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Essay on Disaster Management in India for Students in English

January 5, 2021 by Sandeep

Essay on Disaster Management: Humans generally do not have any hold on the disaster in a natural calamity situation. They can do very little to avert the situation or prevent them. To preserve lives and protect them from danger, safety measures and emergency guidelines need to be implemented. These planning strategies should be ready in place before the occurrence of a natural disaster. Robust policies on disaster management could save many lives and property.

Essay on Disaster Management 500 Words in English

Below we have provided Disaster Management Essay in English, suitable for class 6, 7, 8, 9 & 10.

A disaster is defined as any large scale occurrence that disrupts human society’s normal functioning and leads to widespread loss of life, property, and environment that exceeds the surviving population’s capability to cope with their resources. Every country is prone to disasters, and India is no exception to them. In general, disasters can be classified into two types, natural and human-made disasters.

While the latter can be prevented by cautious actions, the former can only be mitigated to an extent. Disaster management is the organisation and management of resources and services that deal with humanitarian aspects of emergencies caused by disasters, specifically involving the preparedness, response, and recovery to lessen the impact of disasters.

As per the estimates in the vulnerability atlas, about 60% of area is prone to earthquakes , 12% region risks flooding and 8% of the total landmass is vulnerable to cyclones. Furthermore of the 159.7 million hectares of agricultural land, 68% is prone to drought. While these are the conventional natural disasters listed, there are many more that have occurred due to wars, human negligence and civil disharmony.

Natural Disasters: These disasters occur naturally and we do not have any control over it. The most common of all the natural disasters is earthquakes. It is defined as sudden turbulent shaking of the earth. The origin of earthquake is known as the epicentre from where the shock waves traverse outwards. Earthquakes are primary disasters which combining with the environmental factors can give rise to secondary disasters like landslides, floods, fires, etc. When it occurs inside oceans, it gives rise to giant tidal waves called tsunamis.

Draughts occur due to shortage of groundwater, scarcity of rainfall and drying up of local water bodies. Draughts are the leading cause of crop failure and lead to food shortages, dehydration and malnutrition. Economically, it affects the farmers adversely as they become unemployed. This further makes them tumble into the hideous cycle of poverty, hunger and insanitation.

Man-made Disasters: These types of disasters can be easily prevented if we practice our profession and day to day activities responsibly and cautiously. On a bigger scale, political and economic factors also play a crucial role in the origin of man-made disasters.

Industrial disasters are primary type of man-made disasters. These include gas leak, chemical leak, explosions, fires, radioactive breakdown, etc. Depending upon the product or substances involved in the disaster, it can have both long and short term effects on human and ecological factors of the environment.

Another deliberately caused disaster is war and use of weapons of mass-destruction. Wars are one man’s victory and a million men’s loss. Other than loss of lives in the form of soldiers and civilians involved, wars also scar the environmental factors of the area where they are fought on.

Management and Mitigation of Disasters

Proper disaster management of natural disasters can be executed keeping in mind the following points:

  • Identification of factors of a disaster
  • Classification of threat levels
  • Public awareness about the disasters
  • Pre-emptive measures
  • Preparedness to effectively combat disaster
  • Well-knitted coordination of mitigation and relief organisation
  • Enactment and enforcement of government and administrative policies

India is a signatory of the Hyogo Framework of Action, 2015 under the UN Office for Disaster Risk Reduction which prescribes the following five-fold process for mainstreaming of disaster risk reduction in a country’s socioeconomic and developmental activities-

  • Political Process: This encourages effective governmental policies and institutional frameworks along with allocation of funds and resources for limiting risks of disaster.
  • Technical Process: Its goal is to utilise R&D in the field of science and technology for better assessment, monitoring and identification of disaster and improve the existing early warning systems to manage disasters.
  • Socio-Educational Process: This seeks to achieve mass awareness and skill development of the citizens of a country to tackle disasters effectively and ensure safety and resilience at personal level.
  • Development Process: It includes integrating disaster risk reduction activities among all sectors of development planning and programs.
  • Humanitarian Process: This comprises of the activities undertaken to rehabilitate loss- an integral part of risk reduction and ensure rapid response and recovery.

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Disaster Management Previous Year Questions (PYQs) | UPSC Mains Examination

On this page you will find all the updates related to the previous year questions of subject Disaster Management for UPSC IAS Mains examination.

Previous Year Disaster Management Questions UPSC Mains Exam: Disaster management is critical in the face of natural calamities such as drought, floods, and earthquakes. As a result, when preparing, the applicant should concentrate on all of the crucial aspects of Disaster Management. The number of questions from the Disaster Management Syllabus is not fixed.

Referring to the disaster management PYQ UPSC will help you understand the pattern and type of questions asked. In the Mains test, candidates can expect 1 to 2 questions from the topic.

