HSC Biology Assignment

HSC Biology Assignment 2021 & 2022

HSC Biology 8th, 6th, 5th, 3rd, 2nd Week Assignment 2021 & 2022 Answer (এইচএসসি জীববিজ্ঞান এসাইনমেন্ট এর সমাধান) is available here. Do you need answers of HSC Biology 8th, 6th, 5th, 3rd, 2nd Week questions? We have answered all the questions of HSC Biology Assignment for 8th, 6th, 5th, 3rd, 2nd Week. This Jib Biggan solution of the Second & Third week will be very useful for the students of HSC. So read the full post to get Biology solution for 8th, 6th, 5th, 3rd, 2nd Week of 11th & 12th class.

HSC Biology Assignment

HSC Biology First Paper and Biology Second Paper Assignment have been published. Five for the first paper and five for the second paper, total of ten biology assignments will be given. Currently, Biology has provided 1st  week assignment for the Biology first paper. 2021 HSC examinees who have Biology compulsory will have to submit the assignments within seven days.

Today we will talk about the solution of the HSC examiner’s biology first paper assignment. I will also provide guidance on how to get the best results by answering the HSC Biology Assignment. So those of us who are HSC candidates for 2021 and who have Biology as a compulsory subject follow us.

HSC Biology 8th Week Assignment 2022

2022 HSC Examiners 8th week Biology Assignment has been published. So all the examinees who have made biology subject compulsory should follow our article. Today we will be answering the HSC 2022 8th week Biology Assignment. The HSC 2022 8th week Biology Assignment is taken from the first chapter. The title of the first chapter is the variety and classification of animals. As part of the HSC 2022 8th week Biology Assignment, the main episodes of the Animal World video will have to be discussed. That is, there is a classification of the fauna and the major episodes need to be discussed in a species-wise manner.

HSC Biology 8th Week Assignment 2022

অ্যাসাইনমেন্ট : প্রাণী শ্রেণিবিন্যাসের ভিত্তি ও প্রাণিজগতের প্রধান পর্বগুলো পর্যালোচনা ।

We will learn a lot from the HSC 2022 8th week Biology Assignment. If I can answer the HSC 2022 8th week Biology Assignment correctly, I will be able to know the classification of animals. I will also learn more about the animals in the Cordata and Non-Cordata episodes. HSC 2022 8th week Biology Assignment To follow a few guidelines to provide answers correctly. Below are the topics that must be mentioned in the answer sheet of HSC 2022 8th week Biology Assignment. The answer sheet should name at least two bases of classification. The names of the nine episodes of the animal kingdom have to be written in English. It is also necessary to mention a total of eighteen identifying features in two of the episodes. Lastly, a total of nine scientific names have to be written in each of the episodes.

HSC Biology 8th Week Assignment 2022 Answer

HSC Biology 8th Week Assignment 2022 Answer

HSC Biology 6th Week Assignment 2021

HSC Biology 6th Week Assignment 2021

HSC Biology 6th Week Assignment 2021 Answer

HSC Biology 6th Week Assignment 2021 Answer

HSC Biology 5th Week Assignment 2021

HSC Biology 5th Week Assignment 2021

HSC Biology 5th Week Assignment 2021 Answer

HSC Biology 5th Week Assignment 2021 Answer

HSC Biology 5th Week Assignment 2022

HSC 2022 5th week Biology Assignment

Assignment: DNA => RNA => প্রোটিন। DNA এর ভৌত গঠন, DNA থেকে RNA তৈরি এবং RNA থেকে প্রোটিন তৈরির প্রক্রিয়া (চিত্রসহ)।

৫ম সপ্তাহের বায়োলজি এই এসাইনমেন্ট টি একাদশ শ্রেণীর (এইচএসসি ২০২২) শিক্ষার্থিদের জন্য। আপনি যদি দ্বাদশ শ্রেণীর (এইচএসসি ২০২১ এর শিক্ষার্থি হয়ে থাকেন তাহলে আপনার জন্য ২০২১ সালের এসাইনমেন্ট নিচে রয়েছে।

HSC Biology 5th Week Assignment 2022 Answer

HSC Biology 5th Week Assignment 2022 Answer

HSC Biology 3rd Week Assignment 2021

HSC Biology 3rd week Assignment has been published. In the biology 3rd week second paper  assignment was given. Where, as the second week assignment the first paper of biology was scheduled. So this is the first assignment of the Biology second paper. Biology is a very important subject for science students. So HSC examinees need to be aware to solve the biology 3rd week assignment.

Because for the result of the HSC 2021 exam, the Biology second paper assignment will be required. So for good results in 2021 HSC exam, the solution of the Biology 3rd week assignment must be appropriate. Now I will talk about the Biology Second Paper 3rd week assignment. So only those students who are 2021 HSC examinees and have biology as a compulsory subject should follow us. Because all the students who have chosen Biology as an optional subject, there is no need to solve the assignment in this subject.

HSC Biology 3rd Week Assignment 2021

অ্যাসাইনমেন্ট: বৈশিষ্ট্যের ভিত্তিতে কর্ডাটা পর্বের প্রাণীসমূহের শ্রেণিবিন্যাসকরণ

In the Biology Second Paper 3rd week Assignment has been selected from the second chapter. The topic of the second chapter is the variety and classification of animals. So understand that today’s assignment will ask questions about different types of animals and their taxonomy. Now I will discuss the work that has been given as a Biology 3rd week assignment.

The task of the HSC Biology 3rd week assignment is to classify the animals of the Chordata episode on the basis of characteristics. We know that there are animals in different parts of the world. Different animals have been divided into different stages based on their characteristics. As for the question of today’s assignment, it has been asked to classify the animals of the Chordata episode. So as part of the HSC Biology 3rd week assignment, we need to create a classification of the animals in the Chordata episode.

HSC Biology 3rd Week Assignment 2021 Answer

biology assignment hsc 2022

HSC Biology Second Paper Assignment Lesson

The topics that we have to read to solve the HSC examiner’s biology second paper assignment will be called the content of today’s assignment. Also, if we can complete the solution of HSC Biology Second Paper Assignment properly, all the things we will know about it will be called the content of that assignment. So HSC Biology Second Paper All the issues that will come up while solving the 3rd week assignment are the content of this assignment.

The contents of the Biology Second Paper Assignment given to the HSC candidates for 2021 are given below. If the Biology Second Paper 3rd week assignment is completed smoothly, students will understand the division of animals into different classes. Also be able to explain the basics and principles of dividing animals into different categories. The biggest part of today’s assignment is the Chordata episode. The main topic of the biology 3rd week assignment is the Chordata episode. The second lesson of the assignment is to be able to classify the animals in the Chordata episode.

How To Make HSC Biology 3rd Week Assignment Solution 

Now I will talk about how to solve the biology 3rd week assignment. So all the students who solve the biology second week assignment, please read my article carefully. We will provide you with some instructions for solving the Biology 3rd week assignment. However, the Assignment Guide provides adequate instructions on how to prepare the answer sheet for the assignment. However, for your convenience, I am writing about how to create an answer sheet to solve the biology 3rd week assignment.

In each of the five rounds, three features should be mentioned without repeating in the schedule prescribed for the 3rd week assignment of Biology. Also, the names of the classes should be mentioned in accordance with the features. If a class does not have a feature blue, it must be specified. Also Features: Explain why a class name is mentioned in line with this. So considering the above factors, if you can write the solution of the Biology 3rd week assignment, it will be possible to achieve very good results.

HSC Biology 2nd Week Assignment 2021

Biology has selected the first paper as the 1st week assignment. The first chapter as a 1st week assignment has been questioned from cell division. The 1st week of the biology first paper has been given the task of the assignment. The model of genetic change as a result of crossing over during meiosis division has been asked to be analyzed. Assignments on a total of three subjects have been provided here.

HSC Biology 2nd Week Assignment 2021

অ্যাসাইনমেন্ট ১: মিয়োসিস বিভাজন এর সময় ক্রসিং ওভার এর ফলে জিনগত পরিবর্তনের মডেল বিশ্লেষণ।

The three topics are meiosis division, time crossing and genetic change. Here it is necessary to analyze the model of genetic change as a result of crossing over during meiosis division. We will discuss later how to analyze this model. So all the students who are looking for the solution of the biology 1st week assignment should follow us.

HSC Biology Assignment Answer

The Image and PDF file are available for the Answer of HSC Biology Assignment 2021.

HSC Biology Assignment 2021 Answer

Get: HSC Assignment Answer

Important to know to Solve the HSC Biology 1st Week Assignment

HSC candidates need to know a number of things to write the solution or answer of the 1st week assignment of Biology first paper. Because assignments have been given to match several subjects. So first of all we have to understand the content of the assignment. You will have to try to solve the assignment later. Therefore, the following are some of the things that you must know to solve the biology first paper 1st week assignment.

What is meiosis cell division? That means we need to gain knowledge about meiosis cell division. What is meant by crossing over? Or at what time is the crossing over? Also how do genetic changes happen? The answers to these questions must first be known. Because if the answers to the above questions are not known, it will not be possible to give the answer of the first letter of biology assignment. So first of all you have to know the answers to the above questions well. Next biology will have to try to solve the 1st week assignment of the first paper.

How to write the Answer of the HSC Biology 1st Assignment?

