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A Guide to Preparing an International Business Plan

By: FITT Team

business analyst plan international

An international business plan acts as a framework that identifies goals and objectives, specific target markets and clients, resources required and strategies to be developed in pursuit of international business opportunities. The plan allows for the monitoring of progress via metrics against which success and failure can be measured. A comprehensive international business plan will be comprised of a number of integrated strategies related to business functions, including communications, sales and marketing, finance and production.

What Is an International Business Plan?

An international business plan is a valuable management tool that describes who a business is, what it plans to achieve and how it plans to overcome risks and provide anticipated returns. It can be used for a wide variety of purposes, such as to:

  • Set goals and objectives for the organization’s performance.
  • Provide a basis for evaluating and controlling the organization’s performance.
  • Communicate an organization’s message to managers and staff, outside directors, suppliers, lenders and potential investors.
  • Help the planner identify the cash needs of the business.
  • Provide benchmarks against which to compare the progress and performance of the business over time.

A comprehensive and detailed plan forces the planner to look at an organization’s operations and re-evaluate the assumptions on which the business was founded. In doing so, strengths and weaknesses can be identified.

Although highly dependent on the individual business case, on average it takes a three-year commitment to establish a successful presence in a foreign market. This process may require tremendous human, technical and financial resources during the developmental period.

International Market Entry Strategies Couse Banner

The Planning Process

An international business plan is subject to repeated adjustment and revision to keep it current with the changing circumstances of the organization. The plan is a feedback mechanism through which new information is continually incorporated into the organization’s operations. Planning always precedes action. Therefore, planning must be thought of as a continuous cycle. The analytical tools presented here are not intended to be used just once. If they are to be useful, they should be used repeatedly as part of a process of improvement and incremental adjustment.

Plan Preparation Guidelines

These 7 guidelines will help in preparing a comprehensive international business plan:

  • Clearly define the objectives for producing the plan : Who is going to read the plan, and what will they need to do? These objectives can help you decide how much emphasis to put on various sections.
  • Allocate sufficient time and resources to thoroughly research the plan : A plan is only as good as the research that went into producing it.
  • Show drafts of the plan to others : It can be very useful to obtain feedback from others, both inside and outside the business.
  • Create an original plan that is done specifically for each business case : A common mistake entrepreneurs make is to borrow heavily from a sample plan and simply change the names and some of the numbers. There are two big problems with this approach. First , the emphasis placed on various sections of the plan must reflect what is important to the particular business in question. Second , a good plan should flow like a story, with the sections working together to demonstrate why the business will succeed. Plans that borrow too heavily from other plans tend to be disjointed, with some sections contradicting others and various key issues left unaddressed.
  • Outline the key points in each section before the writing starts : These points must then be reviewed to ensure the sections are consistent with each other, there is little duplication and all key issues have been addressed.
  • Ensure financial projections are believable : For many readers, the financial section is the most important part of the plan because it identifies the financing needs and shows the profit potential of the business. In addition, a good financial plan will give the reader confidence that the author really understands the business.
  • Consider writing the executive summary as the last step in the process: It is usually easier to provide a concise overview after the detailed content has been created.
If you’re having trouble getting started with your business plan, try writing like it’s a series of tweets—one for every section of your business plan. To get your point across, 140 characters is all you need.

Forcing yourself to boil each section of your business plan down to one main point is an exercise in decision making and strategy all in itself. When you’re done, you’ll have everything you need to take your next step, whether that’s practicing your pitch to potential investors or a business partner, or sitting down to expand each tweet into a full section of a more traditional business plan.

Core Content

The international business plan is the culmination of all of the work done to determine the appropriate venture for the organization’s growth. As part of the feasibility process, the organization will have determined its own internal readiness, conducted comprehensive target market research and carefully analyzed any relevant risks.

Feasibility of International Trade Couse Banner

At this point, the organization can take all of this information and analysis and formally document the plan for moving forward. There are many different models and examples of how to put together a formal business plan, rather than one correct way.

The right format will depend on the organization, the venture being pursued and who will be accessing the business plan and for what purpose. However, there are some basic guidelines to follow.

One of the reasons business plans are developed is to convince investors and/or bankers to invest in the venture.

Increasingly, they are looking for a business plan to include two sections: one relating to online strategy (in terms of e-marketing, social media and ROI) and the second relating to corporate social responsibility (including quality, health, safety and environment policies).

The inclusion of these topics gives more credibility to the company by demonstrating its commitment to the community and to employees’ well-being.

Table 3.1 nternational Business Plan Content

Telling a Story 

One trend in business planning is to use a narrative structure in the document, rather than traditional technical writing techniques. Storytelling techniques are increasingly being used throughout the business world to create personal and organizational brands, deliver marketing messages and develop persuasive plans.

Stories make presentations better. Stories make ideas stick. Stories help us persuade. Savvy leaders tell stories to inspire us, motivate us. That’s why so many politicians tell stories in their speeches. They realize that “what you say” is often moot compared to “how you say it.

Instead of using bulleted points and cold, technical language, organizations employ a “beginning, middle and end” narrative style. This engages the audience by establishing the context, describing the conflict or obstacles and arriving at a successful resolution.

The Executive Summary

Usually the last step of preparing the international business plan is to develop the executive summary, a short overview of what the plan proposes to accomplish. For some purposes, a one-page business plan can also be useful.

There is not a great deal of difference between an executive summary and a one-page business plan. The most significant distinction is the one-page plan must completely fit on one page in a readable font, while an executive summary may spread over two or three pages.

One-Page Business Plan

There is a trend towards the one-page business plan, especially if the plan is to be presented to potential partners for their consideration. Audiences for the one-page plan will be looking for a “quick hit”: a clear and concise description of what the opportunity is and how it is being pursued.

For example, a one-page business plan might include the following topics, as described in Noah Parson’s article “How to Write a One-Page Business Plan” on the website Bplans :

  • Customer problem/opportunity
  • Your solution/approach
  • Business model (how you make money)
  • Target market (who is the customer and how many are there)
  • Competitive advantage
  • Management team
  • Financial summary
  • Funding required

The one-page plan (or the executive summary, if used in place of the one-page plan) may provide the first impression the audience has of the business. This is the most important document generated out of the business planning process, and significant effort and care should be taken in its creation.

There are many websites the provide blank samples of one-page business plans, including Bplans , the GoForth Institute and

A Note on Strategic Plans

A strategic plan covers many of the same points as a business plan. However, a strategic plan sets out the detailed action plan to be followed to achieve the objectives of the international business plan.

It must outline specific activities, their due dates and who is responsible for each activity. It is a project plan with a critical path. A strategic plan ensures any venture is carried out in a coordinated, informed and systematic way.

A key consideration in action planning is how quickly to enter the market, which is driven by the chosen market entry strategy. If market entry is done too quickly, the potential for costly mistakes increases. However, if it is completed too slowly, opportunities may be missed and competitors will have more time to react.

The Planning Cycle

Attaching the word “cycle” to planning implies that it happens more than once. International business plans need to be reviewed periodically because new information that has an impact on both planning and operations is continually coming in.

All plans, including international business plans and strategic plans, need to be reviewed every time there is a major event impacting the business, such as civil unrest, a currency fluctuation or the presence of a new competitor.

