockups
  • free support

The fresh and stylish design makes this research template PPT a worthy pick for this list.

2. Blanc Market Research PPT Template

Blanc

Highlighting data points has never looked as stylish as in this research presentation template for PPT. Blanc Market Research is designed not only to look great but also to be functional.

Blanc is fully editable and comes with useful graphics to help you share your ideas. It’s definitely one of the best research presentation PPT templates around.

3. Analytics Dashboard PPT Research Template

Analytics Dashboard

This market research presentation PowerPoint template is ideal for a lot of businesses. It has vibrant elements that you can use to display all types of information. Analytics Dashboard comes with 30 slides and five color schemes. Try it if you need a marketing PowerPoint template for a research presentation.

4. Laboratory & Science Research PowerPoint PPT Template

Novalabs

Here’s a research PowerPoint template PPT designed to present innovative laboratory data. Novalabs comes with 36 slides for all your information. Add your images to the modern layout of this research presentation PowerPoint template.

5. SEO PowerPoint Presentation PPT Research Template

SEO PowerPoint template

Here’s a research presentation template that’s laser-focused on search engine optimization (SEO). This download comes with graphs, infographics, and 256 slides. What I like about this research PPT template are the included illustrations. These elements will help you make your presentation more interesting to the audience.

6. Labvire Science PPT Research & Laboratory Template

Labvire

Use Labvire as a lab research proposal presentation template or any other type of research topic. This research presentation PPT example comes with over 40 distinct slides. Labvire also comes with infographics, charts, and graphs. The minimalist and professional theme is great for making high-quality research presentations.

7. Miza Clean Business Theme

Miza

Miza is a multipurpose template that can be used as a research presentation PowerPoint example. Use this PowerPoint template for research or any other purpose. Here are some key features of this template:

  • comes with 115 slides
  • five color scheme options
  • comes with icons, charts, infographics, and more

This PPT research template is great for anyone needing to present a lot of data. The minimalist design won’t distract from the information in your presentation.

8. Creative PowerPoint Template Research Theme

Creative PPT theme

If you’re in the creative field and need a research PowerPoint template, then Creative PowerPoint Theme is great for you. This PowerPoint PPT for research presentations comes with:

  • over 50 slides
  • dark & light versions
  • over 1,000 icons
  • charts and graphs

This research presentation PowerPoint example is also a great choice if you just want a creative design for your slideshow.

9. Volle Multipurpose Template

Volle

Volle is a multipurpose PowerPoint PPT template that can be used for research presentations. This is one of the best research presentation PPTs because it’s easily customizable. Here are some key features of this template:

  • 92 unique slides
  • dark and light version
  • icons, charts, infographics
  • image placeholders

Volle is great for research that’s got data because of the slide designs that the template comes with. The features make it one of the best alternatives to a research proposal PPT template that’s free.

10. Appex Minimal PowerPoint V.2

Appex

Appex is a clean and minimalist theme that won’t distract the audience from your research. Here are some highlights of this research presentation PowerPoint example:

  • 1,680 slides
  • comes with infographics, charts, and maps
  • image placeholder
  • includes icons

This PowerPoint PPT template for research presentations is great for a data-heavy slideshow.

11. Drops Multipurpose and Creative PowerPoint Template

Drops

Drops Multipurpose template has a creative and professional design. This research PowerPoint PPT template for research presentations comes with over 100 slides. Drops also comes with over 1,000 icons that’ll help you break up the text. This PPT template for research comes with charts and tables so you can present data with confidence.

12. Elonara Astronomy PowerPoint Template

Elonara

Use the Elonara PPT template for your research presentation about astronomy. It’s built specifically for this purpose, so all the elements are designed for the topic. The charts, graphs, and maps make it easy to add data to this research PPT template.

Elonara comes with 30 unique slides and 1,200 slides in total. You won’t find many research proposal presentation templates for free that offer you these features.

13. Medical PowerPoint Template for Research Presentation

ppt on research article

Present your medical research with this template PPT. It comes with 31 editable slides.

Take advantage of the maps, charts, and infographics to bring your stats and figures to life. Adjust everything from images to colors to create the best research presentation from this PPT.

14. Partner Multipurpose PowerPoint Template

Partner

Use the Partner PowerPoint template for your research presentation purposes. It’s a great research PPT template, but it’s also versatile. Here are some of the features of Partner:

  • over 250 unique slides
  • more than 10,000 icons
  • 300 color schemes
  • fully editable

This PPT template for research presentations has the features to go along with its modern looks. Try this instead of a research presentation PowerPoint template that’s free.

15. Research and Development PowerPoint Presentation Template

R&D template

We’re closing out our list of the best PowerPoint templates for research presentations with another great design. It’s got an incredible layout that’s made for the present and beyond. This research paper PowerPoint presentation template comes with editable vectors.

How to Create a Research PowerPoint Presentation Outline

Are you wondering how to turn your presentation template into a research presentation template ? We’ll show you how in this short tutorial based on the Marketing Research PowerPoint V239 template .

Most research PowerPoint presentation templates start with an introduction. Next, there are several points. In this tutorial, we’ll showcase a variety of slide layouts you can use to illustrate your research points.

1. Change the Introduction Slide

Slide #2 would be an excellent introduction slide. An introduction is an important part of the research presentation. It gives people the background and context of what you’re presenting. This slide also allows you to add a photo if you choose to. Here’s slide #2 without any editing:

slide 2 with no edits

To change this slide into an introduction slide, change the text. Do this by highlighting the text that you want to change. You’ll know that you’ve highlighted the correct text selection when the handles appear around it. Then tap Delete on your keyboard. Type what you want to say.

edits to slide 2

By dragging the handles, you can also change the size of the text box.

2. Change the Text Slide

If you’ve got a main point that’s a fact or all text, then slide #4 is a great choice. Here’s slide #4 without any edits:

Slide 4 with no edits

To turn this into a text point slide, highlight the text you want to remove. You’ll know that you’ve highlighted the correct text when the handles appear. Next, tap Delete on your keyboard. Type what you want to type.

Slide 4 with text changed

This makes a good text point slide because it’s got a red border that emphasizes your text. This PowerPoint template research slide also lets you add a photo next to the text point if you want.

3. Graphic Slide

If you’ve got a graph or chart that you want to present, slide #8 is great to use. Drag and drop the picture into the placeholder. Here’s slide #8 without any edits:

Slide 8 with no edits

First, get rid of the icons. Then, change the heading text.