Q.1) Dam failures are always catastrophic, especially on the downstream side, resulting in a colossal loss of life and property. Analyse the various causes of dam failures. Give two examples of large dam failures. [150 Words] [10 Marks] [2023]

Q.2) Explain the mechanism and occurrence of cloudburst in the context of the Indian subcontinent. Discuss two recent examples. [150 Words] [10 Marks] [2022]

Q.3) Explain the causes and effects of coastal erosion in India. What are the available coastal management techniques for combating the hazard? [250 words] [15 Marks] [2022]

Q.4) Describe the various causes and the effects of landslides. Mention components of the important components of National Landslide Risk Management strategy. [250 Words] [15 Marks] [2021]

Q.5) Discuss about the vulnerability of India to earthquake related hazards. Give examples including the salient features of major disasters caused by earthquakes in different parts of India during the last three decades. [150 Words] [10 Marks] [2021]

Q.6) Discuss the recent measures initiated in disaster management by the Government of India departing from the earlier reactive approach. [250 Words] [15 Marks] [2020]

Q.7) Vulnerability is an essential element for defining disaster impacts and its threat to people. How and in what ways can vulnerability to disasters be characterized? Discuss different types of vulnerability with reference to disasters. [150 Words] [10 Marks] [2019]

Q.8) Disaster preparedness is the first step in any disaster management process. Explain how hazard zonation mapping will help disaster mitigation in the case of landslides. [250 Words] [15 marks] [2019]

Q.9) Describe various measures taken in India for Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) before and after signing ‘Sendai Framework for DRR (2015-2030)’. How is this framework different from ‘Hyogo Framework for Action, 2005’? [250 Words] [15 marks] [2018]

Q.10) On December 2004, tsunami brought havoc on 14 countries including India. Discuss the factors responsible for occurrence of Tsunami and its effects on life and economy. In the light of guidelines of NDMA (2010) describe the mechanisms for preparedness to reduce the risk during such events. [250 Words] [15 marks] [2017]

Q.11) The frequency of urban floods due to high intensity rainfall is increasing over the years. Discussing the reasons for urban floods, highlight the mechanisms for preparedness to reduce the risk during such events. [200 Words] [12.5 Marks] [2016]

Q.12) With reference to National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) guidelines, discuss the measures to be adopted to mitigate the impact of the recent incidents of cloudbursts in many places of Uttarakhand. [200 Words] [12.5 Marks] [2016]

Q.13) The frequency of earthquakes appears to have increased in the Indian subcontinent. However, India’s preparedness for mitigating their impact has significant gaps. Discuss various aspects. [200 Words] [12.5 Marks] [2015]

Q.14) Drought has been recognized as a disaster in view of its spatial expanse, temporal duration, slow onset and lasting effects on vulnerable sections. With a focus on the September 2010 guidelines from the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA), discuss the mechanisms for preparedness to deal with likely El Nino and La Nina fall outs in India. [200 Words] [12.5 Marks] [2014]

Q.15) How important are vulnerability and risk assessment for pre-disaster management? As an administrator, what are key areas that you would focus on in a Disaster Management System? [200 Words] [10 Marks] [2013]

Trends of Disaster Management PYQs For UPSC Mains

In 2023, one question was asked on dam failures. In 2022 only one question from the section related to the mechanism of cloudburst and causes and effects of coastal erosion in India was asked. In 2021,  two questions were asked from disaster management from National Landslide Risk Management Strategy and earthquake related hazards. In the year 2020  one question was asked on the governmental measures for disaster management . In 2019 two questions were raised from the hazard zonation mapping and vulnerability types related to disasters.

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Natural Hazards and Disasters

Last updated on April 7, 2024 by ClearIAS Team

Hazards and Disasters

Lives and property can be protected by releasing precise forecasts and warnings in a simple-to-understand manner and by educating people on how to prepare for such hazards before they become disasters.

Since the beginning of civilization, man has been subject to natural hazards and disasters. However, the world has been undergoing a variety of changes, both slow and catastrophic. To investigate Natural Hazards and Disasters and strategies to deal with them in-depth, it is important to learn some basic concepts.

Table of Contents

Changes that affect humans adversely are called hazards.

A natural disaster pertains to a natural phenomenon that occurs in proximity and poses a threat to people, structures, and economic assets caused by biological, geological, seismic, hydrological, or meteorological conditions or processes in the natural environment.

As per the Disaster Preparedness Training Manual, Philippine National Red Cross 1954, hazards are defined as “phenomena that pose a threat to people, structures or economic assets and which may cause a disaster. They could be either manmade or naturally occurring in our environment.”

Types of Hazards

Hazards are generally categorized according to their causes, mitigation strategies, or effects on societies. We will limit the classification of disasters to those that are based on their causes only.

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Types of Hazards depending upon their causes

Hazards are classified as either natural or man-made. Socio-natural hazards are the third category of hazards that are brought on by both man and nature.