Solution guidelines for the Biology First Paper 1st week assignment for 2021 HSC Examiners have been provided. Biology must provide solutions or answers to 1st week assignments by following the solution guidelines. Also given some guidelines below that need to be followed to achieve the best results from the Biology First paper 1st week Assignment.

Sixteen cards should be arranged as shown in the assignment guide, where the cards with the same number of homologous chromosomes will face each other. It is also necessary to mention in the answer sheet what will happen in case of meiosis without crossing over. And what will happen in case of meiosis with crossing over should be mentioned in the answer sheet. 

We have shared HSC Biology 2nd & 3rd Week Assignment Answer. As an HSC student, you have gotten very help from our answer. In the future, we will share more assignment answers like HSC Biology 2nd & 3rd Week Assignment.

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11th Week HSC Biology Assignment Answer 2022 PDF

SC 2022 Biology Assignment

HSC 2022 Biology Assignment Answer PDF Publish. Now we are given 11th Week HSC Biology Assignment Answer. Who is searching for a 5th-week HSC Biology Assignment Answer can be here? Now we have given full assignment answers. You know the Bangladesh government Secondary and higher secondary education board all subject taken the assignment. Now publish HSC 2022 11th Week Biology Assignment. Same time we found the Biology assignment answers on this page.

HSC Biology Assignment Answer for the 11th week of 2022 candidate has been published. Today Bangladesh Most popular online portal  Testresultbd.com  Found Biology Assignment. This Week Assignment activities have started for 2022 HSC candidates. The HSC 2022 11th week Biology assignment is now online. 2022 HSC candidates Can be download by the Department of Secondary and Higher Education (DSHE) and answers can be Download by this post.

11th Week HSC Biology Assignment Answer 2022

We Upload the Biology Assignment Answer, candidates can Download their answers from their respective Online web portal We suggest your form our website given high-quality article. Although assignment notice publishes board websites or from the official website. Students can also check their HSC Assignment through the Testresultbd.com Online method. Here we have detailed all these options for the convenience of students. 5the assignment question and answer was published. Full Question Answer is given below.

biology assignment hsc 2022

How to Download 11th Week HSC Biology Assignment Answer 2022

The servers of the websites get uploaded with the 11th Week Biology Assignment after they are declared to the Official Website DSHE.GOV.BD However, any updates in the Assignment Answer are updated here. So, keep checking this page. Education Board of Bangladesh for HSC biology Assignment has introduced the Written System for releasing the HSC 2022 Result. The same system has been continued till 2021 hsc and will continue in the coming years as there is no announcement on changes were made on this by officials as of now. The below-given  5th Week HSC Biology Assignment Answer Pdf.

biology assignment hsc 2022

The Assignment questions in the PDFs accessible here are only for reference purposes and give you just an idea of the and type of questions you can expect in the paper. They are not sure that you can get the same questions in the examinations. So, just consider them for reference and prepare similar questions during the preparation.

Final Word Of HSC 2022 Biology Assignment 

HSC 2022 Biology assignment Download is one of the fastest ways to access the Assignment good marks by the students. This Year board has a separate official website through which students can check their assignment result as it is released on the respective portal. Here we are going to details each and every board detail along with the HSC Assignment Answer checking process from that particular board online.

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HSC 2022 Biology Assignment Answer 14th Week – 1st & 2nd Paper Jib Biggan PDF

HSC 2022 Biology Assignment Answer 14th Week – (1st & 2nd Paper). Here is the new 14th Week Assignment question has been published in March 2022. If you would like to get HSC 2022 Biology Assignment Answer 14th Week for 1st & 2nd Paper Jib Biggan PDF, then you have entered on the right website. We will provide you the HSC candidate biology 1st and 2nd paper assignment and solution via this post.

Directorate of Secondary and Higher Secondary Education authority has published the HSC Candidates Assignment 2022 in March 1, 2022 at  dshe.gov.bd . According to the Assignment notice they have published science group’s Biology assignment for 14th Week. 14th Week Biology HSC Assignment Ans 2022. এইচএসসি ২০২২ জীববিজ্ঞান ১৪শ সপ্তাহের অ্যাসাইনমেন্ট ও উত্তর.

HSC 2022 Biology Assignment Answer 14th Week – 1st & 2nd Paper Jib Biggan PDF

This is the Jib biggan Science Group Assignment question & solution download 2022 for the HSC exam 2022. The solution will provide on our website regularly. We are here to provide the assignment task and its solution correctly for the 14th week. Let’s check the assignment task and solution below this post.

HSC 2022 Assignment 14th Week Answer – PDF Download –All Subjects

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4th HSC Assignment Task for Biology 14th Week 2022

biology assignment hsc 2022

03 Assignment Task for Biology in 11th Week

biology assignment hsc 2022

14th Week Biology Assignment Answer 2022 for HSC Exam 2022

We are working to solve the assignment. So till then students need to wait for the solution from our website. If you have the solution you may also contribute via comment as we can publish it on behalf of your Name and address.

Biology 1st paper 1st assignment solution for 14th week has been published at our website. If you are a student of science group then you should complete the assignment within this week. The answer has given below. let’s note the solution carefully before submitting to your college.

এইচএসসি অ্যাসাইনমেন্ট ২০২২ উত্তর/সমাধান জীববিজ্ঞান ১ম পত্র (অ্যাসাইনমেন্ট ৩) একাদশ সপ্তাহঃ

Solution has provided by www.banglanewsexpress.com

এসাইনমেন্টঃ  মিয়োসিস প্রফেজ-১ এর উপপর্যায় পর্যালোচনাঃ

মিয়োসিস প্রফেজ-১ এর বাইভেলেন্ট সৃষ্ঠির উপপর্যায়টির চিহ্নিত চিত্র অংকন

ভূমিকা: মায়ােসিস- ১ এ ক্রোমােজোম সংখ্যা অর্ধেক হয়ে যায় বলে একে হ্রাসমূলক (reductional) বিভাজনও বলা হয়। মায়ােসিস কোষ বিভাজনে মায়ােসিস- ১ সর্বাপেক্ষা গুরুত্বপূর্ণ। কেননা এ পর্যায়ে ডিপ্লয়েড (2n) কোষের ক্রোমােজোম সংখ্যা হ্রাস পেয়ে অর্ধেক হয় এবং সমসংস্থ (homologous) ক্রোমােজোমের মধ্যে পারস্পরিক অংশের বিনিময় (crossing over) হয়। মায়ােসিস- ১ কে পুনরায় প্রােফেজ- ১, প্রােমেটাফেজ- ১, মেটাফেজ- ১, অ্যানাফেজ-১ ও টেলােফেজ-১ এ ভাগ করা হয়।

প্রােফেজ-১-এ পর্যায়টি দীর্ঘস্থায়ী।

এ পর্যায়ে নিউক্লিয়াসটি আকারে বৃদ্ধি পায় এবং ক্রোমােজোমের DNA এর পরিমাণ প্রায় দ্বিগুণ হয়। এ পর্যায়টিকে পাঁচটি উপ-পর্যায়ে ভাগ করা হয়েছে। যথা (ক) লেন্টোটিন।

(খ) জাইগােটিন

(গ) প্যাকাইটিন

(ঘ) ডিপ্লোটিন এবং

(ঙ) ডায়াকাইনেসিস

১. বাইভেলেন্ট সৃষ্টির উপপর্যায় চিহ্নিত চিত্রসহ ব্যাখ্যাকরণঃ

প্রােফেজ-১ বিভাজনের জাইগােটিন উপপর্যায়ে বাইলেন্ট সৃষ্টি হয়। নিম্নে জাইগােটিন উপপর্যায় চিত্রসহ ব্যাংখ্যা করা হলােঃ

জাইগােটিন উপ-পর্যায়ে সমসংস্থ বা হােমােলােগাস (homologous) ক্রোমােজোমগুলির পরস্পরের মধ্যে আকর্ষণ ঘটে। হােমােলােগাস ক্রোমােজোমদ্বয়ের মধ্যে পরস্পর আকর্ষণের ফলে একটি জোড়ার সৃষ্টি হয়।

হােমােলােগাস ক্রোমােজোমদ্বয়ের একটি মাতা থেকে এবং অন্যটি পিতা’ থেকে আসে। হােমােলােগাস ক্রোমােজোমের এ জোড়া সৃষ্টি ক্রোমােজোমদ্বয়ের এক প্রান্ত হতে আরম্ভ হয়ে অন্য প্রান্তে শেষ হতে পারে, বা সেন্ট্রোমিয়ারদ্বয়ের মধ্যে আরম্ভ হয়ে দুদিকে ক্রমান্বয়ে বিস্তার লাভ করতে পারে, অথবা ক্রোমােজোমের স্থানে স্থানে আরম্ভ হতে পারে।

হােমােলােগাস ক্রোমােজোমদ্বয়ের পরস্পরের সাথে জোড়া সৃ করাকে সিন্যাপসিস (synapsis) বলে। হােমােলােগাস। ক্রোমােজোমের প্রত্যেকটি জোড়াকে এক একটি বাইভেলেন্ট (bivalent) বলে। কাজেই কোষে যতগুলি ক্রোমােজোম থাকবে তার অর্ধেক সংখ্যক বাইভেলেন্ট সৃষ্টি হবে।