To get rid of icons, click on the icon. Then tap Delete on your keyboard. Now, select the text box for the heading. Highlight the text inside and click Delete . Now type your new heading.

Slide 8 with heading changed

This slide takes more steps to turn into a great slide for your research, but it can be easily done.

Before you finish your presentation, you’ll want to summarize your research. This will help the audience remember the research. Slide #26 makes a great summary slide. Here’s slide #26 without edits:

Slide 26 with no edits

To turn this slide layout into a great summary slide, I changed two of the headings to the fact numbers. Then I moved the title to the top of the slide. This can be done when the handles appear.

Slide 26 with a new title color.

Since the title comes in the color white, I changed the title font color to black. To change the font color, highlight the text that you want to change the color of. Then, click the arrow next to the Font Color button, This will cause a drop-down menu to appear. Select the color that you want to change the font to.

5. Conclusion Slide

A conclusion is important. It summarizes everything you’ve said so that the audience remembers your important points. It also contains your call to action if you’ve got one. A perfect conclusion is slide #30. Here’s slide #30 with no edits:

conclusion slide with no edits

To make this into more of a conclusion slide, I changed the title. Also, maybe you want another text box on your slide? To add another textbox to your slide, click the Insert tab on your toolbar. Then, click the Text Box button. Next, draw the text box where you want it.

adding new text to conclusion slide

Most designs can be turned into a research presentation template for PPT. By following this tutorial, you’ll be able to customize the templates you download to fit your needs.

Download a Research PowerPoint Template Today!

You’ve seen many different examples of great research presentation templates for PPT. You’ve also learned how to turn the templates into a research PowerPoint presentation outline. Download a research project PowerPoint template and get started on your presentation today!

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Writing tone, number of slides, taking care of heart diseases.

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Research Powerpoint Templates and Google Slides Themes

Discover a wide range of visually stunning and professionally designed presentation templates tailored to elevate your research findings and captivate your audience.

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A blend of chitosan-vitamin C and vitamin E nanoparticles robust the immunosuppressed- status in Nile tilapia treated with salt

  • Mahmoud A. Elnagar 1 ,
  • Riad H. Khalil 2 ,
  • Talaat S. Talaat 2 &
  • Ahmed H. Sherif 1  

BMC Veterinary Research volume  20 , Article number:  331 ( 2024 ) Cite this article

Metrics details

In aquaculture, fish are exposed to many stressors, such as climate changes and infectious diseases that affect their performance, immunity, and welfare. Freshwater fish subjected to salt bath become exhausted and stressed. In this experiment, Nile tilapia were exposed to a salt bath at a dose of 30 ppt for 30 min a day. Vitamin C and vitamin E are well-known antioxidants that are used in aquaculture. Fish received dietary nanoparticles of chitosan-vitamin C and chitosan-vitamin E (CCE-NPs) for different periods (7 and 14 days) pre- (G2) and post-salt treatment (G3). In the control fish (G1), cortisol 5.44 µg/dL and glucose 91.67 mg/dL were significantly up-regulated post-salt treatment by 1 h and 24 h, respectively, whereas those (G2) fed CCE-NPs diet had significantly lower values of 4.72 and 3.25 µg/dL; 86.3 and 84.3 mg/dL, respectively. A rapid decrease of glucose 68.3 and 66.3 mg/dL was noticed in those (G2) fed CCE-NPs diet compared to the control 84.67 mg/dL at 48 h post-stress. Regardless of the supplementation period, fish (G2) could partially restore normal food reflex at 48 h (post-salt bath) and fully restored at 72 h compared to 7 days in the control (G1). After 48 h, fish that received dietary CCE-NPs (G2 and G3) restored normal mucus lysozyme levels, whereas the control did not restore pre-treatment values till the seventh day. Mucus antibacterial activity, fish received rapid dietary CCE-NPs (G2) and partially restored average values (pre-salt bath) at 96 h. The salt treatment could provoke gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis (TNF)-α in the head kidney of fish at 24 h post-salt bath to 5.9–8.35 fold-change, respectively, with a rapid decline in fish (G2) the gene expression. Post-salt bath (24 h), the gene expression of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) , superoxide dismutase (SOD) , and catalase (CAT) was higher in fish (G2) than in the control group (G1) regardless of the supplementation period (7 and 14 days). Bacterial infection S. agalactiae (OL471408), a significantly lower MR was recorded in G2 at 40% and 33.3% compared to the control G1 MR (53.3%), with an RPL of 24.95% and 37.5%. In conclusion, Nile tilapia treated with a 30 ppt salt became more vulnerable to S. agalactiae. Adding CCE-NPs to the Nile tilapia diet for 7- and 14-day pre-salt bath could increase immune and antioxidant-related gene expression to counteract S. agalactiae infection.

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Introduction

Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus ) is considered a highly cultivated freshwater fish species worldwide, becoming one of the most marketable aquatic animals. Globally, the Egyptian aquaculture sector has been ranked among the highest producers [ 1 ]. According to the latest FAO report, Egypt was named 11th among the highest aquaculture producers, with 1.591 million tons forming 1.92% and 67% of world and African production (2020), respectively [ 2 ]. In freshwater fish species, salt treatment is usually used to combat several parasitic pathogens from protozoans to helminths for its properties such as being less toxic and inexpensive compared to frequently used anti-parasitic treatments (formalin or malachite green), so it is the recommended therapy in fish [ 3 , 4 ]. Meanwhile, some withdrawals from salt treatment were observed, such as impacting osmoregulation, causing dehydration [ 5 ], and developing immunosuppression status, which was controlled by the duration and dose of salt treatment [ 6 , 7 ]. Salt treatment significantly disturbed the gene expression of immune-related genes, which control inflammatory responses [ 8 ], and antioxidant-related genes, which play an essential role in the detoxification of relative oxygen species (ROS) [ 9 ].