Natural Hazards

These are brought on by natural causes, and man has no control over them. The primary example of natural hazards are as follows:

  • Earthquakes
  • Volcanic eruptions
  • Cyclonic storms
  • Floods Droughts

Man-made Hazards

These are caused by the undesirable activities of man. Such hazards include:

  • Leakage of toxic waste.
  • Pollution of air , water, and land Dam failures
  • War and Civil Strife Terrorism

Socio-natural Hazards

These are the result of a combined force of both human misconduct and natural forces.

For example-

  • the uncontrolled destruction of trees, especially in the river catchment areas, may result in an increase in the frequency and severity of floods and droughts.
  • The risk of storm surges increases due to mangrove loss.
  • Although landslides are normally caused by natural forces, yet, they can be triggered and their frequency and impact can be increased because of building roads in mountainous regions, excavating tunnels, and engaging in mining and quarrying.

An extreme form of hazard leads to disaster.

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Disaster (French des meaning ‘bad’ and aster meaning ‘star’) is a manmade or natural event that results in widespread loss of life and property.

Thus, disaster is defined as “A serious disruption of the functioning of a society, causing widespread human, material or environmental losses which exceed the ability of the affected society to cope using its own resources.”

Disaster, according to the United Nations, is the occurrence of a sudden or significant catastrophe that impairs a society’s (or community’s) fundamental structure and daily operations.

According to the World Bank, a disaster is an extraordinary, short-lived event that significantly disrupts a nation’s economy. It is an event or a series of events that results in casualties, property damage, or a loss of essential services or sources of livelihood on a scale that is greater than what the affected communities are typically able to handle without assistance.

Hazards and disasters are closely connected and occasionally used interchangeably; a hazard is a threat, whereas a disaster is an event.

Classification of Disaster

Disasters are usually classified on the basis of their origin as-

  • Tectonic occurrence (earthquakes, volcanoes)
  • Topographical occurrence (landslides. avalanches)
  • Meteorological (hurricanes, cyclones, tornadoes , floods, droughts)
  • Infestic (locust invasion of crops, epidemics), and
  • Human (industrial accidents, nuclear bombs).

Vulnerability

The terms like ‘earthquake-prone’, ‘drought-prone’, or ‘flood-prone’ areas are used to describe the distributional effect of the concerned hazards. People who live there are susceptible to a variety of dangers and calamities.

Thus, vulnerability is the extent to which an Individual or a community, or an area is exposed to the impact of a hazard.

According to the National Institute of Disaster Management (formerly National Centre for Disaster Management), the definition of vulnerability is defined as “the extent to which a community, structure, service, or geographic area is likely to be damaged or disturbed by the effect of particular hazards due to either nature, construction, and proximity to hazardous terrain or disaster-prone area.

Natural Hazards and Disasters in India

Because of its subcontinental dimensions, geographical situation, and behavior of the monsoon, India is exposed to various natural hazards and disasters like drought, flood, cyclones, earthquakes, etc year after year.

Four major disasters which adversely affect different parts of the country are drought, flood, cyclone, and earthquake. Only one state (West Bengal), faces all four types of disasters.

It is not uncommon to experience more than one or two types of disasters affecting different parts of the country at the same time. For example, there may be floods in the Brahmaputra Valley, drought in Rajasthan, and cyclonic storms in some coastal areas.

The most alarming aspect is how frequently and violently these hazards and disasters are occurring in various sections of the country.

  • 55% of the total area is in Seismic Zones III-IV and vulnerable to earthquakes.
  • 68% of the net sown area is vulnerable to drought.
  • 40 million hectares of land are vulnerable to floods.
  • 8% of the total land area particularly along the eastern coast and Gujarat coast is vulnerable to tropical cyclones.
  • The sub-Himalayan region and the Western Ghats are vulnerable to landslides.
  • Out of the total 7,516 km long coastline, close to 5,700 km is prone to tropical cyclones and tsunamis.

Yokohama Strategy and International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR)

Yokohama Strategy is a Plan of Action for a Safer World.

World Conference on Natural Disaster Reduction happened in the city of Yokohama from May 23rd-27th 1994.

It recognized that society as a whole has grown more vulnerable to natural catastrophes and that the effect of disasters in terms of human and financial losses has increased recently.

In order to lessen the losses caused by these disasters, the conference established the Yokohama strategy as a guide.

The resolution of the World Conference on Natural Disasters Reduction is as mentioned below:

  • Each country has a sovereign duty to safeguard its people from natural disasters.
  • given top priority to the developing nations, especially the least developed, landlocked nations, and small island developing states
  • Develop and enhance national capabilities, and if necessary, national legislation, for the mitigation, prevention, and preparedness of natural and other disasters.
  • strengthening institutional and human capacity,
  • technology sharing: the collection, dissemination, and utilization of information; and
  • mobilisation of resources

Article Written By: Priti Raj

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Previous Year Questions on Disaster Management for UPSC Mains GS-3

Disaster Management is an important topic in UPSC Mains GS 3 of the Civil Services Examination (CSE.) This article will provide you with a set of Disaster Management Questions asked in the Mains GS 3 of the IAS Exam over the years.