নিউক্লিয়ার মেমব্রেন ও নিউক্লিওলাস এ উপ- পর্যায়ে দেখা যায়। গঠনের দিক থেকে একই প্রকার অর্থাৎ আকার, আকৃতি, ক্রোমােমিয়ারের অবস্থান ও সংখ্যা প্রভৃতি দিক একই প্রকার ক্রোমােজোম জোড়াকে সমসংস্থ বা হােমােলােগাস (homologous)। ক্রোমােজোম বলে এবং এদের একটিকে অপরটির হােমােলগ (homologous) বলে।

হােমােলােগাস ক্রোমােজোমের এ জোড়া সৃষ্টি ক্রোমােজোমদ্বয়ের এক প্রান্ত হতে আরম্ভ হয়ে অন্য প্রান্তে শেষ হতে পারে, বা সেন্ট্রোমিয়ারদ্বয়ের মধ্যে আরম্ভ হয়ে দুদিকে ক্রমান্বয়ে বিস্তার লাভ করতে পারে, অথবা ক্রোমােজোমের স্থানে স্থানে আরম্ভ হতে পারে।

HSC 2022 Biology Assignment Answer 11th Week

চিত্রসহ ক্রসিং ওভারের কৌশল ও গুরুত্ব

২. চিত্রসহ ক্রসিং ওভারের কৌশল ও গুরুত্ব ব্যাখ্যাকরণঃ মিয়ােসিস কোষ বিভাজনের প্রােফেজ-১ এর প্যাকাইটিন উপপর্যায়ে হােমােলােগাস ক্রোমােজোমের দুটি ননসিস্টার ক্রোমাটিডের মধ্যে জীনের অংশের বিনিময়কে ক্রসিংওভার (crossing over) বলে।

ক্রসিংওভার যেভাবে নতুন বৈশিষ্ট্য সৃষ্টি করে। মিয়ােসিস কোষ বিভাজনের প্যাকাইটিন উপদশায় ক্রসিংওভারের সময় প্রথমে দুটি নন-সিস্টার ক্রোমাটিড একই স্থান বরাবর ভেঙে যায়। পরে একটির এক অংশের সাথে অপরটির অন্য অংশ পুনরায় জোড়া লাগে। ফলে কায়াজমা সৃষ্টি হয়। শেষ পর্যায়ে প্রান্তীয়করণের মাধ্যমে ক্রোমাটিডের বিনিময় শেষ হয়।

এর ফলে ক্রোমাটিডের মধ্যে অংশের বিনিময় ঘটে, সাথে সাথে জিনেরও বিনিময় ঘটে। জিন-এর বিনিময়ের ফলে চারিত্রিক বৈশিষ্ট্যের বিনিময় হয়, ফলে জীবে নতুন বৈশিষ্ট্য সৃষ্টি হয়। ক্রসিংওভারের কৌশল: প্রথমে দুটি নন সিস্টার ক্রোমাটিড একইস্থান বরাবর ভেঙ্গে যায়।

পরে একটির এক অংশের সাথে অপরটির অন্য অংশ পুনরায় জোড়া লাগে। ফলে কায়েজমা সৃষ্টি হয়। শেষ পর্যায়ে প্রান্তীয়। করণের মাধ্যেমে ক্রোমাটিডের অংশের বিনিময় ঘটে, সাথে সাথে জীনের অংশেরও বিনিময় ঘটে।

biology assignment hsc 2022

ক্রসিং ওভারের গুরুত্ব (Significance of crossing over):

১) ক্রসিং ওভার এর মাধ্যমে প্রমাণিত হয় যে জিনগুলাে ক্রোমােজোমে সরল রেখায় সজ্জিত থাকে।

২) একটি জিনের দুটি অ্যালিল হােমােলােগাস ক্রোমােজোমের একই লােকাসে অবস্থান করে এই তত্ত্বটিও ক্রসিং ওভার পদ্ধতির মাধ্যমে প্রমাণিত হয়।

৩) ক্রসিং ওভার পদ্ধতিতে জিনের পুনঃসংযােজন ঘটে এবং এর ফলে রিকম্বাইন্ড গ্যামেটগুলি মিলিত হয়ে অপত্যের মধ্যে নতুন জিনের প্রকাশ ঘটে। অর্থাৎ, ক্রসিং ওভার এর জন্যই জিন নতুন চারিত্রিক বৈশিষ্ট্যের থেকে অপত্যের চারিত্রিক বৈশিষ্ট্য পৃথক হয়।

মিয়োসিস প্রফেজ-১ এর শেষের দুইটি উপকরণের মধ্যে ছকের মাধ্যমে উপস্থাপন

biology assignment hsc 2022

For the Students of Higher secondary school (HSC) a new assignment has been published. Now, Intermediate students collect the assignment & submission to college. HSC Assignment 2022 need to complete for the students of HSC Batch 2022 a total of 30 assignment for the according DSHE routine in 15 weeks. HSC inter 2nd year biology assignment solution has given above of this post. Every students they can download their 14th week assignment answer from here.

HSC 2022 Biology Assignment Answer (11th Week)

HSC 2022 Biology Assignment Answer:  Directorate of Secondary and Higher Secondary Education is published the HSC Biology Assignment Answer 2022 for 1st and 2nd Paper in PDF file on dshe.gov.bd.

DSHE just published the Week HSC Biology Assignment Question 2022 on the website. Students now can download the pdf file of the assignment from below. In addition, the HSC Assignment 2022 Question, Work, Solutions for the subject of Biology of the 11th week are available at dshe.gov.bd.

Now, the students should contact their respective colleges and submit their assignment to the college. The 11th Week Assignment is published on 7th February 2022. Students should check this article for more details.

Lets Dive it in:

  • 1st Paper Assignment
  • 2nd Paper Assignment

HSC 2022 Biology Assignment Answer

DUE to COVID-19 Corona Virus, The National Curriculum and Textbook Board releases the short syllabus for Biology subjects in the Science Group. Based on that syllabus, the Directorate of Secondary and Higher Secondary Education will publish assignments for biology subjects in the Science Group.

DSHE will publish the biology assignment on 5,8,11,14,17,21,24,26 Week for the HSC Batch 2022.

Students are required to submit Eight assignments for biology subjects (4 is for the 1st Paper, and Four is for the 2nd Paper). Regarding the distribution of marks, DSHE has been assigned 50 marks for the Assignment and 50 marks for the MCQ Test in the HSC Exam 2022.

Read Also- HSC Chemistry Assignment Answer 2022 Students must write their assignment work because the question now carries marks for HSC Exam 2022. According to the DSHE, They will assign the Biology assignments of the Science Group for the HSC Exam 2022 in the coming weeks.

DSHE is published the HSC Biology Assignment Question with Answer 2022 of 1st and 2nd Paper of the 11th Week on dshe.gov.bd. Students now can check the assignment work with solutions for the first week.

HSC Biology 1st Paper Assignment Answer 2022

Dshe.gov.bd (Directorate of Secondary and Higher Secondary Education) website has posted the 1st Paper Assignment question for Biology for the HSC Exam 2022. As a result of the COVID-19 Corona Virus, the National Curriculum and Textbook Board (NCTB) has reduced the length of the Biology 1st Paper syllabus. It is reduced from ten to five chapters. These chapters are: Second (কোষ বিভাজন), Seventh (নগ্নবীজি ও আবৃতিবীজি উদ্ভিদ), Eighth (টিস্যু ও টিস্যুতন্ত্র), Ninth (উদ্ভিদ শরীরতত্ত্ব), Tenth (উদ্ভিদ প্রজনন)। These are the only chapters that DSHE will use to publish the weekly assignment for the biology subjects. DSHE will assign Biology 1st Paper Assignment in the Following Weeks:

HSC Biology Assignment 11th Week Answer (First Paper)

DSHE releases the HSC 11th Week Assignment for Biology Subjects from the Seventh Chapter of the Main Text Book. The Seventh Chapter of Biology is-

The assignment question, learning objectives, writing instructions, and rubrics or assessment criteria are all available online for students to review. Do you need more info? Just read this article.

Class: HSC 1st Year Exam Year: HSC Exam 2022 Subject: Biology Group: Science Paper: 1st Paper Week: 11th Week Assignment Work: মিয়োসিস প্রফেজ-১ এর উপপর্যায় পর্যালোচনা

hsc biology 11th Week Assignment 2022

Assignment Answer:

11th Week HSC Biology Assignment Answer 2022 page 1

HSC Biology Assignment 5th Week Answer (First Paper)

DSHE releases the HSC 5th Week Assignment for Biology Subjects from the Seventh Chapter of the Main Text Book. The Seventh Chapter of Biology is- নগ্নবীজি ও আবৃতিবীজি উদ্ভিদ।

Class: HSC 1st Year Exam Year: HSC Exam 2021 Subject: Biology Group: Science Paper: 1st Paper Week: 5th Week Assignment Work: হাতে-কলমে আবৃতবীজী উদ্ভিদের কতিপয় বৈশিষ্ট্য সম্পর্কে ধারণা গ্রহণ করো

biology assignment hsc 2022

HSC Biology Assignment 2nd Week Answer (1st Paper)

The DSHE is published the 2nd Week Biology Assignment Question from the Second Chapter (কোষ বিভাজন ). The assignment question, learning objectives, instructions on how to write the assignment answer, and rubrics or assessment criteria for the assignment have all been made available online for students to review. Are you looking for more information? Just take a look at this article.

Check Now: HSC Physics Assignment Answer 2021 for the 1st and 2nd Paper of all weeks.