About the author

business analyst plan international

Author: FITT Team

The Forum for International Trade Training (FITT) is the standards, certification and training body dedicated to providing international business training, resources and professional certification to individuals and businesses. Created by business for business, FITT’s international business training solutions are the standard of excellence for global trade professionals around the world. View all posts by FITT Team

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Craft Your International Business Plan: A How-To Guide

Business Plan

Are you ready to take your business across borders? International expansion is a great way for businesses to grow and succeed in new markets. But before you dive into an international market, there are specific steps you need to consider: crafting a strategic plan. Whether it’s determining the competitive landscape of a target country or understanding local customs and regulations, an effective international business plan can lay the foundation for long-term success while also providing guidance on how best to allocate resources and manage risks. But where should one begin? Let’s dive into it!

business analyst plan international

Analyze Potential Markets

In today’s global market, expanding your business into new markets can open up a world of opportunities for ecommerce revenue growth. To get ecommerce revenue from new markets , the first step is to analyze potential markets. This involves conducting market research to identify which countries or regions hold the greatest potential for your business. You can start by looking at demographic data, economic trends, and consumer behavior in different parts of the world.

Of course, you should also delve into the market-specific data. Analyzing the competitive landscape and potential barriers to entry is sure to determine which markets are most viable for your business. Additionally, understanding cultural differences and local customs can give you insight into how your product or service may be received in a new market. Businesses can now expand their reach and increase their revenue streams in ways they never thought possible.

Set Clear Goals and Objectives

Once you have identified potential markets, it’s time to set clear goals and objectives for your international expansion. These goals should align with your overall business strategy and take into account the resources needed to enter a new market successfully.

Do you want to increase brand awareness, generate more revenue, or establish partnerships in a particular region? Or maybe you want to expand into a new market to diversify your customer base and reduce risk. Whatever the reason may be, setting clear and measurable goals can guide your decision-making process and ensure that your international business plan is aligned with your long-term vision.

Develop A Robust Strategy

With potential markets and goals in mind, you need to develop a robust strategy for entering the international market. But how do you know which strategy will work best for your business?

Direct Exporting

Direct exporting involves selling your products or services directly into the international market. This approach can be a low-cost way to test the waters and gain valuable information about overseas markets without the commitment of setting up a physical presence. However, it does require careful planning and research. Consider your product’s suitability for the market, the logistics of shipping and delivery, legal and regulatory requirements, and how you’ll handle customer service.

Licensing and Franchising

If you prefer a more hands-off approach, licensing and franchising can be viable options. Licensing involves granting another company the rights to use your intellectual property, such as trademarks or patents, in exchange for royalties or fees. Franchising is similar but typically involves a more comprehensive arrangement where the franchisee follows your established business model and brand guidelines.

Joint Ventures and Strategic Alliances

Collaborating with a local business through joint ventures or strategic alliances can also be an effective way to enter a new market. This approach allows you to benefit from the other company’s expertise and established networks while sharing the risks and costs associated with entering a new market.

Mergers and Acquisitions

For businesses looking to make a big splash in the international market, mergers and acquisitions can provide a quick way to gain market share, access new technologies or products, and expand your customer base. These transactions require significant financial resources and due diligence to ensure compatibility and avoid potential risks.

Identify The Resources You Need

No matter which strategy you choose, entering the international market requires a significant investment of time, money, and resources. It’s essential to identify what you need to make your international expansion a success.

Consider the staffing and expertise needed to manage operations in a different country. Will you need to hire local employees? If so, do you understand labor laws and cultural norms for managing a workforce in that country? Will you need to partner with local vendors or suppliers? How will you handle language barriers and cultural differences? It’s also crucial to assess your financial resources and determine how much capital you’ll need for market research, legal expenses, marketing efforts, and other related costs. Secure funding or explore financing options early on to avoid delays in your expansion plans.

Consider Different Countries or Regions

As businesses expand globally, you must first understand the unique culture, customs, and laws of different countries or regions to effectively reach and connect with their target audience. For example, did you know that in Japan, it’s considered impolite to loudly slurp noodles? Or that in China, the color red symbolizes good luck and happiness? Or that in Germany, punctuality is highly valued?

When you consider the cultural nuances and preferences of your target market, you can tailor your marketing strategies, product offerings, and overall business approach to resonate with local consumers. This can go a long way in building trust and brand loyalty in the global marketplace.

Decide How You Will Marke Yourself Abroad

Now that you have a clear understanding of your target market and their cultural preferences, it’s time to decide how you will promote and market your business abroad. This can include tactics such as translating your website and marketing materials into the local language, partnering with local influencers or businesses, and utilizing social media platforms popular in that region.

Even consider any legal or regulatory requirements for advertising and marketing in the target market. In certain countries, there may be restrictions on certain types of advertising or requirements for labeling and packaging. Other countries may have specific rules for online advertising and data collection.

business analyst plan international

Venturing into the international arena can be a game-changer for your business, opening up new avenues of growth and diversification. The journey, however, is paved with its unique set of challenges and complexities.

A strategically crafted international business plan acts as the compass guiding you toward success. It entails rigorous market analysis, clear goal-setting, robust strategic development, resource identification, cultural understanding, and effective marketing. Such a plan ensures that your business meets the needs and expectations of your new customers, stands tall amidst global competition, and reaps the rewards of global expansion. Get ready to embrace an exciting journey filled with opportunities, learning, and growth. Now that you have a step-by-step guide in hand, the world is truly your oyster!

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Do you want to establish consistency so your business analysis team can reach optimal productivity?

The best way to ensure program or project success is to standardize methodologies and processes.

Discover how you can leverage business analysis best practices to deliver ongoing value for your organization.

Learn how you can achieve better business outcomes at the strategic, tactical, and operational levels.

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IIBA Global Business Analysis Core Standard

This publication summarizes the foundational concepts of business analysis found in A Guide to the Business Analysis Body of Knowledge® (BABOK® Guide) , the globally recognized standard for the practice of business analysis. The Core Standard covers:

  • Business Analysis Key Concepts - a foundation for understanding and applying business analysis to deliver ongoing value to an organization
  • Business Analysis Knowledge Areas - focus on specific business analysis tasks performed to achieve better business outcomes at the strategic, tactical, and operational level

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International Institute of Business Analysis™ (IIBA®) is a professional association dedicated to supporting business analysis professionals deliver better business outcomes. IIBA connects almost 30,000 Members, over 100 Chapters, and more than 500 training, academic, and corporate partners around the world. As the global voice of the business analysis community, IIBA supports recognition of the profession, networking and community engagement, standards and resource development, and comprehensive certification programs.

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International Business Plan (A Practical Guide for Companies and Professionals) - Ebook Format

Table of contents, description, plan de internacionalización, international business plan pdf.

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Introduction & Guidance To Business Analysis Planning and Monitoring

business analysis planning and monitoring

More often than not, the outcome of the business analysis project is directly dependent on proper planning.

The business analysis planning and monitoring activity lays out the groundwork necessary for the successful completion of the whole project.

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Monitoring also plays a key role in evaluating the business analysis work during the project. Detailed planning and close monitoring are essential for delivering the desired outcomes.

Table of Contents

Introduction – business planning and monitoring.

They determine how changes are requested and analysed and determine the right approach that will satisfy the need of the organisation. 