Candidates can get topic-wise GS 3 questions from the links provided in the table below:

For details of UPSC Mains , check the linked article.

GS 3 Disaster Management Questions (Year-Wise)

The tables below will provide Disaster Management questions for UPSC Mains GS 3 from the year 2013-2021. Candidates can refer to the detailed GS 3 Structure, Syllabus and Strategy in the linked article.

  • Discuss about the vulnerability of India to earthquake related hazards. Give examples including the salient features of major disasters caused by earthquakes in different parts of India during the last three decades. (Answer in 150 words)
  • Describe the various causes and the effects of landslides. Mention the important components of the National Landslide Risk Management Strategy. (Answer in 250 words)
  • Discuss the recent measures initiated in disaster management by the Government of India departing from the earlier reactive approach.
  • Vulnerability is an essential element for defining disaster impacts and its threat to people. How and in what ways can vulnerability to disasters be characterized? Discuss different types of vulnerability with reference to disasters.
  • Disaster preparedness is the first step in any disaster management process. Explain how hazard zonation mapping will help disaster mitigation in the case of landslides.
  • Describe various measures taken in India for Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) before and after signing ‘Sendai Framework for DRR (2015-2030)’. How is this framework different from ‘Hyogo Framework for Action, 2005’? (250 Words, 15 Marks)
  • In December 2004, a tsunami brought havoc on 14 countries including India. Discuss the factors responsible for the occurrence of Tsunami and its effects on life and economy. In the light of guidelines of NDMA (2010) describe the mechanisms for preparedness to reduce the risk during such events.
  • With reference to the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) guidelines, discuss the measures to be adopted to mitigate the impact of recent incidents of cloudbursts in many places of Uttarakhand.
  • The frequency of earthquakes appears to have increased in the Indian subcontinent. However, India’s preparedness for mitigating their impact has significant gaps. Discuss various aspects.
  • In 2012, the longitudinal marking of the high-risk areas for piracy was moved from 65° East to 78° east in the Arabian Sea by the International Maritime organisation. What impact does this have on India’s maritime security concerns?
  • Drought has been recognized as a disaster in view of its party expense, temporal duration, slow onset and lasting effect on various vulnerable sections. With a focus on the September 2010 guidelines from the National disaster management authority, discuss the mechanism for preparedness to deal with the El Nino and La Nina fallouts in India.
  • How important is vulnerability and risk assessment for pre-disaster management? As an administrator, what are key areas that you would focus on in a Disaster Management System?

Candidates can get UPSC Previous Year Question Papers from the linked article.

Disaster Management Questions for UPSC Mains GS 3:- Download PDF Here

To get the topic-wise GS 3 questions for UPSC Mains and Subject-Wise questions for UPSC Prelims in one place, check the linked articles below:

  • Topic-wise GS 3 questions for UPSC Mains
  • Topic Wise UPSC Prelims Questions PDF

GS 3 Disaster Management Related Links:

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Essay on Disaster Management

List of essays on disaster management, essay on disaster management – short essay (essay 1 – 150 words), essay on disaster management in india (essay 2 – 250 words), essay on disaster management – for school students (class 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 standard) (essay 3 – 300 words), essay on disaster management (essay 4 – 400 words), essay on disaster management – written in english (essay 5 – 500 words), essay on disaster management (essay 6 – 600 words), essay on disaster management – for college and university students (essay 7 – 750 words), essay on disaster management – long essay for competitive exams like ias, ips, civil services and upsc (essay 8 – 1000 words).

The disaster management is a discipline through which human beings do their very best to limit the feel of the damage caused by disasters. A disaster can sometimes be said to mean a situation that is very catastrophic where the usual pattern in life and the ecosystem is disturbed and there is a need for an emergency intervention to preserve and save lives or the environment.

It is important to note that natural disasters can happen at any time and this means that adequate measures and tools must be put in place to help battle or ease the effects and impact of disasters when they happen.

Audience: The below given essays are exclusively written for school students (Class 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 standard), college and university students. Furthermore, those students preparing for competitive exams like IAS, IPS, Civil Services and UPSC can also increase their knowledge by reading these essays.

‘Disaster Management’ is a must for every country. No country is immune to disasters.

What is meant by Disaster?

Disaster is something that interrupts the normal functioning of a community; it results in a great loss of life and property that cannot be stopped or sorted out immediately. Two main types of disasters are explained below:-

Natural Disasters – These disasters are caused by nature and they are far beyond human control. Earth quakes, floods, hurricanes, tsunami are few examples.