Class: HSC 1st Year Exam Year: HSC Exam 2021 Subject: Biology Group: Science Paper: 1st Paper Assignment Work: মিয়োসিস বিভাজন এর সময় ক্রসিং ওভার এর ফলে জিনগত পরিবর্তন এর মডেল বিশ্লেষণ করতে হবে। 

2nd Week HSC Biology 1st Paper Assignment Question 2021

Instruction to students for writing the Biology 1st Paper Assignment Answer:

১. নিচের চিত্রের মত করে ষোলটি কার্ড বানিয়ে সারিবদ্ধ ভাবে সাজাতে হবে যাতে একই নম্বর বিশিষ্ট হোমোলোগাস ক্রোমোজোম এর কার্ডগুলো মুখোমুখি থাকে। 

২. এখানে প্রতিটি নাম্বার (১-৪) ক্রোমোজোমের এক একটি অবস্থান নির্দেশ করছে।  আর সেই নম্বরের নিচে থাকা কথাটি হলো সেই ক্রোমোজোমের সেই অবস্থানে থাকা জেনেটিক সংকেত কর্তৃক নির্ধারিত বৈশিষ্ট্য। 

বিঃ দ্রঃ ক্রোমোজোমের একটি অবস্থানে থাকা কোন একটি জিন সাধারণত অন্য আরো অনেকগুলো জিনের সাথে মিলে একটি বৈশিষ্ট্য নির্ধারণ করে।  এতে পরিবেশের প্রভাবও রয়েছে।  তবে বোঝার সুবিধার্থে এখানে একটি অবস্থানে একটি বৈশিষ্ট্য থাকে এবং পরিবেশের প্রভাব নগণ্য -এমনটা ধরে নেওয়া হয়েছে।  সহজ করার জন্য এখানে প্রতিটি হোমোলোগাস ক্রোমোজোমের মাত্র চারটি অবস্থান দেখানো হয়েছে। 

ক্রসিং ওভার ব্যতীত  মিয়োসিস হলে কি ঘটে ? 

৩. বাবার দুটি হোমোলোগাস ক্রোমোজোম থেকে যে কোন একটি ক্রোমোজোম একবারে কোন একটি পুংগ্যামেটে যেতে পারে মায়ের স্ত্রী গ্যামেটের ক্ষেত্রেও একই কথা প্রযোজ্য। কোনটি যাবে তারা দৈবচয়নের ভিত্তিতে নির্ধারণ করার জন্য একটি কয়েন টস করতে হবে।  যদি করে তাহলে পিপি ক্রোমোজোমটি পুংগ্যামেটে যাবে বলে ধরে নিতে হবে। অথবা যদি টেইল পড়ে তাহলে পিএম ক্রোমোজোম টি  পুংগ্যামেটে যাবে বলে ধরে নিতে হবে। কোন ক্রোমোজোমটি ‍পুংগ্যামেটে গেলো সেটা মনে রাখতে হবে। 

৪. আবার কয়েন টস করতে হবে।  এবার হেড পড়লে এমপি ক্রোমোজোম টি স্ত্রীগ্যামেটে যাবে বলে ধরে নিতে হবে। অথবা টেইল করলে ক্রোমোজোম টি স্ত্রীগ্যামেটে যাবে যাবে বলে ধরে নিতে হবে। কোন ক্রোমোজোমটি  স্ত্রীগ্যামেটে সেটা মনে রাখতে হবে। 

৫. ২ গ্যামেটে থেকে 3 ও 4 নং ধাপে নির্ধারিত দুটি ক্রোমোজোম একসাথে সন্তানের ডিপ্লয়েড ক্রোমোজোম সেট গঠন করবে । এতে করে পিতা-মাতা হতে সন্তানে কোন কোন বৈশিষ্ট্য সঞ্চারিত হল তা পরের পৃষ্ঠায় উল্লেখিত অ্যাসাইনমেন্টের ছকের নির্ধারিত দুটি ঘরে  রাউন্ড-১ লিখতে হবে। 

৬.  ধাপ নং 3 4 এর পুনরাবৃত্তি করতে হবে এবং ধাপ নং 5 এর মত করে  ফলাফল এবার রাউন্ড-২ দুটি ঘরে  লিখতে হবে।

ক্রসিং ওভার সহ মিয়োসিস হলে কি ঘটে? 

৭. ক্রসিং ওভার আগে ঘটবে,  তারপর যেকোন একটি হোমোলোগাস ক্রোমোজোম গ্যামেটে যাবে। ক্রসিং ওভার ক্রোমোজোমের চারটি অবস্থান এর যেকোনোটিতে ঘটতে পারে। প্রথমে বাবার ক্রোমোজোম জোড়াটি পি পি ও পি এম বিবেচনা করতে হবে পরপর দুইবার কয়েন টস করতে হবে। 

৮.  ধরা যাক আগে হেড পরে টেইল পড়লো। তাহলে অবস্থান নং-২ ক্রসিং ওভার ঘটবে। এজন্য বাবার পিপি (২)  অবস্থানের কার্ডটিকে Pm2 কার্ডের অবস্থানের সাথে জায়গা বদল করে দিতে হবে।  এটিই ঐ হোমোলোগাস ক্রোমোজোমের  2 নং অবস্থানের ক্রসিং ওভার হিসেবে গণ্য হবে। 

ধ্যাপ নং ১ উল্লিখিত চিত্র অনুসারে,  তখন pp2  নিচের ক্রোমোজোমের অংশ হয়ে যাবে এবং pm2  ওপরের ক্রোমোজোমের অংশ হয়ে যাবে।  টসে যদি শিক্ষার্থীর অন্য কোনো অবস্থান নং আসে তাহলে সেই অবস্থানে একইভাবে ক্রসিং ওভার ঘটাতে  হবে। 

৯. উপরের 7 ও 8 নং ধাপের অনুরূপভাবে মায়ের হোমোলোগাস ক্রোমোজোম জোড়ায় ক্রসিংওভার ঘটাতে হবে। 

১০.  ক্রসিং ওভার ঘটার ফলে পরিবর্তিত ক্রোমোজোম সমূহ থেকে 3 ও 4 নং ধাপের অনুরূপভাবে বাবা ও মায়ের কোন কোন ক্রোমোজোম যথাক্রমে পুং ও স্ত্রী গ্যামেটে যাবে সেটি দৈবচয়নের ভিত্তিতে নির্ধারণ করতে হবে। 

১১. ক্রসিং ওভার হওয়া 2 গ্যামেট থেকে  নির্ধারিত দুটি ক্রোমোজোম একসাথে সন্তানের ডিপ্লয়েড ক্রোমোজোমের সেট গঠন করবে।  এতে করে পিতা-মাতা হতে সন্তনে কোন কোন বৈশিষ্ট্য সঞ্চারিত হল তা পরের পৃষ্ঠায় উল্লেখিত অ্যাসাইনমেন্টের ছকের নির্ধারিত দুটি ঘরে  রাউন্ড-৩ লিখতে হবে। 

১২. ধাপ নং ৭-১০ এর পুনরাবৃত্তি করতে হবে। এবং ধাপ  নং 11 মত করে  ফলাফল এবার রাউন্ড ৪ এর ঘর দুটিতে  লিখতে হবে। 

১৩. অ্যাসাইনমেন্ট এ পর্যন্ত প্রাপ্ত ফলাফলের ভিত্তিতে ক্রসিং ওভার হওয়া এবং না হওয়ার ফলে জীন বৈচিত্রের তথ্য বৈশিষ্ট্যের কি পার্থক্য হয় তা উল্লেখ করতে হবে। পার্থক্য সমূহের কারণ পাঠ্যপুস্তক এর আলোকে ব্যাখ্যা করতে হবে।  এই অংশটুকু অ্যাসাইনমেন্ট এর জন্য প্রদত্ত চোখের বাহিরে লিখতে হবে ( 50-70 শব্দ এর মধ্যে) 

Assignment Solutions

ক) ক্রসিং ওভার ব্যতীত মিয়োসিস হলে কি ঘটবে? 

রাউন্ড-১ঃ 

খ) ক্রসিং ওভার সহ মিয়োসিস হলে কি ঘটবে? 

ক্রসিং ওভার না হওয়ার ফলে মাতার থেকে আসা বৈশিষ্ট্যসমূহের মধ্যে চুলের প্রকৃতি ছিল সোজা,  কিন্তু ক্রসিং ওভার হওয়ার ফলে মাতার থেকে আসা বৈশিষ্ট্যসমূহের প্রকৃতির পরিবর্তিত হয়ে হচ্ছে কোঁকড়া প্রকৃতি। 

ক্রসিং ওভার না হওয়ার ফলে পিতার থেকে আসা বৈশিষ্ট্যসমূহের মধ্যে চোখের প্রকৃতি ছিল নীলাভ, কিন্তু ক্রসিং ওভার হওয়ার ফলে বাবার থেকে আসা বৈশিষ্ট্যসমূহের প্রকৃতির পরিবর্তিত হয়ে হচ্ছে বাদামী প্রকৃতি। 

জিনগত বৈচিত্র্যের পার্থক্য সৃষ্টি হওয়ার ব্যাখাঃ 

আমরা জানি একজোড়া সমসংস্থ ক্রোমোজোম এর দুটি নন সিস্টার ক্রোমাটিড এর মধ্যে অংশের বিনিময়কে ক্রসিং ওভার বলে। ক্রসিং ওভার এর ফলে যেহেতু দুটি ক্রোমাটিড এর মধ্যে অংশে বিনিময় ঘটে,  ফলে জিনগত পরিবর্তন সাধিত হয়।   জিনগত পরিবর্তন সাধনার ফলে  বৈশিষ্ট্যগত পরিবর্তন সাধিত হয়। এতে ক্রোমোসোমে বিভিন্ন বৈশিষ্ট্যের নিয়ন্ত্রক জিনের অবস্থানের পরিবর্তন হয়।  যেমনটা উপরের পরীক্ষায় পর্যবেক্ষণ করা হয়েছে।

HSC Biology 2nd Paper Assignment Answer 2022

The Biology second paper assignment question for the HSC Exam 2022 has been published on dshe.gov.bd. Because of the COVID-19 Corona Virus, the NCTB has reduced the Biology second paper syllabus, as students are aware.