Also, they evaluate how business analysis performance has contributed to the implementation of the solution . As for the stakeholders , the BA’s job is to analyse their needs and characteristics to ensure proper planning and monitoring. 

Furthermore, at this stage, they need to conduct performance analysis so the planned activities will deliver a satisfying value to the business. 

All of this would not be possible without ensuring a complete understanding of the organisational context and developing the right analysis approach.

The BABOK guide includes five tasks that BAs should perform as a part of the business analysis planning and monitoring knowledge area. 

These tasks focus on organising and coordinating analysts and stakeholders, planning the approach to specific parts of a project, and defining the roles. They should produce outputs that can serve as a foundation for tasks in other knowledge areas.  We’ll take a closer look at all five of these tasks.

Plan Business Analysis Approach

The plan business analysis approach task defines and creates methods that will be used while performing business analysis activities.

The outputs produced here are a groundwork for the tasks form all of the other knowledge areas. It determines the timeline of the projects, what and when will be performed, and which deliverables are expected.

Also, planning the business analysis approach identifies suitable techniques and tools which will be used over the course of the project.

Some organisations already have established and formalised procedures and approaches and the analyst will have to work within these standards.  Of course, this doesn’t necessarily mean that some of these approaches won’t have to be adjusted as the project progresses.

In organisations without set procedures, the BA will work with stakeholders to devise the most suitable approach.

The main inputs of planning a business analysis approach are the needs of a specific organisation – problems or opportunities that the organisation is facing.

The business analyst must have a full understanding of the organisational needs as he starts the planning and be aware that those needs may change during the project. 

The expected output of this task is to define the business analysis activities and approach necessary for achieving the desired goals, determine work timeline and sequencing, decide on techniques to be used, and determine expected deliverables.

Plan Stakeholder Engagement

Planning the stakeholder engagemen t includes establishing and maintaining a fruitful collaboration with stakeholders, understanding their roles and relevance, and identifying their needs. To communicate in the best possible way, the business analyst must perform a thorough analysis of all of the crucial stakeholders and their characteristics.

The more stakeholders are involved, the more complex the task becomes, the inclusion of every new stakeholder may require the use of a different technique or the adjustment to the existing approach.

Similar to the previous task the main input of planning the stakeholder engagement is the organisational need. If the analyst has an understanding of the needs, proper identification of key stakeholders will be much easier. Another significant input is the overall business analysis approach as it ensures better stakeholder analysis and communication.

Planning stakeholder engagement should provide a stakeholder engagement approach as an output, containing information on the number of stakeholders, their characteristics, roles, and assignments.

The main elements of the task of planning stakeholder engagement are:

  • Performing stakeholders analysis – identifying roles, attitudes, decision-making authority, level of power or influence;
  • Defining stakeholder collaboration;
  • Stakeholder communication needs.

Guidelines and tools that a business analyst will lean on while planning stakeholder engagement are business analysis performance assessment, change strategy, and current state description.

The key stakeholders for this task are customers, domains subject matter expert, end-user, project manager, regulator, sponsor, and supplier.

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Plan Business Analysis Governance

To plan business analysis governance is to define business analysis components that will serve as a support of governing function in an organisation. It’s defining how decisions are made on all aspects of the business, including designs, requirements, reviews, changes, and prioritisation.

For the organisation to function properly, the process of governance should be clear and unambiguous. All of the decision-makers and their competencies must be clearly identified. Also, the information needed to make the decision should be precisely defined.

The primary inputs in planning business analysis governance are business analysis approach which ensures consistency in planning and stakeholder engagement approach which provides information on stakeholders, their characteristics, needs, and roles.

When performed in the right way the planning of business analysis governance should provide an output of governance approach which contains information on decision making stakeholders and their authority and responsibility.

The business analysis governance planning includes the following key elements:

  • Decision making;
  • Change control process;
  • Plan prioritisation approach;
  • Plan for approvals.

Guidelines and tools that will come useful for planning business analysis governance are business analysis performance assessment, business policies, the current state description, and legal/regulatory information.

Stakeholders of significance for business analysis governance planning are domain subject matter expert, project manager, regulator, and sponsor.

Plan Business Analysis Information Management

The role of business analysis information management planning is to define the way information gathered during the business analysis process will be captured, stored, accessed, and integrated with other available information. This includes all information elicited, created, and compiled over the course of the business analysis process.

The amount of information obtained this way can be enormous and proper handling is essential for its future use. All of the information should be optimised and easily accessible for whatever period it is needed.

Business analysis information management planning uses all of the outputs from previous tasks as its input. This includes the business analysis approach, stakeholder engagement approach, and governance approach. The main expected output is the information management approach which defines the state of information upon the completion of the change.

The key elements of planning the business analysis information management task are:

  • Organisation of business analysis information;
  • Level of abstraction;
  • Planning a traceability approach;
  • Planning for requirement reuse;
  • Storage and access;
  • Requirements attributes.

Guidelines and tools used during this task are business analysis performance assessment, business policies, information management tools, and legal/regulatory information.

The main stakeholders with the role to play at this stage are domain subject matter expert, regulator, and sponsor.

Identify Business Analysis Performance Improvements

Identifying business analysis performance improvement s include monitoring and management of business analysis performance in order to ensure the realisation of improvements and securing continuous opportunities.

It’s the assessment of the work that the business analyst has done and serves as a guideline for implementing improvements where needed. This task consists of establishing performance measures, conduction analysis based on those measures, reporting, and identifying potential necessary actions.

The primary inputs are business analysis approach and performance objectives which are the external goals set by an organisation. The output of this task is the business analysis performance assessment. It details puts actual performance against the planned one, identifies potential issues, and proposes solutions.

Identifying business analysis improvements includes a few key elements:

  • Performance analysis;
  • Assessment measures;
  • Analysing the results;
  • Recommending actions for improvement,

The main tool used here is the organisation performance standard including performance metrics or organisational expectations.

For this business analysis planning and monitoring task, the main stakeholders are domain subject matter expert, project manager, and sponsor.

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Business Analysis Approach Template

Having a set of business analysis planning and monitoring templates will help you provide the groundwork for the successful completion of your whole project.

Conclusion – Business Analysis Planning and Monitoring

In all business analysis projects whether waterfall or agile the business analyst will need to understand and review their business analysis planning and monitoring approach to suite the context of their project (and also when they arrived in the project).

This article has provided an introduction to the business analysis planning and monitoring activities necessary for the successful completion of the whole project.

Learn more about the other IIBA business analysis knowledge areas:

Jerry Nicholas

Jerry continues to maintain the site to help aspiring and junior business analysts and taps into the network of experienced professionals to accelerate the professional development of all business analysts. He is a Principal Business Analyst who has over twenty years experience gained in a range of client sizes and sectors including investment banking, retail banking, retail, telecoms and public sector. Jerry has mentored and coached business analyst throughout his career. He is a member of British Computer Society (MBCS), International Institute of Business Analysis (IIBA), Business Agility Institute, Project Management Institute (PMI), Disciplined Agile Consortium and Business Architecture Guild. He has contributed and is acknowledged in the book: Choose Your WoW - A Disciplined Agile Delivery Handbook for Optimising Your Way of Working (WoW).

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International Business Plan Template

International Business Plan Template

What is an International Business Plan?