Man-Made Disasters – These disasters are caused by humans either unknowingly or purposefully. Few examples are Fire accidents, nuclear attacks, wars, conflicts etc.,

The Importance of Disaster Management:

Disaster Management is a system or a well-designed plan by which the hazards of a disaster is reduced. It is the effort that the government takes to tackle any unexpected situation. The world has been a victim of many disasters, still it survives because of the efficient disaster management systems that every country possesses.

Conclusion:

Disasters result in damage. Disasters cannot be stopped but disaster management can be strengthened.

A disaster is an intense troubling disturbance in the working of a country and society as it usually affects a large section of the population and causes massive damage. To deal with such disasters there comes in place disaster management. India is a country prone to disasters such as floods and doubts, earthquakes, Tsunamis and landslides happening every year in different parts of the country. In fact, there is no such nation which is protected from disasters.

Disaster Management in India:

National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) is the body under the Ministry of Home Affairs which has been set to deal with the disaster management in India. NDMA was formed on 30 May 2005 under the Disaster Management Act. Its duties are to lay down the policies on the steps required to be taken for disaster management and take suitable measures to help people and Government in times of disaster.

Prevention and Control in Times of Disaster:

Various exercises should be performed in case of a disaster. Disaster Management includes the coordination, direction, and full control, quick evaluation of harm, rebuilding of intensity, media transmission and surface transport, the sending of inquiry and save groups, medicals and para-medicinal groups, water for drinking and food material, setting up of transitory asylums, sanitation and cleanliness ID and reserving of assets, last yet not minimal, upkeep of lawfulness is similarly critical.

However, it must be noted that it is not the responsibility of the Government alone to help people in times of disaster. Every single individual must take a functioning part in disaster management in order to decrease the loss of life and resources.

Introduction:

Chaos, mass death of human beings and livestock, increased crime rate are some of the effects of disasters. Disasters are negative occurrences that lead to widespread panic and fear. They also cripple the society’s ability to respond to its causes.

Disasters can be natural or man-made. In both cases, they can lead to great loss of lives and properties. In extreme cases, there can be a combination of man-made and natural disasters. For instance, armed conflicts and scarcity of food. Therefore, disaster management is necessary to curb or stop immense loss and damage.

Disaster management can be in form of disaster prevention, disaster awareness, and preparation. These concepts shall be considered below.

Disaster Prevention:

Countries all over the world have adopted steps to prevent the widespread of diseases or viruses. These steps include funding of researches for the eradication of natural disasters. Other forms of fundings include food provision, provision of health care amenities etc. The latter is usually employed in economically disadvantaged areas in Africa and the Middle East.

Also, Predictions of possible natural disasters have been made possible by improved scientific researches. For instance, equipment has been developed to adequately detect earthquakes and tsunamis. This has led to growing voices for environmental consciousness. Consciousness in this sense translates to the reduction in all forms of environmental pollution.

Disaster Awareness and Preparation:

Disaster awareness is another way of curbing excesses of widespread epidemics. Members of the public need to be sensitized of the need to keep the peace, de-escalate dangerous situations and to have a safety first approach to every potential disaster.

Management of disaster is aimed at reducing death rates and suffering of a human. When successful management of all these can be attained, the impact of disasters can be mitigated. Hence, the importance of the successful management of disaster cannot be overstated.

Disaster management is often the need of the hour and it is something which people truly need to be proficient in. Owing to the inhumane anthropogenic exploitation of mother earth, the occurrence of natural disaster has increased considerably.

Whenever a calamity occur, it is important to be well prepared for it. There is a science called disaster management which helps in both prevention and mitigation of the calamity.

Can you avert disasters?

Those who practise disaster management are of the opinion that by studying the minor signs and keeping a vigilant watch, we can warn about the disaster and thereby take the right actions.

Not only this, if we start undoing the damage and do our bit to preserve the environment, a lot of natural disasters can be avoided. Disaster management specialists are of the opinion that if we regulate the use, we can cut down on disasters like global warming, flash floods, drought and so on.

The Disaster Management Mitigation:

Even the mitigation steps are taught in thorough details to those who learn the dynamics of disaster management. When you are well versed in this science, you will be equipped with the different ways by which you can handle the mitigation.

Suppose a flood has occurred, knowing how to let the water recede and to keep an eye on the changing climate so as to offer alerts for any repeat floods could be a significant help. Along with this, there are several other ways by which we can negate the effect of a disaster.

Preparedness Factor:

The best use of disaster management has to be the fact that it can help you be prepared for it. Often the finest experts would launch a warning signal and thereby guide people about the right measures to be taken.

However for this to work, it is important to be watchful and vigilant. Sometimes, the calamities can strike without much of a forewarning and this in turn can create even more havoc.