Chitosan is a natural polymer obtained from the crustacean exoskeleton. Its properties include immune-stimulant activity, biodegradability, and biocompatibility, making it an attractive candidate for functional fish feed as a coat for medicinal agents and encapsulate vaccines [ 10 ]. Moreover, chitosan nanoparticles have higher bioavailability in the bloodstream, making them more assimilated and absorbed with lesser concentration [ 11 ]. Vitamin C, an essential micronutrient, offers numerous benefits to animal health. Fish cannot biosynthesize Vitamin C, leading to its inclusion in fish feed. However, this vitamin is unstable in high temperatures, oxygen, and light [ 12 ]. Vitamin C’s antioxidant properties shield animal cells from relative oxygen species (ROS), enhancing general health, immune-stimulant, antiaging, and antimicrobial activity [ 13 ]. Vitamin E exerts an antioxidant activity that could protect fish cells and tissues from injuries caused by ROS generated in stressful circumstances [ 14 ]. Studies confirmed the immune-stimulant effects of vitamin E (essential fat-soluble micronutrient) in fish [ 14 ]. “Alpha-tocopherol” is one of the eight forms of vitamin E commonly added to fish feed for its significant health impacts. Also, they added that vitamin E could improve both innate and required immunity, decreasing mortality rate and improving growth performance. It could also protect the functions of fish leukocytes [ 15 ].

Our recent breakthrough involves the development of a novel nanotechnology-based drug formula. This cutting-edge technology has been approved as an alternative to traditional drug manufacturing methods, offering biocompatible nanocomposites such as nanocapsules, nanoparticles, and conjugates [ 16 ]. These innovative techniques protect unstable environmental materials like vitamin C, reduce waste, and preserve physicochemical properties [ 12 ].

This work assessed immune-antioxidant responses and physiological status in Nile tilapia treated with salt. A trial was conducted to mitigate the stress associated with salt treatment using a dietary blend of nano-sized chitosan capsulated vitamin C and vitamin E (CCE-NPs). Also, the ability of fish that received dietary CCE-NPs with different schedules to counteract Streptococcus agalactaie infection.

Materials and methods

Fish accommodation, experiment design, nanoparticles preparation.

A two hundred and seventy Nile tilapia (O. niloticus) were purchased from local fish farms in Kafrelsheikh Governorate, weighing 50 ± 1.3 g. Prior to the transportation, fish were tranquilized using 40 mg/L tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222, Syndel, Canada) in the fish farms and then rapidly transported in the containers supplied with aerated water. At the wet laboratory, Nile tilapia were subjected to an iodine bath of Betadine ® , the active ingredient 5% of povidone-iodine, and produced by the Nile Company for Pharmaceuticals [ 17 , 18 ]. In A glass tank (3 × 1.5 × 1 m), fish were stocked for 14 days of acclimatization, and fish were fed a commercial diet (mentioned below) once daily at 09:00 am. After that, fish were randomly distributed and stocked in glass aquaria (50 × 40 × 40 cm) containing about 60 L. The Tank and aquaria contained dechlorinated tap water, supplied with oxygen via air stone with an electric compressor; the water quality was maintained to be suitable for optimal fish culture by replacing one-third of the water with clean, fresh, and dechlorinated water day after day to avoid wastes accumulation. The water parameters were suitable for the fish culture temperature (28 ± 0.5 °C), salinity (0.15 ± 0.03 g/L), hydrogen ion pH (7.4 ± 0.1), and dissolved oxygen DO (5.4 ± 0.3 mg/L), total ammonia nitrogen TAN (0.08 ± 0.02 mg/L), unionized ammonia NH 3 (0.01–0.00 mg/L), nitrite NO 2 (0.00 mg/L), and nitrate NO 3 (0.4 ± 0.02 mg/L).

In the experimental design, fish were exposed to a salt bath three times (once per day) with a day interval [ 19 ] by adding 30 g salt/L (30 ppt) for 30 min, and the feeding process stopped during treatment. Feeding a nanoparticles blend (CCE-NPs) of chitosan-vitamin C (Ch-CNPs) and chitosan-vitamin E (Ch-ENPs) was done using the optimal dietary level of vitamin C and E for Nile tilapia 420 and 100 mg/kg dry diet, respectively, following the recommendations of NRC [ 20 ].

Fish was distributed into three groups, G1–3, each with three replicates (30 fish/aquaria). Fish of G1 served as the control; they were not subjected to a salt bath or received feed additives. Fish of G2 were fed dietary CCE-NPs for 7 and 14 days before being subjected to the salt bath. Fish of G3 were fed dietary CCE-NPs for 7 and 14 days after being subjected to the salt bath.

The sampling procedure was performed before and after the salt bath and 7 and 14 days post-salt bath. Fish were euthanized using MS-222 at a dose of 250 mg/L, and they were kept for ten minutes after ceasing the operculum movements [ 19 ].

Chitosan nanoparticle preparation (ionotropic-gelation method) was synthesized depending on electrostatic interaction between charged negative and positive molecules. Amino groups of chitosan interact with tripolyphosphate with negatively charged groups. Chitosan solution was made at 1.5 g dissolved in 300 ml of acidified distilled water with 3 ml Glacial acetic acid by vigorous stirring until a transparent solution was observed. The solution pH was up to 4.5 using NaOH, then filtered to remove all undissolved materials. Vitamin C 420 mg/vitamin E 100 mg was mixed with TPP (100 mg/100 ml DW) and added drop-wise at a consistent rate using a titration pipette at the rate of 1 ml/minute under continuous stirring at room temperature for 2 h then the mixture was sonicated for 10 min [ 21 ]. The solution was centrifuged at 14,000 rpm at four °C/30 min twice with washing, and the supernatant was discarded. The resulting sediment dissolved in distilled water and well-ground, then lyophilized for further investigation. The nanoparticle characterizations were performed using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (JEM1400F HRTEM equipped with a 300 keV beam energy) at the Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University.

Preparation of fish feed: firstly, the consistency and viscoelastic of the commercial fish feed pellets were done by soaking them in water and blended to form a paste, nanoparticles were added to the food past and thoroughly mixed with gelatin (Nutri-B-Gel) produced by Canal Aqua Cure (Port-Said, Egypt) 5% w/w to enhance consistency. Fish feed was allowed with 5% fish body weight twice daily at 09:00 am and 0.3:00 pm. Fish feed composition was as follows: Moisture 11.1%, Crude Protein 42.72%, Digestible Energy 2955.62 (Kcal/Kg), Ether extract 5.74%, Crude fiber 2.6%, Nitrogen free extract 35.3%, and Ash 7.4%)

Chemicals used in the experiment

All chemicals were purchased from the local market, and Sigma-Aldrich produced salt. Chitosan was produced by Sigma-Aldrich, USA, with a low molecular weight (MW) of 50–90 kDA and a de-acetylation degree of ≥ 75% based on viscosity. Vitamin C Catalog codes: SLA1306 SLA4315 (Sciencelab.com et al., Texas, USA). Vitamin E, GV1022DL-alpha-Tocopherol acetate, EP/USP/FCC GRAD CAS RN 7695-91-2 Glentham Life Science England.