An international business plan outlines the goals and objectives of a business that is looking to expand into international markets. It is a comprehensive document that outlines the strategy and tactics of a business that is looking to enter into the global marketplace. The international business plan is a critical component of the overall business plan and should be developed in concert with other elements of a business’s overall strategy.

What's included in this International Business Plan template?

  • 3 focus areas
  • 6 objectives

Each focus area has its own objectives, projects, and KPIs to ensure that the strategy is comprehensive and effective.

Who is the International Business Plan template for?

The International Business Plan template is designed for organizations of all sizes and industries who are looking to expand their operations and business into other countries. The template provides a comprehensive framework for businesses to establish effective international business relationships, utilize digital platforms, and recruit qualified international talent. It is a powerful tool that can help businesses develop and grow their international presence.

1. Define clear examples of your focus areas

When creating an international business plan, it is important to define the focus areas that will be addressed. Focus areas are the broad topics that the plan will address, and should be tailored to the specific needs of the business. Examples of focus areas could include establishing effective international business relationships, utilizing digital platforms, and recruiting qualified international talent.

2. Think about the objectives that could fall under that focus area

Objectives are the specific goals that the business wants to achieve within each focus area. Objectives should be tailored to the business’s specific needs and should be achievable and measurable. Examples of objectives could include building an international network, developing international partnerships, creating an online presence, and strengthening online connections.

3. Set measurable targets (KPIs) to tackle the objective

KPIs, or Key Performance Indicators, are measurable targets that help to quantify the success of a project or objective. KPIs should be tailored to the specific objectives of the business and should include an initial measure, a target measure, and a unit of measure. Examples of KPIs could include increasing the number of international advisory board members, increasing the number of website visits, and increasing the number of international hires.

4. Implement related projects to achieve the KPIs

Projects are the specific actions that the business will take to achieve each objective. Projects should be tailored to the specific objectives of the business and should be achievable and measurable. Examples of projects could include creating an international advisory board, establishing strategic alliances, developing an international website, and expanding social media presence.

5. Utilize Cascade Strategy Execution Platform to see faster results from your strategy

Cascade is a powerful strategy execution platform that helps businesses quickly and effectively develop and execute their international business plans. Cascade provides businesses with the tools and insights they need to stay organized and ensure their plans are executed accurately and efficiently. With Cascade, businesses can stay on track and achieve their goals faster than ever before.

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8.5 Scenario Planning and Analysis

Learning objectives.

  • Understand the history and role of scenario planning and analysis.
  • Know the six steps of scenario planning and analysis.
  • Be able to map scenarios in a two-by-two matrix.

The History and Role of Scenario Planning and Analysis

Strategic leaders use the information revealed by the application of PESTEL analysis, global dimensions, and CAGE analysis to uncover what the traditional SWOT framework calls opportunities and threats . A SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) assessment is a strategic-management tool that helps you take stock of an organization’s internal characteristics, or its strengths and weaknesses, such that any action plan builds on what it does well while overcoming or working around weaknesses; the SWOT assessment also helps a company assess external environmental conditions, or opportunities and threats, that favor or threaten an organization’s strategy. In particular, you can use it to evaluate the implications of your industry analysis, both for your focal firm specifically and for the industry in general. However, a SWOT assessment works best with one situation or scenario and provides little direction when you’re uncertain about potential changes to critical features of the scenario. Scenario planning can help in these cases.

Scenario Planning

Scenario planning helps leaders develop a detailed, internally consistent picture of a range of plausible outcomes as an industry evolves over time. You can also incorporate the results of scenario planning into your strategy formulation and implementation. Understanding the PESTEL conditions—as well as the level, pace, and drivers of industry globalization and the CAGE framework—will probably equip you with some insight into the outcomes of certain scenarios. The purpose of scenario planning, however, is to provide a bigger picture—one in which you can see specific trends and uncertainties. Developed in the 1950s at the global petroleum giant Shell, the technique is now regarded as a valuable tool for integrating changes and uncertainties in the external context into overall strategy (Schoemaker, 1991; Schoemaker & van der Heijden, 1992; Schoemaker, 1993). Since September 11, 2001, the use of scenario planning has increased in businesses. Analysis of Bain & Company’s Management Tools and Trends Survey shows that in the post-9/11 period, approximately 70 percent of 8,500 global executives reported that their firms used scenarios, in contrast to a usage rate of less than 50 percent in most of the 1990s (Rigby & Bilodeau, 2007). In addition, scenarios ranked fifteenth in satisfaction levels among the twenty-five management tools that Bain examined in 1993, while it ranked eighth in 2006 (Rigby & Bilodeau, 2007).

Unlike forecasts, scenarios are not straight-line, one-factor projections from present to future. Rather, they are complex, dynamic, interactive stories told from a future perspective. To develop useful scenarios, executives need a rich understanding of their industry along with broad knowledge of the diverse PESTEL and global conditions that are most likely to affect them. The six basic steps in scenario planning are detailed below.

Six Basic Steps of Scenario Planning

  • Step 1. Choose the target issue, scope and time frame that the scenario will explore. The scope will depend on your level of analysis (i.e., industry, subindustry, or strategic group), the stage of planning, and the nature and degree of uncertainty and the rate of change. Generally, four scenarios are developed and summarized in a grid. The four scenarios reflect the extremes of possible worlds. To fully capture critical possibilities and contingencies, it may be desirable to develop a series of scenario sets.
  • Step 2. Brainstorm a set of key drivers and decision factors that influence the scenario. This could include social unrest, shifts in power, regulatory change, market or competitive change, and technology or infrastructure change. Other significant changes in external contexts, like natural disasters, might also be considered.
  • Step 3. Define the two dimensions of greatest uncertainty. (For an example, see Table 8.4 “Developing Scenarios for the Global Credit-Union Industry” .) These two dimensions form the axes of the scenario framework. These axes should represent two dimensions that provide the greatest uncertainty for the industry. For instance, the example on the global credit-union industry identifies changes in the playing field and technology as the two greatest areas of uncertainty up through the year 2005.
  • Step 4. Detail the four quadrants of the scenarios with stories. Describe how the four worlds would look in each scenario. It’s often useful to develop a catchy name for each world as a way to further develop its distinctive character. One of the worlds will likely represent a slightly future version of the status quo, while the others will be significant departures from it. As shown in the credit-union scenarios, Chameleon describes a world in which both the competitive playing field and technology undergo radical change, while Wallet Wars is an environment of intense competition but milder technological change. In contrast, in Technocracy , the radical changes are in technology, whereas in Credit Union Power , credit unions encounter only minor changes on either front. [1]
  • Step 5. Identify indicators that could signal which scenario is unfolding. These can either be trigger points that signal the change is taking place or milestones that mean the change is more likely. An indicator may be a large industry supplier like Microsoft picking up a particular but little-known technological standard.
  • Step 6. Assess the strategic implications of each scenario. Microscenarios may be developed to highlight and address business-unit-specific or industry-segment-specific issues. Consider needed variations in strategies, key success factors, and the development of a flexible, robust strategy that might work across several scenarios.

The process of developing scenarios and then conducting business according to the information that the scenarios reveal makes it easier to identify and challenge questionable assumptions. It also exposes areas of vulnerability (e.g., in a country, an industry, or a company), underscores the interplay of environmental factors and the impact of change, allows for robust planning and contingency preparation, and makes it possible to test and compare strategic options. Scenarios also help firms focus their attention on the trends and uncertainties that are likely to have the greatest potential impact on their future.