The bottom line as stated by most disaster management experts is to start taking care of the environment which is the key reason for our survival. When you are doing your bit, you will find that nature will take care of its own as well. Of course, some calamities may strike from time to time but we can definitely cut down their instances significantly by nurturing and protecting this unique environment.

The world is faced by disaster, some are severe while some are manageable. Disasters are abrupt accidents that cause massive destruction of life and property including natural calamities. Disasters can either be natural or man-made. These disaster need emergency management to rehabilitate the damage caused. The management is done to contain the damage and to control the hazards of the disaster through a process of disaster management. The process is aimed at preventing disaster and mitigating the inevitable disasters. India is vulnerable to disaster like floods, droughts, landslide and earthquake. The disaster management efforts by Indian government have greatly improved over the years.

The Process of Disaster Management:

The process is divided into four phases of disaster management. The first phase is mitigation whereby the occurrence possibility of a disaster or the adverse effects need to be minimized. The actions include public education on the nature of the disaster and how they can prepare to protect themselves and the structural construction projects. These projects are aimed at minimizing loss of lives and destruction of property by the anticipated disaster.

Preparedness is the second phase of disaster management where the goal is to strengthen readiness to handle emergencies through programs by government. The preparedness is mostly directed towards lifesaving activities. Preparedness involves drafting of plans, developing communication systems, public education and exercises. The third phase is response where the disaster management team enacts the plans to maintain lives and reduce the numbers of affected population. The response is done by providing transport, shelter and food to the affected population. The damage is contained by repairs and temporary solutions are sought e.g., temporary residence for the affected population.

The final phase of disaster management is recovery. This is usually after the disaster has settled and damage has already been done. In recovery, the team tries to restore the livelihood of people and the infrastructure. Recovery is done either short term or long term. The aim is to restore a normal or better livelihood for the affected population. Health safety is emphasized during public education. Recovery phase enables the disaster management to transition into long-term solutions.

Challenges in Disaster Management:

The management of disaster is a challenging process and some deficiencies are encountered. In some countries, the specific hazards and disasters are not clear and so the government is unable to deploy disaster management in an unknown disaster. There is also the aspect of inadequacies when it comes to the technical and framework capability of a nation. Disaster management frameworks require support from the government. Although disaster management process involves public education, there is no aspect of psychological counselling for individuals because of the high population. People tend to suffer post-traumatic stress and psychiatric diseases.

Disaster management is an important activity and it should be adopted by countries in order to prevent the inevitable disasters and reduce the adverse effects of disasters. However, there are limitations of disaster management that reduce the capability of successful implementation of the strategies.

Disaster management is an important issue for modern life in the many populated cities of the world. Discovering the importance of proper disaster management is beneficial for all students who want to major in some aspect of urban planning or public health. The precise protocol for disaster management depends on the source of the disaster and everything you plan and do also depends on this factor.

Disaster Management for Natural Disasters:

One of the most predominant sources of potentially hazardous situations for human life and living are natural disasters, however, most people living in areas that are at risk know the proper disaster management for such situations. Natural disasters can be caused by any natural factor like the rain, or drought and they usually require from the community to prepare in advance for the disaster management. Sometimes no one can prepare for a surprise attack from nature and then the affected people need to improvise in their disaster management, this approach is avoided in all situations except in those that could not be avoided.

Disaster Management for Environmental Emergencies:

Disaster management in environmental emergencies is somewhat different than the previous one. First, of all, because these emergencies are caused by human factors like problems in the industry and transport so the designed disaster management has to be adapted for those situations. The additional factor is the fact that this type of disaster management usually requires the use and disposal of dangerous and poisonous chemicals.

Disaster Management for Complex Emergencies:

Disaster management in complex emergencies often requires the authorities to resolve social issues because of a break down in social order. Such situations can be dangerous for people’s lives because a general state of anarchy could break out and disaster management can become a bloody and vicious affair. Recently disaster management in complex political and social situations strives towards the implementation of weapons and tools that can do less physical harm when they are used and instead cause pain for the recipient.

Disaster Management for Pandemic:

Pandemics create a need for a special type of disaster management because of the presence of virulent microorganisms. Usually, pandemics cause health issues for the general public and they are addressed through medical means and with the aid of doctors. Disaster management in a pandemic should abide by strict protocol because there can be many sources of infection and the entire process would be additionally complicated if the medical workers get infected as well.

Disaster Management for Emergency Management:

All of the above-mentioned situations where disaster management is needed can be resolved by following four simple steps. So, even if we are not trained for a certain type of disaster, we can still get a good idea of what we have to do if such a situation does happen.

The first step is mitigation that is to get rid of the source of the disaster or reduce its impact. Preparedness is the best way and if you know a certain situation could come up make sure you have all that you need to get out of it. One more benefit is to train yourself with the right response for the emergency you are in. Finally, you have to think about recovery and finding ways to help people who might be in a worst position than you.