According to the published syllabus, The Biology 2nd Paper syllabus has been reduced from eleven to five chapters. These chapters are as follows: first (প্রাণীর বিভিন্নতা ও শ্রেণীবিন্যাস), second (প্রাণীর পরিচিতি), third (মানব শরীরতত্ত্ব, পরিপাক ও শোষণ), Fourth ( মানব শরীরতত্ত্ব- রক্ত ও সঞ্চালন) and Eleventh (জীনতত্ত্ব ও বিবর্তন)

The Directorate of Secondary and Higher Education will publish the assignment question based on these chapters. In addition, in these coming weeks, they will publish the biology second paper assignment.

HSC Biology Assignment 2021 6th Week Answer (2nd paper)

DSHE will publish the HSC Biology Assignment 2021 Question Answer for 6th Week on dshe.gov.bd. They have published the assignment from 2nd Chapter of Main Text Book of Biology.

Class: HSC 1st Year Exam Year: HSC Exam 2021 Subject: Biology Group: Science Paper: 2nd Paper Week: 6th Week Assignment Work: রুই/টাকি বা অনুরূপ মাছের বাহ্যিক গঠন পর্যবেক্ষণ করে দেখাও।

HSC Biology Assignment 2021 6th Week question

Assignment Answer: At the time of creating the assignment solutions, Students have to follow the following guidelines:

1. Necessary components: One Rohu/Taki Fish (any other fish if those are not available), Scale, Measurement tape (suitable for measuring in centimeter). If necessary, measurement can be taken with yarn and then putting it on the scale. All measurements of length and width will be in units of centimeters.

2. For the assignment, two tables should be made on an A4 or similar size paper (see the next page).

3. When measuring the body size of the fish, the maximum length should be taken from the mouth to the end of the tail. For the maximum width, the part of the body that is widest from the chest to the surface should be measured. This measure should be taken except fins.

4. In the case of other parts also, the measurement should be written in the table as per the instructions. In the case of lateral lines and several distances, it is enough to mention only the length. In the case of fins, the maximum length and the maximum width should be specified.

5. Two scales- one from the surface and another from the thoracic region should be taken and dried. Then keeping them in the specified box of Table-1 (1-4 and 1-5), outlines have to be drawn with a pen.

6th Week HSC Biology Assignment Answer 2021 page 1

HSC Biology Assignment 2021 3rd Week Answer (Second Paper)

Directorate of Secondary and Higher Secondary Education is published the HSC 3rd Week Biology Assignment Answer from the first Chapter (প্রাণীর বিভিন্নতা ও শ্রেণীবিন্যাস) of the Biology Second Paper Text Book.

Check Now: HSC Higher Mathematics Assignment Answer 2021 for the 1st and 2nd Paper of all weeks.

They also made the assignment question, learning outcomes, writing instructions, and rubrics or assessment criteria available for download on the website. Are you interested in learning more? Just take a look at the article.

The following solutions is a sample Assignment Answer for the Biology 2nd paper, prepared in accordance with the guidelines provided by dshe.gov.bd (Department of Secondary Education). But first, let’s take a look at the assignment work, questions, solutions, and answers that are provided in the subsequent sections.

Class: HSC 1st Year Exam Year: HSC Exam 2021 Subject: Biology Group: Science Paper: 2nd Paper Assignment Work: বৈশিষ্ট্যের ভিত্তিতে কর্ডাটা পর্বের প্রাণী সমূহএর শ্রেণীবিন্যাস করো।

HSC Biology Assignment 2021 3rd Week Answer page 01

Assignment Answer

HSC Biology Assignment 2021 3rd Week Answer

How to create the HSC 2021 Biology Assignment to get Outstanding Remarks:

As students can see from the information provided above, HSC Exam 2021 candidates must complete ten assignments worth a total of 50 marks.

Because of this, it is essential to participate, collect assignments, write the assignment solutions, and submit them to the colleges. Furthermore, to achieve the best grades possible, students must pay close attention to the following information.

Each assignment’s rubrics are made available once a week for reference by the Directorate of Secondary and Higher Secondary Education to provide information, Assessment, and Marking System to the Teacher.

Students who wish to achieve the highest Marks on the HSC Biology Assignment 2021 should follow the writing guidelines provided by the Department of Secondary and Higher Education. But, Students should follow these three Fundamental rules to get Outstanding Remarks or the highest Marks when writing assignment answers. That is-

  • Creativity,
  • Consistency and

Source: DSHE and NCTB

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HSC Biology Question Paper 2022 PDF - Std 12th Science - Maharashtra Board

Download HSC Biology Question Paper 2022 PDF - Std 12th Science - Maharashtra Board

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HSC Biology Assignment Solution 2022 PDF File – 11th Week

Intermediate and Secondary Education Boards authority had to be submitted Biology Assignment Answer 2022 for 11th weeks. There website has been released without any charge HSC Biology Assignment answer as 11th week. We also posted and you can get your hsc class biology assignment pictures and PDF files at chakrirkhobor.net. You want to get hsc Biology Assignment 1st and 2nd paper questions and answers to keep reading below.

We try a full assignment solution for all subject in class HSC. The more precise your task arrangement is, the more stamps you are probably going to get pdf download and Biology Assignment Solution. Most of the Assignment finder many time fine Biology Assignment HSC Class pdf download. Like different classes, the position will uncover fourth week class 12 Biology Assignment Answer.

HSC Biology Assignment Answer 2022 – 11th Week

You can get the first Twelve Class Biology Assignment for Exam 2022 all Board. This year newly start Assignment answer 2022 all board on their website. In this 2022 year all Education Board start all subject Assignment and will end on maybe December 2022. HSC Biology assignments start in June and end in December 2022. Students can also check their HSC Biology 1st paper assignments question solve on these websites.

How to do HSC Class Biology Assignment Answer 2022?

On the off chance that you don’t think about the Biology Assignment process, this area will improve your insight in a matter of seconds. It would be ideal if you’re Assignment and ensure you are following the procedure appropriately. Here you go.

hsc biology assignment

HSC Biology Assignment 1st and 2nd Paper PDF Download 2022

HSC 1st paper assignment all Education Board has recently released the notification regarding the HSC Assignment Exam solution 2022 exam dates check on the official Website. Biology Assignment 2022 PDF Download. I realize who lost his employment because of lockdown. Nonetheless, since the understudies need to offer their own input, they need to reply.

When Twelve Class Biology Assignment will be Start 2022?

To whom it may concern & get bet Class Twelve class Biology Assignment of All board and you try to see here. You cannot know to check and follow these rules.

Twelve Class Biology Assignment answer 6th Week 2022

So you have to connect for their address. In conclusion, Every Assignment seeker knows chakrirkhobor.net published all type of Assignment with an answer pdf file. This Notice also found on my website. Finally, you can understand get the total subject Biology Assignment all board 2022. In conclusion, for the next update about update assignment Notice. Finally 6th Week 12 Class Biology Assignment etc. So stay with us.

All Result Notice

HSC Biology Assignment Answer 2022

HSC Biology Assignment Answer 2021 & 2022 এইচএসসি জীববিজ্ঞান এসাইনমেন্ট ২০২১ ও ২০২২ The Department of Secondary and Higher Education has released the seventh-week assignment of SSC candidates for 2022. An office order was issued on Wednesday (August 25) regarding the publication of the assignment.

The office order said that the seventh-week assignmen t has been prepared to fully involve the students participating in the SSC examination in 2022 on the basis of the reorganized syllabus due to the Covid-19 supermarket and to bring them under continuous assessment.

Assignment assessments on information and communication technology, higher mathematics, home science, agricultural education economics, and arts and crafts are sent to educational institutions including Rubrics. Seventh-week assignments will begin in August.

7th Week Assignment

7th Week Assignment

HSC Biology 5th Week Assignment 2021

biology assignment hsc 2022

The order directed the Deputy Director, District Education Officer, Upazila / Thana Education Officer and the heads of educational institutions to take necessary action.

Hygiene is also instructed in the distribution and acceptance of assignments.