Stress hormone and glucose

Serum level of cortisol, a widely used stress bioindicator, was measured at 0, 1, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h post-salt treatment [ 22 , 23 ] using ELISA at an absorbance of 415 nm, 96-well, kits (Cayman Chemical, USA), and Microplate Reader (Azure Biosystems, USA). This measurement is crucial in understanding the physiological response to stress in the fish species under study. Serum samples were collected at 0, 1, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h post-salt treatment, and glucose levels were measured using a Spinreact ® glucose test kit.

Fish food reflex

At 0, 1, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 h, 7 days, and 14 days post-salt treatment, Nile tilapia feed was offered, and time of the food approach was calculated [ 24 ], scores were 1–4 based on finishing the offered food, 1: in ≤ 120 s, 2: in 120–180 s, 3: in 180–300 s, and 4: No or ≥ 360 s.

Noninvasive analyses of the mucus

Skin mucus was collected from five fish per group at 0, 1, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 h, 7 days, and 14 days post-salt treatment. For 30 s, each fish was gently rubbed in a plastic bag containing 10 mL of 50 mM NaCl, then centrifuged at 1500 rpm at 4 °C for 10 min and preserved at -96 °C.

The lysozyme level in skin mucus was quantified using the Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) method, a widely accepted technique for its sensitivity and specificity described by Parry et al. [ 25 ].

Skin mucus antibacterial activity was measured following the method described by Kumari et al. [ 26 ]. A blend of mucus (100 µL) and saline (6.5 g/L) was vortex-mixed in triplicate with Aeromonas hydrophila AHRAS2 (accession numbers of MW092007 in GenBank that isolated by Sherif and Abuleila , [ 27 ] ). The bacterial suspension containing 10 6 CFU was incubated at 25 °C/1 h. Then, the mix was incubated at 25 °C/24 h. The antibacterial activity was determined as a percentage of live colonies to the primary bacterial number.

Gene expression of immune and antioxidant-related genes

The impact of salt treatment on the expression of immune-related genes (Table  1 ) was assessed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The RNA was extracted from the head kidney with Trizol reagent (iNtRON Biotechnology Inc., Korea), and samples were collected from three Nile tilapia, each group using Nanodrop D-1000 spectrophotometer (NanoDrop Technologies Inc., USA). The obtained RNA was assessed for quality and quantity and kept at − 80 °C. The β-actin was the housekeeping gene. The results were assessed using Eq. 2 −ΔΔCT [ 28 ].

Bacterial infection

At 0, 1, 7, and 14 days, post-salt treatment, ten Nile tilapia per group were randomly and intraperitoneally (IP) injected with S. agalactiae with NCBI accession number (OL471408). Its median lethal dose (LD 50 ) is 0.3 × 10 5 CFU/ml, previously isolated and identified by Sherif et al. [ 29 ]. In addition, ten fish from the control group were injected with pure saline 6.5 g/L as negative controls. The injected Nile tilapia were observed for fourteen days to record the fish deaths. The mortality rate (MR %) and the relative levels of protection (RLP) of CCE-NPs were calculated according to the following equations:

Statistical analyses

The effects of nano-vitamins CCE-NPs modulation of Nile tilapia immune-antioxidant status using two-way ANOVA and Duncan’s Multiple Range at significant P values less than 0.05 using SPSS version 2022 software. Data presented as mean ± standard error (SD).

Nano material

In this experiment, nano-composite (CCE-NPs) was composed of chitosan-vitamin C and chitosan-vitamin E, with sizes ranging from 11.8 to 14.1 nm and 16.3 to 23.3 nm, respectively. Each gram of (CCE-NPs) contained 420 mg of vitamin C and 100 mg of vitamin E (Supplementary; Figs.  1 and 2 ).

Stress indicators

In Fig.  1 , the salt bath was stressful for the experimental fish and was assessed by measuring serum cortisol (stress hormone) at 0, 1, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h, while serum glucose was measured at 0, 1, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h. Pre-salt treatment (0 h) cortisol ranged between 0.93 and 1.06 µg/dL. After 1 h, Nile tilapia (G2) supplemented with CCE-NPs for 7 and 14 days had significantly lower levels of 4.72 and 3.25 µg/dL, respectively, and serum levels declined rapidly compared to the other groups.

figure 1

Cortisol level. Different capital letters (time factor) and small letters (additive factor) indicate that values are significant differences at P  ≤ 0.05. G1; Control without stress or feed additives, G2; Fish fed CCE-NPs pre-salt treatment 7 and 14 days, G3; Fish fed dietary (CCE-NPs) post-salt treatment 7 and 14 days

In Fig.  2 , after 12 h, fish fed with CCE-NPs (G2) for 7 and 14 days and then exposed to salt treatment had significantly higher serum glucose levels, 86.3 and 84.3 mg/dL, which started to decline after 48 h and restored normal values after 72 h compared to the pre-salt bath (0 h). Meanwhile, other groups had significantly higher levels, 89.3 to 91.67 mg/dL, after 24 h compared to the pre-salt bath (0 h), and normality was restored after 96 h.

figure 2

Serum glucose level. Different capital letters (time factor) and small letters (additive factor) indicate that values are significant differences at P  ≤ 0.05. G1; Control without stress or feed additives, G2; Fish fed CCE-NPs pre-salt treatment 7 and 14 days, G3; Fish fed dietary (CCE-NPs) post-salt treatment 7 and 14 days

Food reflex is the first noticed clinical sign in stressed fish. All experimental fish stopped feeding with lethargy swimming in the first 12 h after salt-treatment exposure. After 24 h, fish received dietary CCE-NPs (G2) rapidly and partially restored normal foods reflex (4) and enhanced in 48 h (post-stress). Then, at 72 h, they had fully restored normality; meanwhile, the other groups did not restore till day 7 (Table  2 ).