Once you’ve determined your target issue, scope, and time frame, you can draw up a list of driving forces that is as complete as possible and is organized into relevant categories (e.g., science-technology, political-economic, regulatory, consumer-social, or industry-market). As you proceed, be sure to identify key driving forces—the ones with the greatest potential to affect the industry, subindustry, or strategic group in which you’re interested.

Trends and Uncertainties

Among the driving forces for change, be sure to distinguish between trends and uncertainties . Trends are forces for change whose direction—and sometimes timing—can be predicted. For example, experts can be reasonably confident in projecting the number of consumers in North America, Europe, and Japan who will be over sixty-five years old in the year 2020 because those people are alive now. If your firm targets these consumers, then the impact of this population growth will be significant to you; you may view it as a key trend. For other trends, you may know the direction but not the pace. China and India, for example, are experiencing a trend of economic growth, and many foreign investments depend on the course of infrastructure development and consumer-spending power in this enormous market. Unfortunately, the future pace of these changes is uncertain.

Did You Know?

In his book Africa Rising , Vijay Mahajan documents how trends surrounding the 900 million African consumers may offer businesses more opportunities than they’re currently taking advantage of:

In contrast, uncertainties —forces for change whose direction and pace are largely unknown—are more important for your scenario. European consumers, for example, tend to distrust the biotechnology industry, and given the number of competing forces at work—industries, academia, consumer groups, regulators, and so on—it is difficult to predict whether the consumers will be more or less receptive to biotechnology products in the future. Labeling regulations, for instance, may be either strengthened or relaxed in response to changing consumer opinion.

You might also want to consider the possibility of significant disruptions—that is, steep changes that have an important and unalterable impact on the business environment. A major disaster—such as the September 11 terrorist attacks—can spur regulatory and other legal reforms with major and lasting impact on certain technologies and competitive practices. Table 8.4 “Developing Scenarios for the Global Credit-Union Industry” provides sample scenarios created for the credit-union industry, providing an idea of how you would do this if asked to apply scenario analysis to another industry setting. As you can see, identifying the entry of new competitors and the impact of technology are the two primary sources of uncertainty about the future.

Table 8.4 Developing Scenarios for the Global Credit-Union Industry

Source: Adapted from “Scenarios for Credit Unions 2010: An Executive Report,” Credit Union Executives Society, 2004, accessed May 10, 2011, .

Key Takeaways

  • Scenario planning was developed in the 1950s by Shell as a tool for integrating changes and uncertainties in the external context into overall strategy. Today it ranks among the top ten management tools in the world in terms of usage. Scenarios are complex, dynamic, interactive stories told from a future perspective. To develop useful scenarios, you need a rich understanding of your industry along with broad knowledge of the diverse PESTEL and global conditions that are most likely to affect them.
  • The six steps in formulating a scenario plan are the following: (1) choose the target issue, scope, and time frame that the scenario will explore; (2) brainstorm a set of key drivers and decision factors that influence the scenario; (3) define the two dimensions of greatest uncertainty; (4) detail the four quadrants of the scenarios with stories about that future; (5) identify indicators that could signal which scenario is unfolding; and (6) assess the strategic implications of each scenario.
  • Considering the distillation of issues and drivers, select two dimensions of change that will serve as the two dimensions of your scenario-planning matrix. You must be able to describe the dimensions as high and low at each extreme.

(AACSB: Reflective Thinking, Analytical Skills)

  • What is scenario planning and analysis?
  • What is the history of scenario planning and analysis?
  • What is the advantage of scenario planning and analysis over SWOT analysis?
  • What are the six steps involved in scenario planning and analysis?
  • What is the difference between uncertainties and trends in scenario planning and analysis?

Mahajan, V., Africa Rising: How 900 Million African Consumers Offer More Than You Think (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2008), xii.

Rigby, D. and Barbara Bilodeau, “A Growing Focus on Preparedness,” Harvard Business Review 85 (July–August 2007).

Schoemaker, P. J. H., “Multiple Scenario Development: Its Conceptual and Behavioral Foundation,” Strategic Management Journal 14, no. 3 (March 1993): 193–213.

Schoemaker, P. J. H., “When and How to Use Scenario Planning: A Heuristic Approach with Illustration,” Journal of Forecasting 10, no. 6 (November 1991): 549–64.

Schoemaker, P. J. H. and Cornelius A. J. M. van der Heijden, “Integrating Scenarios into Strategic Planning at Royal Dutch/Shell,” Planning Review 20, no. 3 (1992): 41–46.

  • Adapted from “Scenarios for Credit Unions 2010: An Executive Report,” Credit Union Executives Society, 2004, accessed May 10, 2011, . ↵

International Business Copyright © 2017 by [Author removed at request of original publisher] is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

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Global expansion strategies: how to take your business to new markets successfully.

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Jason Miller helps influential brands and celebrities create generational wealth with their businesses | CEO, Strategic Advisor Board .

If you’re an entrepreneur who’s ready to take your business ventures from domestic to global, read on to learn about how to research, create financial and strategic plans, and use marketing to get to global success. These are some of the steps I used when breaking into markets with my company, Strategic Advisor Board.

The obvious reason to go global is with access to more people, you will most likely experience revenue growth. But one of the biggest reasons I recommend doing this is due to risk diversification by not relying solely on one market for your business revenue; this is important because of ongoing changes to the economy. According to research, "shareholders do, in fact, reward companies who grow faster outside of the U.S ."

Expanding to new markets can lead to economies of scale and lower production costs due to bulk purchasing and more streamlined production. Your business could also have access to new talent and resources which could lead to more innovation and creativity as well as tapping into local raw materials. Here is how to do it:

Research & Adaptation

I would argue that this is the most important part of the process and maybe the most in-depth of expanding globally because so much of what you find out determines if it’s a smart company decision to make the move. Research your new market to determine whether your product/service will perform well there but also find out tax and regulatory info. You may be exempt from certain taxes if you open your business to new borders.

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Find out if you have a target market in the new area you’re looking at, and if they’d be receptive to your products/services. Make sure you take into account the different cultural aspects that could affect the marketability of your product. Do research on any competitors in the area and figure out what your unique selling proposition is. All this information you’ve gathered will help with making your decision.

Financial Planning

Before you can decide to expand, you need to see if you can afford it. Before creating any sort of budget, find out all the costs associated with expanding. Start with looking at the operational expenses such as infrastructure for office or warehouse spaces and supply chain costs. Supply chain costs can include storage of inventory, or transportation costs of your products to and from manufacturing centers to stores or directly to clients.

Find out if any tariffs or customs fees would affect the profitability of your product. You may want to insure your goods, so look into the costs of doing that as well as how much you should put aside for contingency funds to have on hand for any unforeseen expansion costs.

Strategic Planning

In this part of the process, you will create a roadmap starting with defining clear objectives for your expansion. Then developing a strategy that consists of how to enter the market, including looking into joint ventures, mergers, franchising or partnerships.

Your strategic plan also needs to include adaptive planning. This means you’re flexible in your plan so you can accommodate any unforeseen changes, difficulties or challenges that may occur in the marketplace. Since markets are dynamic and continuously shift, it’s important your strategies adjust as well to include any changing political, economic or cultural conditions. Include these factors in the risk management portion of the plan. Also, include a timeline with realistic expectations of short-term and long-term goals.