The Department of Secondary and Higher Education (Maushi) has published the 13th week assignment of students of class VI to IX. The assignment was published on Mausi’s website on Wednesday. The Department of Secondary and Higher Education has asked all students to accept and submit assignments from their respective schools following proper hygiene guidelines. Incidentally, all the educational institutions in the country have been closed since March 16 last year to prevent the spread of corona. Even though the school-college is closed, the Ministry of Education has continued teaching through various means to keep the students involved in the learning process. In that series, the assignments of 13th week students of 6th to 9th class have been published. Click here to view the assignment Students of 6th to 9th class are being given assignments and assigned work every week. Assignments and assessments have been made to continue the learning process of the students by rearranging the curriculum and syllabus in compliance with the health rules, said the Department of Education. Schools have been asked to give and accept assignments to students online or at a social distance. It has been asked to ensure that no student is under financial pressure. Students cannot be given any kind of examination or homework without assignments and scheduled work

[…] Download All Subject. The Department of Secondary and Higher Education has released the sixth-week assignment of 2022 HSC candidates. An office order was issued on Sunday (August 22) night regarding the […]

[…] SSC Home Science Assignment Answer 2021 এসএসসি শ্রেণীর গার্হস্থ্য বিজ্ঞান সপ্তম সপ্তাহের এসাইনমেন্ট এর সমাধান এসএসসি হোম সায়েন্স অ্যাসাইনমেন্ট উত্তর The Department of Secondary and Higher Education has released the seventh-week assignment of SSC candidates for 2022. An office order was issued on Wednesday (August 25) regarding the publication of the 7th-week assignment. […]

[…] সপ্তাহের মার্কেটিং অ্যাসাইনমেন্ট HSC Assignment 2021 has been published. So you can easily download this assignment in the form of pictures and PDF […]

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HSC Biology 1st Questions All Board 2022 [100% Right]

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HSC Biology 1st Questions All Boards 2022 HSC Biology 1st Questions 2022 All Boards: HSC One Subject Biology 1st. If you are looking for HSC Biology 1st 2022 Questions then you have come to the right place. Let’s take a look at the Bengali 2nd MCQ Question 2022 answers from various boards. HSC Biology 1st 2022.

No questions are leaked on this website, the results along with questions and their solutions are uploaded online for the convenience of students and parents after the exam is over.

Check all HSC 2022 Exam Suggestions here

Biology 1st HSC Exam 2022 held in your Short Syllabus. This Biology 1st HSC 2022 exam will be held in that manner.

Check all HSC 2022 Exam Questions together here

Hsc biology 1st mcq question solution 2022.

HSC Biology 1st MCQ Question Solution 2022: HSC Biology 1st MCQ Question Solution 2022 Download. All Education Boards like: Dhaka, Mymensingh, Comilla, Barishal, Chittagong, Dinajpur, Jessore, Rajshahi, Sylhet, Madrasa, Technical Education Board. All 100% Correct Answers of HSC Bangladesh History Exam 2022 are given here.

HSC Biology 1st Question Dhaka Board 2022

HSC Biology 1st Question Dhaka Board 2022: The Board of Secondary and Higher Secondary Education, Dhaka acts as the regulatory authority for secondary and higher secondary level educational institutions in the Dhaka division of Bangladesh. This education board was established in 1921 in Dhaka district of Bangladesh. This board is controlled by other boards and many institutions are controlled by this board. We hope you are well. After a long day, the HSC exam finally started. Parents are worried about their child’s exam as HSC candidates take the exam late in 2022. And to participate in the HSC examination of 2022, a student has to spend ten years in school. And it took another year. However today we will try our best here to answer HSC Biology 1st MCQ Questions 2022.

Click here to get Dhaka Board 2022 HSC Biology 1st Questions and Answers

HSC Biology 1st Question Chittagong Board 2022

HSC Biology 1st Questions Chittagong Board 2022: Board of Secondary and Higher Secondary Education, Chittagong started its activities in 1995. It is an autonomous and self-regulatory organization in the field of education administration and management in Bangladesh. Students of Chittagong Board will get HSC Biology 1st question in our post with prototype. Different boards have different questions. We will post questions in all boards so that students can see their respective board question answers. Below we will give HSC Biology 1st questions and answers. Students can download all board questions and solutions if they want.

Click here to get Chittagong Board 2022 HSC Biology 1st Questions and Answers

HSC Biology 1st Question Comilla Board 2022

HSC Biology 1st Question Comilla Board 2022: The Board of Secondary and Higher Secondary Education, Comilla acts as the regulatory authority for secondary and higher secondary level educational institutions in the Comilla and greater Noakhali regions of Bangladesh. This education board was established in 1962 in Comilla district of Bangladesh. HSC exam is a big exam for students. But last year due to corona epidemic, no board could arrange this exam. The virus is still there but the government has decided to check it as the situation is under control. Here every student can see HSC Biology 1st MCQ Solution 2022. You can also contact us on our Facebook page.

Click here to get Comilla Board 2022 HSC Biology 1st Questions and Answers

HSC Biology 1st Question Jessore Board 2022

HSC Biology 1st Question Jessore Board 2022: Board of Secondary and Higher Secondary Education, Jessore acts as the regulatory authority for secondary and higher secondary level educational institutions in Khulna Division of Bangladesh. There are nine education boards in our country. In HSC exam questions are different from all boards. So all the boards create different questions. So their answers are different. If you keep an eye on our website after the exam, you will see that we will provide all the board questions and their solutions. So first you will get all the updates by mail.

Click here to get Jessore Board 2022 HSC Biology 1st Questions and Answers

HSC Biology 1st Question Rajshahi Board 2022

HSC Biology 1st Question Rajshahi Board 2022: Board of Secondary and Higher Secondary Education, Rajshahi acts as the regulatory authority for secondary and higher secondary level educational institutions of Rajshahi Division of Bangladesh. It was established in 1971. All final exam students can find Rajshahi Board Bangladesh History Solution 2022.

Click here to get Rajshahi Board 2022 HSC Biology 1st Questions and Answers

HSC Biology 1st Question Barishal Board 2022

HSC Biology 1st Question Barishal Board 2022: Board of Secondary and Higher Secondary Education, Barishal acts as the regulatory authority of secondary and higher secondary level educational institutions of Barisal Division, Bangladesh. Students participating in this exam from Barishal Board can see the solution of Barishal Board Bengali 2nd question. After going through various tests, all those questions will be solved.

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Moscow International Film Festival Announces Program

There are films from Russia, Romania, Serbia, China, Peru

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The 2022 Moscow International Film Festival will be held in Moscow from August 26 to September 2. The competition program of the 44th festival includes 9 films:

  • Camel Way (directed by Vitaly Suslin, Russia)
  • The Voice of Crying in the Wilderness (directed by Kyprian Mega, Romania)
  • Youth (directed by Dmitry Davydov, Russia)
  • Mariya. The Ocean Angel (directed by Aruna Jayawardana, Sri Lanka)
  • A Hope (directed by Umit Kereken, Turkey, Germany, Slovenia)
  • Vegetable Garden (directed by Larisa Sadilova, Russia)
  • The Journey of Mastorna (directed by Chan Ming Zhi Liao, China)
  • The Hives (directed by Luis Basurto, Peru)
  • The Beheading of St. John the Baptist (directed by Sinisa Cvetich, Serbia)

The opening film of the festival will be the blockbuster Land of Legends starring Aleksandr Kuznetsov. The MIFF will be closed out by the South Korean thriller Decision to Leave by Park Chan-wook, a winner of the Cannes Film Festival.

Photo: MIFF

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A renewed biological weapons program?

Acting President Vladimir Putin participates in a farewell ceremony for an airborne regiment leaving Chechnya in March 2000. ( The Kremlin )

Things began to change due to the growing threat of terrorism, which became a serious issue in Russia because of the wars against Chechnya. In July 1999, there was an outbreak of Congo-Crimea hemorrhagic fever in Oblivskaya in the Rostov region of southern Russia. Although not described as a bioterrorist attack, the outbreak nevertheless served to galvanize the old biological weapons program and provide it with a new mission. Reportedly, Chechen separatists tried in 2000 to infiltrate Sergiev Posad-6 in an effort to obtain pathogens, which may also have influenced Russian decision-makers at the time. The government issued two decrees in 1999 intended to protect the Russian people against manmade or natural biological threats, including by designating Sergiev Posad-6 and the Volgograd Anti-Plague Institute as leading biopreparedness institutions. These decrees incidentally also allowed both facilities to continue highly advanced dual use-research on dangerous pathogens, including by conducting aerosol experiments. As the Swedish defense institute FOI noted in a report about the two facilities: "In this context, the unchanged focus regarding pathogens studied expertise in aerosol and research that can contribute to both defensive and offensive aims at the two new centres and their mother institutes are notable."

The administrative status of the Russian bioweapons program was further modified with government decree no. 303 in 2005, which described the Russian Nuclear, Biological and Chemical (NBC) Protection Troops as the leading organization defending against biological threats. The 48th Central Scientific Research Institute (48th CSRI) of the Russian Defence Ministry was one of several specialized organizations, which would support the Russian NBC Protection Troops. The 48th CSRI was formally established in 2006 and encompassed all the former bioweapons facilities belonging to the Soviet military. Several of the old Biopreparat facilities now became part of Rospotrebnadzor, which was responsible for human health and consumer rights in Russia.  These included for example the State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology VECTOR in Koltsovo and all of the anti-plague facilities.