In Fig.  3 , Nile tilapia was treated every other day with a salt bath. Mucus was scarce to be collected during the first 6 h after the salt bath. After 12 h, mucus lysozyme was significantly higher in fish (G2) that received dietary CCE-NPs for 7 and 14 days, 2.34 and 2.47 U/mL, respectively, compared to other groups 166–1.75 U/mL. After 48 h, fish of (G2) restored pre-stress lysozyme levels, whereas the other group did not restore pre-stress values till 7 days. Also, fish of G2 had superiority over the other groups till 14 days post-stress.

figure 3

Mucus lysozyme and antibacterial activity. Different capital letters (additive factor) and small letters (time factor) indicate that values are significant differences at P  ≤ 0.05. G1; Control without stress or feed additives, G2; Fish fed CCE-NPs pre-salt treatment 7 and 14 days, G3; Fish fed dietary (CCE-NPs) post-salt treatment 7 and 14 days

Antibacterial activity (Fig.  3 ) of fish mucus was drastically impacted by exposure to salt bath. Fish received dietary CCE-NPs (G2) rapidly and partially restored normal values (pre-salt bath) to 96h, whereas it required 7 days in the other groups. Fish (G3) received dietary CCE-NPs had higher activities compared to (G2) after 7 days, 25.8% and 36.7%; 33.8% and 35.1%, also the superiority extended after 14 days, 36.45% and 36.9%; 31.9% and 32.8%, respectively.

Cytokines gene expression

In Fig.  4 , the gene expression of IL-1β , TNF-α , and IL-10 was modulated in the head kidney, indicating that salt treatment could provoke gene expression of cytokines. After 24 h of salt bath, IL-1β and TNF-α showed significantly higher expressions than the control regardless of the period of CCE-NPs supplementation and declined on day 7. The expression of IL-10 was increased on day 7 after the salt bath regardless of the group. At 14 days post-salt bath, the expression of IL-10 in fish of G3 was significantly higher than in the other groups.

figure 4

Gene expression of ( A ) interleukin (IL)-1β , ( B ) tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α , and ( C ) interleukin (IL)- 10. Different capital letters (time factor) and small letters (additive factor) indicate that values are significant differences at P  ≤ 0.05. G1; Control without stress or feed additives, G2; Fish fed CCE-NPs pre-salt treatment 7 and 14 days, G3; Fish fed dietary (CCE-NPs) post-salt treatment 7 and 14 days

Antioxidants gene expression

In Fig. ( 5 ), in the head kidney, the gene expression of antioxidant GPx was significantly higher in fish of G2 (CCE-NPs supplementation) than in the control group (G1) regardless of the supplementation period (7 and 14 days), 9.24 and 8.57 fold-change, respectively. In addition, SOD and CAT had the same trend of GPx (Fig.  5 ).

Post-stress (1 day) (Fig.  5 ), the gene expression of GPx and CAT raised in G2 was significantly higher than in the pre-stressed condition (0 h) and the other stressed groups. Meanwhile, the expression of SOD did not affect by salt treatment.

Post-stress, all groups possessed normal values, but fish supplemented with CCE-NPs were still high regardless of the period of addition (7 and 14 days) and time (pre- or post-stress) (Fig.  5 ).

figure 5

Gene expression of ( A ) glutathione peroxidase GPx , ( B ) Superoxide dismutase SOD , and ( C ) Catalase CAT. Different capital letters (time factor) and small letters (additive factor) indicate that values are significant differences at P  ≤ 0.05. G1; Control without stress or feed additives, G2; Fish fed CCE-NPs pre-salt treatment 7 and 14 days, G3; Fish fed dietary (CCE-NPs) post-salt treatment 7 and 14 days

The dietary CCE-NPs showed promising results. They provided RPL of 24.95% and 37.5% for Nile tilapia in (G2), which fed dietary CCE-NPs for 7 or 14 days pre-treatment, respectively, against experimental infection with LD 50 of S. agalactiae. At 24 h- post-salt treatment, RPL increased to 42.87% regardless of the supplementation period. High RPL demonstrates the potential of our dietary intervention to improve fish health. At 7 days post-infection, RPL decreased to 11.6 and 0%, respectively, whereas at 14 days post-infection, RPL reached 10% for both periods (G2). Meanwhile, RPL increased in (G3), which fed dietary CCE-NPs for 7 or 14 days post-salt bath, to 44.5% and 44.5% at 7 days post-infection and 20.05% and 50.5% at14 days post-infection, respectively, (Table  3 ).

After exposure to salt treatment (Fig.  6 ), Nile tilapia experimentally infected with S. agalactiae had signs of off–food (large head and tail fin) with yellowish discoloration of the skin, partial empty intestine, and distended gall-bladder with clear content. The post-mortem showed bacterial septicemic signs: dark brownish-reddish liver and splenomegaly. After exposure to salt treatment (Fig.  7 ), Nile tilapia infected with S. agalactiae (LD 50 ) and supplemented with dietary CCE-NPs had clinical signs that were similar to the unsupplemented group with slight intensity, slight yellowish discoloration of the skin, partial empty intestine, in addition the post-mortem lesions were brownish liver, splenomegaly, and pale gills.

figure 6

Nile tilapia (control), clinical sign yellowish discoloration with large head and tail fin, postmortem ( A ) dark brownish-reddish liver, ( B ) splenomegaly ( C ) partial empty intestine, ( D ) distended gall-bladder with clear content

figure 7

Nile tilapia treated with salt and fed dietary-CCE-NPs, clinical sign with external slight yellowish discoloration, postmortem ( A ) brownish liver, ( B ) splenomegaly, ( C ) full-intestine, and ( D ) pale gills

Our research findings highlight the significant role of CCE-NPs in mitigating the stress in Nile tilapia caused by salt treatment. Serum cortisol and glucose, stress-related parameters, are crucial indicators of stress conditions in fish [ 30 ]. In our study, Nile tilapia that received dietary-CCE-NPs for 7 and 14 days pre-salt bath had significantly low cortisol levels in serum (4.72 and 3.25 µg/dL) compared to the control fish (5.44 µg/dL). The high cortisol levels were reported in the serum of common carp reared in high salinity concentrations [ 31 ]. Similarly, Karsi and Yildiz [ 32 ] observed similar findings in Nile tilapia after direct transport to salt water (9 and 18 ppt) for 72 h. These results further confirm the vital role of vitamin E in regulating plasma cortisol concentration under stress [ 33 ].