Disaster management is a complex process and sometimes it needs a lot of preparation, therefore everyone who knows they can end up in such an emergency position better do the smart thing and prepare in advance. The best thing is not to be surprised and to know the right things to do, however sometimes we can end up in a situation that we were not prepared for, that is when we need to keep a cool head, analyze the type of the disaster and follow these simple steps and we can make it out with the least amount of stress.

Disaster management has become very important and necessary in the world we live in today. A disaster can simply be said to be the extreme disruption of the functioning and workings of a habitat which causes varying degrees of environmental, material or human losses that are way more than the capacity and capability of the population that is affected to cope with employing its very own resources. Earthquakes, landslides, cyclones, tsunamis, floods and droughts are all some of the many examples of the disruptions know as disasters.

The disaster management is a discipline through which human beings do their very best to limit the feel of the damage caused by disasters. A disaster can sometimes be said to mean a situation that is very catastrophic where the usual pattern in life and the ecosystem is disturbed and there is a need for an emergency intervention to preserve and save lives or the environment. It is important to note that natural disasters can happen at any time and this means that adequate measures and tools must be put in place to help battle or ease the effects and impact of disasters when they happen.

Types of Disasters:

Basically, disasters are widely divided into two types namely:

1. Natural disasters

2. Manmade disasters

1. Natural Disaster:

This is a natural occurrence or a process that leads to the loss of many lives, causes injuries and other forms of health hazards, leads to the damage and loss of properties, loss of means of livelihood, causes a great damage to the environment and causes serious disruption to economic and social activities. Natural disasters include landslides, earthquakes, hurricanes, volcanic eruptions, blizzards, floods, cyclones and tsunamis.

2. Manmade Disaster:

Another name for the manmade disaster is complex emergency and it is as a result of major events like oil spills, fires, looting, transport accidents, nuclear radiations or explosions, terrorist attacks wars and so many more. Manmade disasters are sometimes the outcome of various technological hazards.

Effects of Disasters:

The indirect or direct impact or effect of disasters is always very dangerous, damaging and destructive. Human lives are lost, infrastructures that are in place are either damaged or destroyed, livestock and plants that are sources of food are destroyed during disasters. The losses and impacts of disasters can be felt for a lot of years and it might take a long period of time to move on from a particular disaster.

The Impacts of the Activities of Human Beings on Disasters (Natural Disasters):

Scientists and researchers have discovered and put forward that urbanisation, industrialisation and modernisation are negatively affecting the environment. As a result of the exploitation of the environment (nature), a lot of natural disasters like landslides and earthquakes are being created and their levels are being increased to a stage where they cause a large amount of loss of properties, animals and most importantly human life. Due to this, we need to take care our environment and take measures to battle global warming and climate change which are primary causes of some natural disasters like flooding and drought.

Disaster Management:

This is a non-stop act of trying to reduce the effect of disasters. Disaster management needs coordinated and collective efforts as just one person can’t do it. Some of the steps that should be taken when a disaster occurs include control and command, coordination, power restoration, quick assessment of the perceived damage, surface transport and telecommunication, the deployment of teams for search and rescue, availability of Para-medical and medical team, provision of food material and good drinking water, making temporary shelters available, hygiene and sanitation identification and the setting aside of resources, most importantly is the total maintenance of the given laws and also order.

The group of people most affected by and most susceptible to disaster are those that are poor. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to always be prepared for disasters and swiftly move into action any time they happen because it is necessary that we give rescue operations and immediate relief that can go a long way in saving a number of human beings and stop further damages to lives and properties as a result of the disaster.

Disaster management has become most of the most important things today as it enables us handle and curtail unforeseen situations effectively and efficiently. We must be ready and well equipped with all of the latest technologies and developments. Even though disaster management and all of its steps and processes can’t help prevent a disaster, they can go a long way to ensure that the effect and impacts of the disaster are not really felt.

Disaster management is the applied science or field of planning proper strategies to minimize the risk of future disasters while making ways to effectively deal with the damages caused by the occurred disasters.

The type of disaster management put into effect largely depends on the type of disaster. Disaster management also varies on other factors, such as direct and indirect impacts of any disaster.

Disaster management covers both natural and man-made disasters. Needless to say, most of the natural disasters occurring today are also an indirect result of human activities.

The natural disasters can be listed as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, cyclones, lightning, drought, floods, and forest fires, etc. The man-made disasters are any electrical, fire, road, or oil-spilling accident that cause demolition. The nuclear explosion, global warming, chemical warfare, etc., also fall under the category of man-made disasters.

Need for Disaster Management:

The disaster management is not just to handle the consequences of a calamity. In fact, disaster management is equally about the prevention of future catastrophe. That is why it becomes essential to first understand the root cause of the problem.