Despite the official emphasis on biopreparedness, signs of biological weapons activities continued to appear. In 2004, the Russian newspaper Moskovskij Komsomolets proudly proclaimed about Sergiev Posad-6 : "According to some sources, all the production facilities of the underground part of Zagorsk-6 are kept in perfect order, including the lines for the production of ammunition based on the smallpox virus. We are ready for biological warfare." In 2005, the Military Industrial Commission and the Security Council of the Russian Federation approved a new concept for the research and development of different kinds of non-lethal weapons that could be used against living targets or to disable equipment and objects. Among these non-lethal weapons were microorganisms capable of infecting people, animals, and plants and destroying weapons and machines. One example of such research involved bacteria that could decompose lubricants over a period of days, leading to blockage of fuel lines and destruction of combustion engines. According to a 2020 report by the nonprofit research organization MITRE , Russian research and development of non-lethal weapons (including biological agents) continues.

Based on the available evidence, it is reasonable to conclude that the Russian biological weapons program was officially reconstituted as a biodefense program in the 1999-2006 time frame. During the same period, signs of biological weapons activities continued to appear in the press and other public reporting. If the Russian press is correct, the 48th CSRI retained the capability to produce biological weapons for large-scale warfare. At the same time, the Russian interest in non-lethal weapons (including those of a biological nature) is interesting and could be viewed as an attempt to adapt the program to perceived new security threats such as terrorism and insurgencies.

640px-Evstafiev-chechnya-prayer2

The first Chechen war of independence took place from 1994–1996, culminating in the Battle of Grozny and a peace treaty in 1997. In August 1999, separatist Islamic fighters from Chechnya declared themselves an independent state and set off the Second Chechen War. Russia accused the separatists of using chemical weapons while the Russian military conducted bombing raids of Grozny. ( Mikhail Evstafiev, CC BY-SA 3.0 , via Wikimedia Commons)

The 48th Central Scientific Research Institute

Colonel Sergey Borisevich, head of the 48th Central Scientific Research Institute, receiving an award from Russian President Vladimir Putin on his work developing the Sputnik-V vaccine. ( The Kremlin )

The 48th Central Scientific Research Institute employs about 1,400 people, has an annual budget of approximately 1.5 billion rubles (about $25 million), and is headed by Colonel Sergey Borisevich . According to Raymond A. Zilinskas and Philippe Mauger's book " Biosecurity in Putin's Russia , "the 48th CSRI belongs to the Russian Ministry of Defense and is supervised by the Russian General Staff. The Kirov Institute is the leading facility in the 48th CSRI and played an important role in Soviet times by developing bioweapons such as Francisella tularensis, Yersenia pestis and Bacillus anthracis . In Soviet times, the Kirov Institute had at least one BSL-3 laboratory, a vivarium—a contained observation area—for animals used in testing, several aerosol test chambers, one explosion chamber, a pilot plant, and a small production plant. The facility continues to conduct research on primates , so it is safe to say that the vivarium remains in use. In recent years, the Kirov Institute has received funding for renovation of buildings and modernization of production systems for medical immunobiological preparations against Bacillus anthracis and vaccines against Yersinia pestis , the bacterium that causes plague in humans.

Yekaterinburg-19 was partly modernized in 2005-2010 and again in 2014-2015. Several bunker facilities previously used for the storage of biological weapons remain in use. [1] Information in the public domain shows that Yekatarinburg-19 has received funding for major renovations of laboratory and production facilities and the facility’s physical protection system. Almost all of the buildings have received new roofs, and a new factory for the production of antibiotics has been built. In addition, an open-air test site called Pyshma is being modernized. In Soviet times, Pyshma was being used to test military equipment against biological weapons simulants, but presumable it would also be possible to test real biological weapons there.

Sergiev Posad-6 contains a large collection of viruses and rickettsia, conducts research on primates (including rhesus macaques), and develops vaccines against the Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus and the Ebola virus. The facility also produces vaccines against Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis and Variola major . There is once again evidence of major renovation projects, for example of laboratory and production facilities. Officially, Sergiev Posad-6 has the necessary capabilities to make diagnostics and treatments for dangerous viral and rickettsial pathogens. The facility also has a mobilization capacity to produce therapeutic or immunobiological medicines.

In 2016, a fourth facility belonging to the 48th CSRI was established in Moscow. The facility was in 2016 headed by Colonel Dmitry Poklonsky and had among its staff six doctors and nine PhDs. The purpose of this unnamed center is to monitor the biological situation in Russia, while being ready to respond with practical and methodological assistance in case of an emergency.

Based on 36 articles published between 2008 and 2017 [2] , the 48th CSRI’s main focus seems to be on medical countermeasures, epidemiology, diagnostics, and aerosol studies. The 48th CSRI appears to have strong capabilities in molecular biology, toxicology, and immunology. The institute has in recent years acquired a wide array of laboratory equipment that indicates the use of molecular biology and gene editing in scientific work. The 48th CSRI is, for example, using DNA/RNA synthesizers and has several times ordered ligases, restriction enzymes, and transfection reagents.

The 48th CSRI does not exist in isolation: For example, Sergiev Posad-6 has a close working relationship with the Volgograd Anti-Plague Institute. Sergiev Posad-6 specializes in viruses and rickettsia, while the Volgograd Anti-Plague Institute concentrates on bacterial and fungal pathogens. During the COVID-19 pandemic , several former Biopreparat facilities and the Gamaleya National Center of Epidemiology and Microbiology of the Russian Ministry of Health collaborated with the 48th CSRI in developing and producing the Sputnik V-vaccine. In an interview with Krasnaya Zvezda , the director of the Gamaleya Institute, Alexander Gintsburg, proudly stated that he "inherited" a strong collaboration with the military dating back to the Soviet biological weapons program.

The 48th CSRI also collaborates with the FSB, the principal Russian intelligence agency. The relationship between the 48th CSRI and the FSB dates back to an executive order from 2005. In December 2020, OpenFacto , a nonprofit association that promotes French language open-source intelligence efforts, revealed that the 48th CSRI had cooperated with FSB Unit 68240 about a project called Toledo. The operational management of Project Toledo was delegated to Unit 34435, the FSB Criminalistics Institute. The purpose of Project Toledo is unknown, but Unit 34435 is infamous for having a secretive poison laboratory, which played a key role in assassinations in Soviet times. More recently, Unit 34435 has been investigated in connection with the failed attempt to kill Russian opposition leader Alexei Navalny using a Novichok nerve agent. It therefore seems possible that the 48th CSRI assists the FSB in developing new "tools" to eliminate perceived enemies of the Russian state.

The above description presents some aspects of the 48th CSRI. It clearly has strong scientific and technical capabilities, and it has maintained old networks with former collaborators in the Soviet bioweapons program while creating new bonds with the FSB.

“More rats than cats”

Trash piles up in Sergiev Posad-6. Residents have protested against the living conditions in the town. ( AltGazeta.ru )

There is another aspect of the 48th CSRI that requires explanation. The Russia-Ukraine War has revealed deep structural problems in the Russian military due to malpractice, theft, and corruption at all levels. Perhaps this should not have come as a surprise to observers of the Russian military. The Swedish defense institute FOI recently quoted an anonymous Russian oligarch in exile as saying: "And how will the army be good, if everything else in the country is shit and mired in nepotism, sycophancy, and servility?"

There are many signs of such problems in the 48th CSRI. In February 2022 , the newsler.ru website reported that a military hospital located at the Kirov Institute was in such a poor state that bricks were falling from the walls and ceiling, endangering the lives of patients and staff. Sergiev Posad-6 has for several years struggled with problems such as dilapidated buildings , lack of central heating , and lack of garbage removal . Sergiev Posad-6 is not "only" a military-biological facility, but also an old Soviet-style closed city that is home to 5,000 to 6,000 residents. In Soviet times, such closed cities were subject to a severe security regime and sometimes did not even appear on maps or road signs. In those times, the inhabitants enjoyed a much higher living standard compared to average Soviet citizens, so it was quite attractive to live there. But those times are long gone. In 2018, a demonstration took place after residents in Sergiev Posad-6 had been without hot water and heating for almost two weeks. As one resident complained : "We have more rats than cats. This is not a town, but some kind of concentration camp."

The residents in Sergiev Posad-6 live in a village called Vaktsina or Settlement 67 , which is kept separate from the technical zone where bioweapons research possibly could be taking place. But basic problems such as mismanagement and corruption must surely have an impact on bioweapons activities. In June 2019, the Moscow City Court sentenced Lieutenant Colonel Vladimir Klevtsov , the former deputy head of the logistics department of the 48th CSRI, to four years in prison and a fine of 780,000 rubles (about $13,000). Klevtsov’s crime was accepting a bribe for services not delivered by a civilian company. In September 2019, the Moscow Regional Court fined Dmitri Shulov , the former chief engineer at the 48th CSRI, 3.2 million rubles (about $53,000) for accepting a bribe. In August 2020, the Solcnechnogorsk Garrison Military Court assessed a fine of 35,000 rubles (some $577) against Dmitry Kutaev , the former deputy head of research work at the 48th CSRI. Kutaev had the previous year signed a certificate for the acceptance of goods, knowing that one of the companies involved did not fulfill its obligations. The resulting damage was estimated to be 416,000 rubles (about $6,900). Kutaev admitted his guilt and provided compensation for the losses incurred.