Marketing & Talent Management

The marketing strategy you’ve been using domestically may not work globally. It’s a skill to be able to build a consistent brand image while making sure you’re connecting with and being respectful of local market preferences.

One of the best things about having a business operating on a global scale is access to top talent. Hiring the correct talent that goes with your brand’s values and mission is important across all your business locations. That being said, HR policies may be different from domestic HR laws in the workplace. Look into getting work visa support if you need employees to work on international projects.

Global expansion isn’t easy and there’s a lot to consider, but if you’re willing to accept the challenge, there are certain strategies to help you achieve success. Extensive research is the most important to start with. Understand what the new market potential will be like, and find out what the taxes and culture look like. Evaluate how receptive your product will be to locals and what makes it unique. Financial planning is crucial in the early stages and you should assess everything from operational and supply chain costs to insuring your goods. Strategic planning is the roadmap to follow and should include clear objectives, a comprehensive entry strategy, timelines, and adaptive planning. The last steps include using marketing that sits well with locals and hiring top talent to help with the transition. Expanding your company isn’t easy, but if you do your research and plan accordingly, you’ll be on the right track to global success.

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Boeing Declines After CFO Walks Back 2024 Cash-Flow Target (1)

By Siddharth Philip

Siddharth Philip

Boeing Co. scrapped a plan to generate cash again this year and said it will suffer another significant outflow in the current quarter as the embattled planemaker fights on multiple fronts to get production back in order and ramp up deliveries.

The cash burn in the second quarter will be similar or even worse than in the first three months of the year, when Boeing ran through almost $4 billion, Chief Financial Officer Brian West said at a Wolfe Research conference on Thursday. The full year will now be “a use versus generation of cash flow,” he said.

WATCH: Boeing keeps trying to reassure investors. Source: Bloomberg

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Biden’s China Tariffs Are the End of an Era for Cheap Chinese Goods

The president’s move to protect strategic manufacturing sectors from low-cost competition aims to increase jobs, but consumers might not like the costs.

President Biden, sitting at a wooden desk on a stage in the Rose Garden, signing a document with a small group of people standing around him.

By Jim Tankersley

Jim Tankersley has covered the effects of the China Shock on the American economy across several administrations

For the first two decades of the 21st century, many consumer products on America’s store shelves got less expensive . A wave of imports from China and other emerging economies helped push down the cost of video games, T-shirts, dining tables, home appliances and more.

Those imports drove some American factories out of business, and they cost more than a million workers their jobs. Discount stores and online retailers, like Walmart and Amazon, flourished selling low-cost goods made overseas. But voters rebelled. Stung by shuttered factories, cratered industries and prolonged wage stagnation, Americans in 2016 elected a president who vowed to hit back at China on trade. Four years later, they elected another one.

In separate but overlapping efforts, former President Donald J. Trump and President Biden have sought to revive and protect American factories by making it more expensive to buy Chinese goods. They have taxed imports in legacy industries that were hollowed out over the last quarter-century, like clothes and appliances, and newer ones that are struggling to grow amid global competition with China, like solar panels .

Mr. Biden’s decision on Tuesday to codify and escalate tariffs imposed by Mr. Trump made clear that the United States has closed out a decades-long era that embraced trade with China and prized the gains of lower-cost products over the loss of geographically concentrated manufacturing jobs. A single tariff rate embodies that closure: a 100 percent tax on Chinese electric vehicles , which start at less than $10,000 each and have surged into showrooms around the world, but have struggled to crack government barriers to the U.S. market.

Democrats and Republicans once joined forces to engage economically with Beijing, driven by a theory that America would benefit from outsourcing production to countries that could manufacture certain goods more cheaply, in part by paying their workers low wages. Economists knew some American workers would lose their jobs, but they said the economy would gain overall by offering consumers low-cost goods and freeing up companies to invest in higher-value industries where the United States had an innovation advantage.

The parties are now competing to sever those ties. Lawmakers have taken increasingly hard lines on China’s labor practices, intellectual property theft from foreign businesses and generous subsidies for factories that produce far more than Chinese consumers can buy.

It is unclear what new era of policymaking will emerge from those political incentives: Mr. Biden’s brand of strategic industrial policy, Mr. Trump’s retrenchment to a more self-contained domestic economy, or something else entirely.

It is also not clear whether the American public, still reeling from the country’s most rapid burst of inflation in 40 years, will tolerate the pains that could accompany the transition.

“The old consensus has been blown apart, and a new one has not arisen,” said David Autor, an economist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology who helped lead the pioneering research into what has come to be known as the China Shock of the early 2000s, when China’s acceptance into the World Trade Organization helped wipe out manufacturing jobs across the developed world.

But consumers and voters, Mr. Autor cautioned, “can’t have it both ways. You can make a trade-off. All the world is trade-offs. If you want to get to the point where the U.S. maintains and regains leadership in these technological areas, you’re going to have to pay more. And it’s not clear it’ll work.”

Despite their mutual embrace of forms of protectionism, Mr. Biden and Mr. Trump are offering voters contrasting views of how the American economy should engage with China in their rematch election.

Mr. Trump wants to tear down the bridges of commerce between the world’s two largest economies and dramatically restrict trade overall. He has pledged to raise tariffs on all Chinese imports, by revoking the “most favored nation” trade status that Congress voted to bestow on China at the end of the Clinton administration, and ban some Chinese goods entirely. He would impose new taxes on all imports from around the world.

Mr. Trump bluntly asserts China will pay the cost of those tariffs, not consumers, though detailed economic studies contradict him. But Robert Lighthizer, his former trade representative who remains an influential voice in Mr. Trump’s trade discussions, told New York Times reporters late last year that it was worth trading higher consumer prices for increased manufacturing employment.

“There’s a group of people who think that consumption is the end,” Mr. Lighthizer said. “And my view is production is the end, and safe and happy communities are the end. You should be willing to pay a price for that.”

Mr. Biden rejects Mr. Trump’s proposals as too broad and costly. He wants to build a protective fortress around strategic industries like clean energy and semiconductors, using tariffs and other regulations. Mr. Biden is also showering companies in those sectors with billions in government subsidies , including for green-energy technologies through the Inflation Reduction Act .

“Investment must be paired with trade enforcement to make sure the comeback we are seeing in communities around the country is not undercut by a flood of unfairly underpriced exports from China,” Lael Brainard, who directs the White House National Economic Council, said in a speech on Thursday. “We have learned from the past. There can be no second China Shock here in America.”

Many economists who continue to favor less restricted trade with China have criticized both candidates’ plans, and not simply because they risk raising prices for American shoppers. They say Mr. Trump’s and Mr. Biden’s policies could slow economic growth. Cutting off Chinese competition, they say, could force companies and consumers to spend money on artificially expensive domestic goods, instead of on new and innovative products that would create new industries and new jobs.

“We’re going to hurt our productivity by massively overspending on these things,” said R. Glenn Hubbard, a Columbia University economist who led the White House Council of Economic Advisers under former President George W. Bush.

Some Democrats say Mr. Biden’s best hope of building a lasting, successful China trade policy is by spending more, including potentially another round of subsidies for semiconductors and other high-tech manufacturing, and by going further on enforcement. Senator Sherrod Brown, Democrat of Ohio, a career-long China and trade hawk in Congress, has pushed Mr. Biden to ban Chinese electric vehicles outright.