During stress, hyperglycemia levels are controlled with stress types and sampling times [ 34 ]. In this experiment, salt treatment caused high glucose levels in the serum of Nile tilapia. The glucose levels were significantly higher, 86.3 and 84.3 mg/dL, after 12 h in the serum of fish that received dietary CCE-NPs pre-salt bath for 7 and 14 days, respectively. Also, they restored the basal level after 72 h of salt bath, compared to the control fish that needed more than 96 h. Accordingly, high glucose levels are released under cortisol control during stress to afford the entire body the energy required to counteract the stress, glucose levels were significantly decreased in the serum of stressed Nile tilapia received a dietary vitamin C [ 35 ].

In this work, even though the control fish could withstand salt stress, some fish showed a low food reflex, which was the first clinical sign of stress. Also, skin mucus was scarce and could not be collected in the first 6 h post-stress, which drastically impacted the antibacterial activity of the mucus. Salt treatment changes the osmotic hemostasis of fish parasites and strips off the protective mucus layer, depriving the parasite of protection against an adverse environment [ 36 ]. It is known that environmental stress causes an increase in mucus production, resulting in the depletion of mucus cells. The linear increase of mucus production in response to salt stress until depletion is slow at 3 ppt compared to the 7 ppt group [ 37 ].

Dietary CCE-NPs (pre-stress 7 and 14 days) resulted in significantly higher mucus lysozyme 2.34 and 2.47 U/mL at 12 h post-stress in experimental Nile tilapia, rapidly restoring basal level after 48 h. In contrast, the other experimental groups spent 7 days restoring pre-stress value. Similarly, Alishahi et al. [ 38 ] illuminated that the highest lysozyme activity was recorded in rainbow trout fed on a diet supplemented with nano-chitosan loaded with vitamin C and silver carp. Higher lysozyme activity in rainbow trout fed a diet containing vitamin C + vitamin E + Nano-Se, while Ig and ACH50 insignificantly differ among the experimental groups [ 39 ].

In accordance, Tort [ 6 ] reported that the extent of immune depression status was associated with stressors kinds, such as acute (short-term) and chronic (long-term), that controlled the probability of infection. In this study, 24 h post-salt bath, the expression of IL-1β and TNF-α genes in the head kidney of the experimental Nile tilapia was increased, regardless of the CCE-NPs supplementation period, with a rapid decline on day 7, in parallel with the increase of the expression of IL-10. Similarly, El-Leithy et al. [ 40 ] found that the expression of IL-1β , IL-8 , and cc-chemokine genes in the liver of Nile tilapia was significantly higher when exposed to salt 16 ppt than with 20 ppt. Accordingly, the expression of the IL-1β gene was significantly increased in zebrafish larvae that received dietary chitosan NPs [ 41 ]. Moreover, Nile tilapia supplemented with dietary vitamin C had high expression levels of TNF-α and IL-1β genes [ 42 ]. Along with our results, incorporating dietary nano-Se and vitamin C or E is comparable to immunostimulants that could efficiently regulate pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β [ 43 ]. Furthermore, it was noted that dietary immunostimulants significantly increased the transcription of IL-1β and TNF-α genes in the head kidney of Nile tilapia [ 44 , 45 , 46 , 47 ].

The activity GPx , SOD , and CAT , antioxidant enzymes, could serve as biomarkers of the occurrence of oxidative stress. Also, changes in their levels are good indicators of aquatic animals’ antioxidant responses. In this experiment, Nile tilapia that were exposed to high salt concentration showed generated ROS manifested with induced high gene expression of GPx , SOD , and CAT. In accordance, high salinity and unstable environmental conditions are responsible for the production of free radicals (ROS) [ 48 ]. At hyper-salinity 16-ppt, the expression of glutathione gene was significantly upregulated in Nile tilapia gills to 91.1-fold change whereas at 20-ppt salt resulted in a lesser increase [ 40 ], less increase at the concentration 20 ppt could be due to fish exhaustion [ 49 ]. Conversely, the glutathione concentration was insignificantly changed in the liver of Chinook salmon at 16- and 20-ppt salt concentrations [ 50 ].

The experimental Nile tilapia that received dietary CCE-NPs for 7 and 14-day pre-salt treatment had higher gene expression of GPx , SOD , and CAT compared to the control, which remained high for 14 days post-stress. In accordance, it was reported that enhanced antioxidant activity by dietary incorporation of chitosan nanoparticles in Nile tilapia diets through an increase in the activity of CAT and SOD enzymes [ 51 ]. Also, CAT activity in the kidney and liver tissues was the highest in the fishes fed with the chitosan-NP at a 1 g/kg diet; this activity is attributed to chelating the metal ions and scavenging the free radicals [ 52 ]. Similarly, a study found that vitamin E supplementation significantly enhanced SOD activity in serum and muscle and CAT activity in serum, claiming that dietary vitamin E is a fast-acting antioxidant reducing the oxidative stress in large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea) [ 53 ]. Interestingly, in a 70-day feeding trial, chitosan vitamin E nanocomposite (300 mg/kg) ameliorated the high stocking density of Nile tilapia (14.74 g b.w.) and improved the serum and hepatic antioxidant enzymes [ 54 ]. In contrast, dietary E could insignificantly increase GPx activity without a synergistic effect with selenium [ 55 ]. Vitamin C is an antioxidant that protects animal cells from oxidative stress by detoxifying and neutralizing ROS [ 56 ]. It has been reported that the expressions of GPx1a and gpx4b genes were upregulated in the kidney and spleen of young grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idella ) by receiving dietary vitamin C at a dose of 2,9–224,5 mg/kg fish feed [ 57 ]. On the contrary, dietary vitamin C at a dose of 1.5 g/L caused significant and insignificant downregulation of the expressions of SOD1 and SOD2 genes, respectively, in skeletal muscle [ 58 ].