According to the disaster management data, the biggest cause for natural calamities such as the earthquake, floods, cyclones, etc., is deforestation. When trees are cut, the soil is devoid of their roots which are responsible for holding the soil together. The loose soil is less capable of absorbing water and the situation ends up with frequent cases of drought.

Cutting of forests also increases earth’s temperature which leads to global warming. Loose soil is more likely to break down and get washed away by the river waters. Consequently, it gives rise to floods and earthquake, another high priority situation for disaster management.

Man-made disasters are truly a sign of selfishness and instant gratification. Deforestation for the purpose of creating homes and industries reflects the short-sightedness of human race. It is the central point for all the disasters and something that has generated loads of work to do for the disaster management.

Impacts of Disasters on Earth:

Whether natural or man-made, disasters don’t take sides when it comes to destruction. In spite of the desperate efforts by the disaster management organizations, millions of people all over the world, die every year due to one or other calamity.

Thanks to the man-made adversities, the pollution levels of air, water, and soil have reached a whole new level. The humongous natural disasters result in the loss of countless lives. Nations suffer the damages of property, food resources, and falling economies due to various natural disasters.

Apart from the deaths of human beings, forest fires, and cyclones, etc., disasters also cause the killings and extinction of many animal and plant species. Another great factor that leads to extinction of precious fauna is the human activity of poaching and hunting.

In the olden times, the man used to hunt animals for food and protection from heat. But now, it has turned into a selfish, dark business. From whales to elephants, rhinos, and turtles, all kinds of animal species are facing the blow and their numbers are decreasing in a sharp way.

The corals and sea phytoplanktons which play a great role in the air purification of the whole planet are bleaching and shrinking down due to the polluting activities of human beings.

Role of Disaster Management:

Disaster management is specialized in dealing with all sorts of damages. If we look at the past incidents, disaster management has been an indispensable factor in tackling with the detrimental effects of Hiroshima Nagasaki bomb blasts. The 1986 Chernobyl accident in Russia is still under the disaster management process.

In India, disaster management got into action on multiple occasions. Whether it was an earthquake in Gujarat, the cyclone in Orissa, the floods in Maharashtra, Bhopal gas tragedy, and several other incidents as we recall, time and again, we have relied on the workings and aids of disaster management to overcome the wounding situations.

Indian Agencies for Disaster Management:

In India, on 23 December 2005, the Rajya Sabha passed the Disaster Management Act, 2005. The same Disaster Management act was approved and passed on 12 December 2005 by the Lok Sabha. Not much later, i.e., on 9 January 2006, the Disaster Management Act, 2005, got the permission of The President of India and became valid all over the country.

In addition to that, we also have a National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) in India. National Disaster Management Authority is an agency of the Ministry of Home Affairs. Its main objective is to regulate the actions and aids to natural or man-made disasters. The same agency also works for the capacity-building in disaster resiliency and tackling of the crisis.

National Disaster Framework, in India, is another approach to effective disaster management. Its function is to incorporate institutional mechanisms, disaster prevention plan, an early warning system, readiness and response, and human resource development.

The other disaster management agencies in India are National Remote Sensing Centre (NRSC), Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), and Central Water Commission (CWC), etc. We also have an exclusive funding system called the National Disaster Management Fund (NDMF) for the disaster mitigation purpose.

Our Individual Role in Disaster Management:

Contribution toward disaster management is every individual’s responsibility. It is not a mere task and business of an agency. Disasters happen to leave an impact on our daily lives and turn it upside down. It is just a pity excuse to say that we as individuals have whatsoever no reason to be concerned with the disaster management.

On the surface, it looks quite insignificant but every little step of a person, such as planting trees, living a healthy life, and making the earth greener, can prove to be really helpful in disaster management.

After all, it is we together that have caused the various calamities. For most parts, even natural disasters are the results of man-made activities which give rise to the need for disaster management.

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National Institute of Disaster Management

  • August 27, 2021
  • Posted by: OptimizeIAS Team
  • Category: DPN Topics

Subject – Disaster Management

  • The National Institute of Disaster Management (NIDM) is one of the pioneer institutes under the Union Ministry of Home Affairs .
  • It has been mandated to promote capacity building interventions in Disaster Risk Management (DRM).
  • The Institute owes its origin in 1995 when a National Centre for Disaster Management (NCDM) was set up within Indian Institute of Public Administration (IIPA) by the Ministry of Agriculture & Cooperatives .
  • Following the transfer the subject of disaster management from the Ministry of Agriculture to the Ministry of Home Affairs, the NCDM was delinked from the IIPA and rechristened as the ‘National Institute of Disaster Management (NIDM)’ under the Ministry of Home Affairs.
  • The NIDM acquired a statutory status after the promulgation of Disaster Management Act in 2005.
  • The prime mandates of the NIDM under the Act are: training, capacity building, research, documentation and policy advocacy on disaster management.

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