Jennifer Harris, a former Biden aide who now leads the Economy and Society Initiative at the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, has pushed the administration to couple its industrial policy spending with even stricter rules on what the recipients of that money can do with it. She wants stronger mandates for domestic automakers to shift to electric vehicles, for example, and stricter curbs on stock buybacks to force companies receiving government grants, like semiconductor manufacturers, to invest more in research and development.

“This begins the much harder chapter that I think is much less attempted in U.S. history of industrial policy,” Ms. Harris said: “Making industry really prove it out.”

Voters will sour on those efforts, she added, if Mr. Biden’s policies do not help quickly drive down prices of Made-in-the-U.S.A. products. “Americans want it both ways, and they’re going to get grumpy when prices go up,” she said.

Polls show voters are already extremely grumpy about price increases, which are related to supply-chain snarls and government and central bank stimulus as the world emerged from the Covid-19 recession.

Inflation concerns are weighing on Mr. Biden’s re-election chances. Current and former Biden aides are hopeful they will not also discredit Mr. Biden’s economic policy strategy, if he were to win a second term. Persistently higher prices from new tariffs could also hurt Mr. Trump’s approval, if he were to regain the White House.

Those political questions are driving uncertainty about what the new era of China policy will ultimately settle into. Mr. Hubbard would like to see a retreat from protectionism and a re-embrace of what you might call more traditional views of trade policy: enforce global rules, invest heavily in national innovation to retain an edge, and when you do lose industries to a global rival, spend big to retrain the workers who are displaced so they can find new jobs.

He concedes there is little appetite in the American electorate for such a policy. So does Ms. Harris. “The idea that we’re just going to run this movie again, knowing the political fallout that came from the first round, is just complete suicide to me,” she said.

Mr. Autor said that, economically speaking, he would not like to return to the previous era of China trade. He is generally complimentary of Mr. Biden’s industrial efforts, including his China policy, but says the president should “give up” on support for some sectors of the economy where China has driven costs extremely low, like solar cells.

His latest research warns of the economic perils of poorly designed trade policy, but it also explains why presidents might keep pursuing it. In a recent paper, written with several fellow economists, Mr. Autor found that Mr. Trump’s tariff-centered approach did not succeed in bringing many factory jobs back to America.

But, the economists found, the policy seemed to have won Mr. Trump and his party more votes.

Jim Tankersley writes about economic policy at the White House and how it affects the country and the world. He has covered the topic for more than a dozen years in Washington, with a focus on the middle class. More about Jim Tankersley

Inside the Biden Administration

Here’s the latest news and analysis from washington..

War in Ukraine:  President Biden barred Ukraine from firing U.S. weapons into Russia to “avoid World War III.” After a sobering trip to Kyiv, Secretary of State Antony Blinken wants to ease that rule .

Live Nation:  The Justice Department is suing Live Nation Entertainment , the owner of Ticketmaster, asking a court to break up the company over claims it illegally maintained a monopoly in the live entertainment industry.

Relations With Kenya:  During the Kenyan president’s state visit , Biden will designate the East African nation as a “major non-NATO ally.”

Hidden Fees:  Biden’s effort to crack down on “junk fees”  from airlines and credit-card companies is doubling as a war against inflation.

Student Loans:  Biden announced the cancellation of another $7.7 billion in student loans , building on his strategy of chipping away at college debt by tweaking existing programs.

The Ukraine war exposed serious flaws in some of the most sophisticated US weapons systems

  • The Ukraine war exposed problems in US weapons systems. 
  • Precision-guided weapons have been jammed by Russian electronic warfare units. 
  • It's not been able to produce ammo and artillery quickly enough. 

Insider Today

The release of $61 billion in US aid in April was a boost to Ukraine's hard-pressed forces battling the Russian invasion.

But Ukraine isn't the only beneficiary of the deal. Analysts say the US is gaining invaluable insights into the flaws of some of its most important weapons and military production systems.

Since the start of the war in 2022, the US has been Ukraine's single most important ally, providing a total of $107 billion in aid to the Ukrainian government.

From the jamming of missiles to drones and artillery, the US is gaining valuable insights into its weaknesses in the brutal battlefields in east and south Ukraine.

Electronic warfare

One area in which the US has revealed its shortcomings is in electronic warfare. Russia's jamming systems have created major issues with Western precision weaponry, including GMLRS rockets and Excalibur artillery shells, as previously reported by Business Insider.

Russia's electronic warfare units have become increasingly adept at scrambling the GPS navigation systems used to guide the missiles and shells to their targets, sending them off course and rendering them useless.

"The war has revealed that some of the US precision-guided munitions fail in a highly contested electromagnetic environment," Stacie Pettyjohn, a military analyst at the Center for a New American Security, told BI.

In contrast, cheap, off-the-shelf drones have played an enormously important role in Ukraine. The Ukrainian military has used the drones to offset some of the disadvantages in manpower and equipment it faced against Russia. It has used them to surveil enemy positions, guide artillery strikes, and fitted them with grenades or explosives to attack enemy positions.

Ukrainian drones are also susceptible to electronic warfare, but Ukraine has produced technology to evade jamming signals and exploit gaps in Russia's electronic warfare defenses.

The use of drones on the battlefield

Maneuvering, concealing, and supplying troops on battlefields under constant drone surveillance is another conundrum Pentagon experts are grappling with, said Pettyjohn.

According to reports, the Pentagon is rapidly seeking to improve its ability to deploy drones to support troops and take out enemy drones, which military analysts believe will be ubiquitous on the battlefields of the future. At the moment, said Pettyjohn, US army units have only a few, old drones per unit.

Related stories

"One of the key lessons from this conflict is the democratization of precision strike weapons is making the battlefield incredibly lethal," said Pettyjohn.

A shortage in weapons

The Ukraine war has exposed problems not just with the quality of weapons, but with the US' capacity to produce them in the quantity Ukraine needs.

For decades, the US prepared for war against militant groups such as the Taliban in Afghanistan. But the Ukraine war more closely resembles conflicts such as World War I, with two militaries in well-defended positions firing tens of thousands of rounds of artillery a day at each other to wear the opponent down. And the US military is yet to adjust.

In contrast, Russia has placed its economy on a war footing, massively increasing the amount of military equipment it is able to produce and placing Ukraine at a serious disadvantage.

"The biggest problem that the Ukraine war has exposed with American weapons is that the Pentagon simply does not buy enough munitions for a large-scale protracted conflict," said Pettyjohn.

She added that the recent Ukraine aid bill, which also contains billions for US weapons production, doesn't fix the problem.

"This a Band-Aid that doesn't fix the fundamental problem. The Pentagon simply needs to buy more weapons on an annual basis," she said.

During the recent US aid block, Ukraine was being outfired at a rate of 10-1 on parts of the front line. Throughout the war, Ukraine's Western allies struggled to provide enough artillery and ammunition rounds.

But though the war has posed serious conundrums for Pentagon chiefs, it's also shown that many of its weapons systems remain much better than those of its opponents.

US Patriot air defense systems have shielded Ukrainian cities from mass Russian drone and rocket attacks. And though some have been intercepted, HIMARS long-range missiles continue to do devastating damage well behind the Russian front lines. Meanwhile, the Switchblade 600 exploding drone has been an important weapon for Ukraine in targeting Russian artillery batteries and troops, according to reports.