The salt bath at a concentration of 30 ppt for 30 min was stressful for the experimental Nile tilapia. A concentration of 18.9 ppt was the 96-h Median Lethal Salinity (MLS-96) for Nile tilapia fry of 7- to 120-day-old after direct transfer from freshwater [ 59 ]. Nile tilapia received dietary CCE-NPs for 7 and 14 days pre-salt bath could withstand S. agalactiae infection, showing low MR 40% and 33.3%, respectively. Also, it could protect Nile tilapia, providing a RPL of 24.95% and 37.5%. Whereas fish of (G3), fed dietary CCE-NPs for 7 or 14 days post-treatment, had higher RPL than the control. Accordingly, stress from high salt results in the immune depression status in fish, which makes them more vulnerable to an infectious agent present in the aquatic environment [ 60 ]. Also, high salinity is a more suitable and favorable environment for many pathogenic agents, increasing their load in water and raising the chances of infection occurrence in fish [ 6 ]. Also, it was observed that a lower concentration of chitosan-NPs would not be able to protect the fish, but the protection level was increased as the dose increased [ 61 ]. Furthermore, zebrafish larvae fed dietary-chitosan NPs could combat A. hydrophila infection [ 41 ], Staphylococcus aureus in Silver carp [ 62 ], Vibrio alginolyticus , V. anguillarum , A. hydrophila , and A. veronii [ 63 ]. Similarly, Ahmed et al. [ 53 ], in a 70-day feeding trial, chitosan vitamin E nanocomposite (300 mg/kg) could improve fish resistance against A. sobria . These results could be due to the immunostimulating, antioxidant, and antibacterial activity of chitosan NPs in fish; chitosan NPs penetrate the bacterial cell wall and break the cytoplasmic membrane and leakage of its constituents [ 64 ]. Other explanations, the antibacterial properties of chitosan could be attributed to electrostatic interaction, contact with the microbial DNA, and metal-chitosan chelation [ 63 ], in addition to activating digestive enzymes and inhibiting pathogenic bacteria by activating beneficial ones [ 65 ].

Salt bath at a concentration of 30 ppt caused oxidative stress, lowering the immunity of the experimental Nile tilapia, which became more vulnerable to S. agalactia infection. Incorporating CCE-NPs in fish diet pre-salt bath could scavenge the propagated ROS, whereas post-salt bath addition faces low feed intake and stressed body organs that need more time to respond to feed additives. These nanomaterials allow the safe use of high salt concentrations in fish treatment. Unfortunately, the use of dietary-CCE-NPs faces the obstacle of low feed intake and slow onset of their effect at first 24 h post-stress compared to those received supplemented diet pre-stress. Dietary-CCE-NPs could provide higher RLP at 7 and 14 days post-stress against S. agalactiae infection.

Data availability

No datasets were generated or analysed during the current study.

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Funding Open access funding provided by The Science, Technology & Innovation Funding Authority (STDF) in cooperation with The Egyptian Knowledge Bank (EKB). This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Open access funding provided by The Science, Technology & Innovation Funding Authority (STDF) in cooperation with The Egyptian Knowledge Bank (EKB).

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Mahmoud A. Elnagar: Writing – review & editing, Riad H. Khalil: Writing original draft, Formal analysis, Data curation. Talaat S. Talaat ssab: Writing review & editing, Methodology. Ahmed H. Sherif: Writing original draft, Methodology.

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Elnagar, M.A., Khalil, R.H., Talaat, T.S. et al. A blend of chitosan-vitamin C and vitamin E nanoparticles robust the immunosuppressed- status in Nile tilapia treated with salt. BMC Vet Res 20 , 331 (2024). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12917-024-04180-y

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Project 2025 Explained: What To Know About The Controversial Right-Wing Policy Map For Trump—As He Speaks At RNC

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Former President Donald Trump will speak at the Republican National Convention on Thursday after he formally clinched the party’s nomination , bringing renewed attention to Project 2025, a conservative think tank’s wide-ranging blueprint for a potential second Trump term that covers everything from recruiting like-minded personnel to eliminating entire agencies—a platform assembled partly by ex-Trump staffers, though the former president has tried to distance himself.

Then-President Donald Trump gives a speech at the Heritage Foundation's President's Club Meeting on ... [+] October 17, 2017, in Washington D.C.

Project 2025, spearheaded by the Heritage Foundation with help from more than 100 other conservative groups , is a multi-part plan for the next conservative administration—namely a Trump presidency—which includes a LinkedIn-style database for presidential personnel hopefuls, training programs for executive branch positions and an as-yet-unreleased “playbook” laying out what Trump should do in his first 180 days.

Though the project is led by the Heritage Foundation and other private third-party groups and is not formally tied to Trump, who has tried to distance himself from the operation, its proposals were developed in part by former members of his administration and other Trump allies, and the ex-president has previously praised Heritage for its policy work.

The project has drawn the most attention for its “Mandate for Leadership,” a 900-page proposed policy agenda that describes itself as a “plan to unite the conservative movement and the American people against elite rule and woke culture warriors,” laying out plans for all aspects of the executive branch.

Personnel: Project 2025 broadly proposes to insert far more political appointees who are ideologically aligned with the president into the executive branch—replacing many of the nonpartisan career civil servants who serve in it now—proposing an executive order that would put political appointees into any “confidential, policy-determining, policymaking, or policy-advocating positions” (which Trump previously did at the end of his presidency, but President Joe Biden then overturned it).

Federal Agencies: It proposes a scaled-down federal government, including the abolishment of multiple agencies—including the Department of Education, Department of Homeland Security, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and Consumer Financial Protection Bureau—whose remaining departments would be folded into other agencies or privatized, including the Transportation Security Administration.

Transgender Rights: Transgender rights and gender identity beyond biological sex are roundly rejected, with such steps as reinstating the ban on transgender Americans serving in the military, prohibiting public school educators from referring to students by anything other than their birth name and pronouns without parental permission, and ensuring no federal funds are used to provide gender-affirming care.

DEI and LGBTQ Rights: Project 2025 seeks to eliminate diversity, equity and inclusion programs from throughout the federal government and in universities, and while it doesn’t outlaw same-sex marriage, it supports “nuclear families” that include a “married mother, father, and their children,” and calls for restricting laws that bar discrimination on the basis of sex to exclude sexual orientation and gender identity.

Climate Change: The proposal would undo much of the federal government’s climate work, including by leaving the Paris Climate Agreement, overhauling the Department of Energy to promote oil and natural gas and deemphasize green energy sources, removing the Department of Agriculture’s focus on sustainability and curtailing climate research.

Abortion: While Project 2025 doesn’t explicitly call for an abortion ban, it would take many steps to restrict the procedure, including directing the Food and Drug Administration to revoke its approval of abortion drug mifepristone, using the Comstock Act to block any abortion equipment or medication from being mailed—which abortion rights advocates have said would be a “backdoor” way to ban abortion—barring federal funds being used to provide healthcare coverage for abortion and requiring states to report all abortions that take place there to the federal government.

Education: Project 2025 emphasizes a “school choice” policy that directs public funds to be used for students to attend private or religious schools, bars “critical race theory” from being taught in federally funded schools and advocates for legislation that would allow parents to sue schools they feel have acted improperly—such as by teaching controversial subjects or requiring students to disclose information about their religious beliefs.

Student Loans: Student loan relief efforts would come to an end—including the public service loan forgiveness program and income-driven repayment plans—as the proposal states “borrowers should be expected to repay their loans.”

Big Tech: TikTok would be banned, and the proposal calls for reforming Section 230 —which shields tech companies and social media networks from being sued over content on their platforms—and allowing laws like those passed in Florida and Texas that seek to punish social media companies who ban or suspend users based on their “viewpoints.”

Justice Department: Project 2025 calls for a “top-to-bottom overhaul” of the DOJ and FBI that gets rid of what it calls an “unaccountable bureaucratic managerial class and radical Left ideologues,” proposing an agency that would be more focused on violent crime and filing litigation that’s “consistent with the President’s agenda” and filled with far more political appointees; it also proposes prohibiting the FBI from investigating misinformation or making “politically motivated” moves against U.S. citizens.

Taxes: Project 2025 would seek to get rid of current tax rates and most deductions and credits, instead proposing a 15% rate for anyone under the Social Security wage base ( $168,000 in 2024) and 30% for taxpayers earning more than that—which means the lowest-income taxpayers will now pay more and some higher earners will pay less, and it would also lower the corporate income tax rate to 18%.

Federal Reserve: The project seeks to reform the Federal Reserve by “tak[ing] the monetary steering wheel out of [its] hands and return[ing] it to the people,” which the authors propose could be done by getting rid of the government’s control over the nation’s money entirely—instead leaving it up to banks—or returning to the gold standard, in which the dollar’s value would be tied to a specific weight of gold.

Foreign Relations: Project 2025 emphasizes opposing China, which it describes as “a totalitarian enemy of the United States,” and directs the U.S. to pull out of international organizations when they don’t serve the administration’s interests, including the World Health Organization and various United Nations agencies.

Healthcare: Project 2025 does not seek to overturn the Affordable Care Act, but would make significant cuts to Medicaid and impose work requirements to receive coverage, as well as reform Medicare—including by making Medicare Advantage, a paid supplement to Medicare, the default option for patients.

Get Forbes Breaking News Text Alerts: We’re launching text message alerts so you'll always know the biggest stories shaping the day’s headlines. Text “Alerts” to (201) 335-0739 or sign up here .

Is Trump Involved With Project 2025?

Trump has denied any connection to Project 2025, claiming on Truth Social last week that he has “nothing to do with them,” has “no idea” who’s behind the plan and finds some of its ideas “absolutely ridiculous and abysmal.” But many aren’t buying his claims: The team behind Project 2025 includes 140 people who worked for Trump in his administration, according to CNN , including six former Cabinet secretaries and four people he nominated as ambassadors. The ex-president has also seemingly endorsed the project in the past, saying at a 2022 dinner for the Heritage Foundation that the group was “going to lay the groundwork and detail plans for exactly what our movement will do … when the American people give us a colossal mandate.”

What Impact Could Project 2025’s Policies Have?

Experts have warned Project 2025’s proposals could have seismic impacts on how the federal government operates if carried out. In an article for Justia , criminal defense attorney and former prosecutor John May suggested Project 2025’s language endorsing the executive branch being able to “restrain the excesses” of the judicial branch and Congress means “if the President wants to, the President can defy any decision of the Supreme Court, any legislation by Congress, maybe even the act of impeachment and removal from office.”

Who’s Behind Project 2025?

The main team behind Project 2025 includes Heritage Foundation director Paul Gans and former Trump White House personnel leaders Spencer Chretien (who also served as Trump’s special assistant) and Troup Hemenway, according to the project’s website. Other groups listed as participating in the project include ex-Trump adviser Stephen Miller’s America First Legal, legal group Alliance Defending Freedom, Liberty University, Susan B. Anthony Pro-Life America and Turning Point USA. The 900-page policy agenda was co-authored by a series of conservative figures, with chapters penned by such Trump allies as former Housing Secretary Dr. Ben Carson, former Deputy Homeland Security Secretary Ken Cuccinelli, former HHS Civil Rights Director Roger Severino and former Trump advisor Peter Navarro, who went to prison in March for contempt of Congress.

Will Trump Have To Follow Project 2025’s Plans?

Trump will not be under any obligation to follow Project 2025’s proposals if he wins the presidency, though history suggests he’ll listen to at least some of them. The Heritage Foundation made a similar policy proposal for Trump ahead of his presidency in 2016, and boasted two years into his tenure that Trump had already followed 64% of its recommendations, CBS News notes .

Would Project 2025 Change Social Security?

One area that Project 2025 doesn’t touch on is Social Security benefits and any potential cuts to the program, even as proposals outline changes to numerous other government “entitlements.” Changing Social Security and making cuts to its spending has been a priority for the GOP for decades, though the American public has long opposed slashing benefits. Republicans’ efforts have waned under Trump, however, and the ex-president publicly claimed in March he “will never do anything that will jeopardize or hurt Social Security or Medicare,” after he came under fire for suggesting otherwise in an interview with CNBC.

Surprising Fact

While much of Project 2025’s policy agenda concerns federal agencies, the proposal has also gotten attention for its call to outlaw all pornography, which it claims is tied to “the omnipresent propagation of transgender ideology and sexualization of children” and is not protected under the First Amendment. Project 2025 calls not only for pornography to be made illegal, but also for anyone involved with its production and distribution to be imprisoned, for any librarians or educators who “purvey it” to be registered as sex offenders and for telecommunications and technology firms that facilitate its distribution to be shut down.

Key Background

The Heritage Foundation’s practice of laying out a policy roadmap for a future Republican administration actually dates back to the Reagan era, founder Edwin J. Feulner noted in the afterword of the 2025 edition. The organization first laid out a blueprint in 1981 that President Ronald Reagan ultimately adopted, fulfilling half of its recommendations by the end of his first year in office. The Heritage Foundation has continued to come out with blueprints for potential conservative presidents each election since, it notes, and its 2025 Mandate for Leadership was published in 2023. While it came out last year, Project 2025 gained new attention in the past week since Trump disavowed it—sparking a wave of reports highlighting his ties to the figures behind the project that debunk his claims. Democrats have also used the controversial proposal as a key talking point and argument for why the left should unite behind President Joe Biden and focus on defeating Trump, particularly as Biden’s candidacy has come under widespread scrutiny in the wake of the president’s poor debate performance in June.

Further Reading

Alison Durkee

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