A high cost

A problem with US air defense systems, though, is that the missiles cost much more than the cheap drones they're often being used to shoot down, Pettyjohn said, presenting US military planners with another problem to grapple with.

"Firing expensive missiles at cheap drones and missiles is not a sustainable strategy or one that will enable the United States to prevail in these fights which require endurance," she added.

A core lesson, said Pettyjohn, is that quantity matters as much as quality.

"The US should have learned that mass matters in addition to precision. The US military needs more artillery shells, missiles, and drones than it currently has and an industrial base that can scale production of these critical systems," said Pettyjohn.

Watch: Inside the US Factory making Ukraine's most important ammo

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    A strategically crafted international business plan acts as the compass guiding you toward success. It entails rigorous market analysis, clear goal-setting, robust strategic development, resource identification, cultural understanding, and effective marketing. Such a plan ensures that your business meets the needs and expectations of your new ...

  9. IIBA Global Business Analysis Core Standard

    International Institute of Business Analysis™ (IIBA®) is a professional association dedicated to supporting business analysis professionals deliver better business outcomes. IIBA connects almost 30,000 Members, over 100 Chapters, and more than 500 training, academic, and corporate partners around the world.

  10. A Checklist for Business Analysis Planning

    Use the Universal Business Analysis Planning Checklist as You Plan Your Business Analysis Approach. Every project is a unique, temporary endeavor. The business process management, regulatory compliance and digital transformation projects that business analysts may play a role in all come with different goals, scopes, teams, timelines, budgets dependencies and risks. Though many projects follow


    1.2 External analysis (industry) 1.3 International SWOT analysis 1.4 Preliminary assessment ... The purpose of the International Business Plan to prepare companies and professionals to enter the international market place or to better organize their existing international business activity. The plan will serve as step-by-step guide to lead the ...

  12. Introduction & Guidance To Business Analysis Planning and Monitoring

    The plan business analysis approach task defines and creates methods that will be used while performing business analysis activities. ... International Institute of Business Analysis (IIBA), Business Agility Institute, Project Management Institute (PMI), Disciplined Agile Consortium and Business Architecture Guild. He has contributed and is ...

  13. International Business Plan Template

    The template provides a comprehensive framework for businesses to establish effective international business relationships, utilize digital platforms, and recruit qualified international talent. It is a powerful tool that can help businesses develop and grow their international presence. 1. Define clear examples of your focus areas.

  14. PDF Business Analysis Planning Guide

    According to the International Institute of Business Analysis (IIBA), a business analyst (BA) is anyone who performs business analysis, ... The end result of business analysis planning is a business analysis plan (BAP). The BAP will provide answers to questions such as:

  15. How to Become a Certified Business Analyst

    Organizations like the International Institute of Business Analysis (IIBA) and the Project Management Institute (PMI) offer them. ... Once you complete that, you can take the exam, which does cost a fee, and earn your certification. If you plan to eventually become an IIBA Certified Business Analysis Professional (CBAP), this is also the first ...

  16. What Is a Business Analyst? 2024 Career Guide

    Business analysts are in demand across industries, including finance, healthcare, education, IT, consulting, e-commerce, government, and manufacturing. As a business analyst, you'll have the opportunity to support your organization's success through data-driven insights. In business analytics, every day brings new challenges and new ways to put ...

  17. International Business Analyst jobs

    Experience working as a Retail e-commerce data analyst/business analyst, product analyst, or consultant. Ability to deal with ambiguity in a rapidly changing…. 866 International Business Analyst jobs available on Apply to Business Analyst, Business Systems Analyst, IT Analyst and more!

  18. Business Analysis Global Standards of Practice

    Business Analysis Body of Knowledge (BABOK ®) Guide. The globally recognized standard for the practice of business analysis guiding professionals in their work and adopted by enterprises to achieve better business outcomes. Access the BABOK ® Guide. BABOK ® Guide v3 Errata. A list of corrected errors reported in the BABOK and summary of changes.

  19. 8.5 Scenario Planning and Analysis

    Step 1. Choose the target issue, scope and time frame that the scenario will explore. The scope will depend on your level of analysis (i.e., industry, subindustry, or strategic group), the stage of planning, and the nature and degree of uncertainty and the rate of change. Generally, four scenarios are developed and summarized in a grid.

  20. Business analysis certifications

    Business analysis certifications. Attain a leading business analysis certification and demonstrate that you've met the high standards set by BCS, The Chartered Institute for IT. Over 100,000 professionals worldwide are certified with BCS. Develop your skills to support successful business change programmes.

  21. The Future of Business Analysis: Trends and Predictions for 2024

    In 2024, we anticipate a deeper integration of advanced technologies into the business analysis process. Artificial Intelligence (AI), Machine Learning (ML), and automation are set to play a more ...

  22. BCS International Diploma in Business Analysis

    Learn how to elicit, analyse, validate, define, document and manage requirements. Knowledge based modules - you must pass one of these: Business Analysis Foundation. Demonstrate basic knowledge and understanding of business analysis principles and techniques - most delegates start their journey towards the Diploma with this certificate.

  23. Global Expansion: Take Your Business To New Markets Successfully

    According to research, "shareholders do, in fact, reward companies who grow faster outside of the U.S ." Expanding to new markets can lead to economies of scale and lower production costs due to ...

  24. China teases plan to buy unsold homes to fix property crisis. Markets

    Hong Kong's benchmark Hang Seng Index closed up 1.6%, hitting its highest level since August. The index has rallied nearly 30% from its January low, having entered a bull market earlier this ...

  25. Boeing Declines After CFO Walks Back 2024 Cash-Flow Target (1)

    Boeing Co. scrapped a plan to generate cash again this year and said it will suffer another significant outflow in the current quarter as the embattled planemaker fights on multiple fronts to get production back in order and ramp up deliveries. The cash burn in the second quarter will be similar or even worse than in the first three months of the year, when Boeing ran through almost $4 billion ...

  26. Europe Leaders Readying Plans for $4.3B 'Iron Dome ...

    European countries are preparing to disclose plans for a $4.3 billion Iron Dome-style air and missile defense system, Poland's prime minister has announced. Donald Tusk told the Polish broadcaster ...

  27. About IIBA

    Strong business analysis teams are key to an organization's overall success. This is because skilled analysis teams help organizations create greater business impact by driving better business results. Here are some of the incredible stories program members tell, about what they were able to achieve by implementing IIBA's programs.

  28. 10 colleges as good as the Ivy League—and much cheaper, says ...

    These are the 10 new Ivies with the lowest average net price, according to Department of Education data: 1. University of Florida. 2. University of North Carolina—Chapel Hill. 3. Georgia ...

  29. Biden's China Tariffs Are the End of an Era for Cheap Chinese Goods

    Mr. Biden's decision on Tuesday to codify and escalate tariffs imposed by Mr. Trump made clear that the United States has closed out a decades-long era that embraced trade with China and prized ...

  30. Ukraine War Exposes Flaws in Some of Most ...

    The Ukraine war exposed serious flaws in some of the most sophisticated US weapons systems. Tom Porter. May 17, 2024, 6:56 AM PDT. Ukrainian servicemen load a truck with the FGM-148 Javelin ...