The most serious corruption scheme involved Sergey Lupin, the former chief accountant of the 48th CSRI, Anton Makeev, the former head of the planning department, Alexei Yakimov, a former employee of the planning department, and Irina Borisova, a former employee of the financial department. From 2009 until 2011, all four forged financial documents and paid themselves more than 21 million rubles (about $345,000). In October 2019, Lupin was sentenced to 4.5 years in prison, Makeev and Borisova to 3.5 years in prison, and Yakimov to 3 years in prison.

According to the Russia-based news outlet PASMI , this particular corruption scheme was only the tip of the iceberg. The scheme began in 2009 and involved Georgy Vasiliev, the head of the Center for Financing Special Programs (later renamed Unit 22280) and two of his employees. The center was formed to pay for special military projects, but Vasiliev abused his authority and the secrecy surrounding the 48th CSRI to transfer money to himself. The scheme lasted until 2014 and resulted in the theft of 355 million rubles (about $5.85 million) or 10 million rubles per month. The subsequent trial punished the persons mentioned above, but several of the major perpetrators involved —including members of the Main Military Prosecutor’s Office and the FSB—escaped punishment.

Overall, it is clear that substantial corruption exists in the administrative and funding support of the 48th CSRI. While the problems described here will not prevent military scientists from researching and producing biological weapons, these deficiencies could affect the quantity and quality of such weapons. They also raise the question of how much of the modernization effort described previously was actually implemented, and how much of the funding was stolen or otherwise misused.

Sergiev Posad-6, previously known as Zagorsk-6, is a closed city where bioweapons research is taking place. Residents of the city are kept out of the technical zone where research is conducted and have protested the living conditions in the town. ( AltGazeta.ru )

The genetic weapons campaign

As mentioned before, the Russian invasion of Ukraine was accompanied by a disinformation campaign alleging US bioweapons activities in Ukraine. The campaign included the claim, made by Major General Igor Kirillov (the head of the Russian NBC Protection troops), that US and German military scientists had been working on a biological weapon capable of selectively targeting different ethnic populations in Russia.

To understand the genesis of this notion, one must go back to the 1930s, when Soviet agricultural scientist Trofim Lysenko—with support from Soviet leader Joseph Stalin—rejected Mendelian genetics and instead advocated the theory that traits acquired through environmental exposures could be transmitted to offspring. [3] This theory effectively destroyed Soviet genetics research and resulted in the execution or imprisonment of thousands of scientists. By the 1960s, it was understood that Lysenkoism was pseudoscience, and it once again became acceptable for Soviet scientists to study genetics.

One reason why the Soviet Union established Biopreparat in the 1970s was because several senior academic scientists, led by Yuri A. Ovchinnikov , convinced General Secretary Leonid Brezhnev that the Soviet biological weapons program should use genetic engineering in order to make new biological weapons. Ovchinnikov was not particularly interested in biological warfare, but he understood how far behind the Soviet Union was in genetic research, and that it would be necessary to have support from the powerful Soviet military to catch up.

This renewed focus on genetics paved the way for Soviet interest in genetic weapons, which preferentially could target people of specific ethnicities or people with specific genotypes. Genetic weapons (sometimes also called ethnic bioweapons) are in that regard different from biological weapons that have been enhanced or modified through genetic engineering. In 1976, Soviet military scientists began to use the term genetic weapon in reaction to suspected military research in the United States. Russian geneticist Evgeny Lilyin recently claimed that Soviet scientists did attempt to make genetic weapons in the 1980s, although apparently without much success.

Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, a strange public "debate" about genetic weapons began in Russia. Senior scientist Mikhail Paltsev and biochemist Alexander Spirin claimed that it would soon be possible to make genetic weapons. Gen. Makhmut Gareev and Maj. Gen. Vladimir Slipchenko discussed the possibility of creating weapons based on new physical principles, including genetic weapons. [4] Both Gareev and Col. Maksimov from Sergiev Posad-6 claimed that such weapons would be outside the scope of international law, including the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention.  Maksimov claimed that the US military was already busy making bioweapons using genetic engineering. During this peculiar and otherwise one-sided "debate," Slipchenko made his opposition to such weapons clear: "Imagine an artillery piece that, having fired a shell at the enemy, immediately explodes, destroying the crew. Would anyone want to fight with such a cannon? Unlikely." According to Slipchenko, even if these weapons proved to be successful they would end up killing as many people as a nuclear war. Genetic weapons were "unmanageable" and only a "complete dilettante" would therefore advocate for the development and use of such weapons, Slipchenko stated.

This was a reference to Yuri Bobylov, who is a chief proponent of genetic weapons in Russia. In his book , The Genetic bomb: Secret scenarios of bioterrorism from 2006 (reprinted in 2008), Bobylov painted a dire picture of the world captured in a Malthusian Trap. Since he described the world as heading towards ecological disaster, he advocated for the development and use of genetic weapons to exterminate most of the human race, leaving only about 1 billion to 1.5 billion people ("the golden billion") to survive and prosper. The term "the golden billion" is widely used in post-Soviet Russia and refers to how a rich and powerful cabal tries to exploit the majority of the human race to benefit the one billion people living in the Western world. The Russian leadership is notorious for using this term and usually portrays itself as fighting against this conspiracy.

In Bobylov’s book and subsequent articles, this term is turned upside down; he encouraged the use of genetic weapons as the main weapon in world genocidal wars to reach the promised land of "the golden billion." Not surprisingly, Bobylov’s book is full of racist sentiments, admiration for Nazism, and respect for individual Nazis like the renowned zoologist Konrad Lorenz. As Bobylov wrote in 2018 : "Military-oriented science reaches the peak of its development when it is the science of life that becomes the science of death and, accordingly, the most important means of war. Civilization on Earth is now in the stage of a deadly crisis. The world urgently needs world genocidal wars for further harmonious development."

What makes Bobylov a remarkable figure is his background and how he was treated. Bobylov had previously worked for several different government agencies and been a staff member of the powerful Military-Industrial Commission (VPK). He knew about the work supervised by Lt. Gen. Valentin Evstigneev , who was the former head of the 15th Directorate of the Soviet General Staff, which was responsible for the Soviet biological weapons program. According to Bobylov, they had a personal conversation in 2007 , in which Evstigneev assured him of the superiority of biological warfare, compared to other methods of warfare. Belye Alvy—a publishing house allegedly controlled by the Russian military, police, and the FSB – was responsible for printing Bobylov’s book . It is therefore safe to say that the Russian government tacitly supported Bobylov’s arguments. In fact, it seems likely that a large part of the Russian "debate" about genetic weapons was a political campaign intended to influence public opinion about biological weapons inside Russia. Since it was exclusively directed at the Russian public, its significance has so far not been properly understood abroad.

Chief-of-Russian-Radiation-Chemical-and-Biological-Protection-Force-Igor-Kirillov

Major General Igor Kirillov is the Chief of the Radiation, Chemical, and Biological Protection Force in Russia. (Jamestown Foundation)

President Putin and the genetic weapon

Russian President Vladimir Putin, left, with Security Council Secretary Nikolai Patrushev at the Kremlin in Moscow, Russia, on June 5, 2017. ( The Kremlin )

In 2007 , the Russian government briefly banned the export of biological material (including hair and blood samples) after the head of the FSB, Nikolai Patrushev, informed President Vladimir Putin that foreign powers were using these samples to develop genetic weapons targeting ethnic groups in Russia. This was the first of many signs regarding a policy shift in response to perceived biological threats. In 2012 , Russia announced it would withdraw from the Cooperative Threat Reduction program, and it completely abandoned the partnership in 2014. Even before that, Russia launched a massive disinformation campaign against the program in neighboring countries, particularly against Ukraine and Georgia. The alleged threat from "US military-biological laboratories" in these countries was subsequently included in the Russian national security strategy in 2015.

In 2012 , Prime Minister Putin (shortly before he returned to the presidency) wrote an essay about future military technologies, including genetic weapons. During a subsequent televised meeting with his ministers, the Russian Defense Minister Anatoly Serdyukov pledged to develop new weapon systems based on Putin’s essay, including genetic weapons. In 2017 , President Putin expressed his concern that certain foreigners (i.e. the US military) were busy collecting biomaterials from ethnic groups in Russia—just as Patrushev had warned 10 years earlier. During his speech at the annual Valdai Discussion Club in 2018, President Putin suggested that foreign scientists were already busy developing genetic weapons.

How people close to President Putin think about this matter is perhaps best explained in a speech by Mikhail Kovalchuk to the Federation Council in September 2015. Kovalchuk is the president of the prestigious National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute and enjoys, together with his brother Yury (known as "Putin's personal banker"), a close relationship with the Russian president. The Kurchatov Institute is famous for its role in the development of nuclear weapons and nuclear energy in Soviet times, but it also provided sanctuary for Soviet geneticists like S. I. Alikhanyan , who lost his job at the Department for Genetics at Moscow State University for opposing Lysenkoism. Alikhanyan would later play a key role in the Soviet biological weapons program and created the State Research Institute of Genetics and Breeding of Industrial Microorganisms in 1968. In 2017, this institute would become a part of the Kurchatov Institute.

In his speech to the Federation Council, Kovalchuk essentially repeated several of the key messages from Bobylov’s book, painting a dire picture of humanity’s future due to population growth and dwindling resources. Unless the human race was brought down to a sustainable level ("the golden billion") it was doomed. If the Russian state was to survive, it therefore had to employ new technology, including genetic engineering. He predicted that it would soon be possible to develop targeted medicine, but also genetic weapons that could strike specific ethnic groups as a weapon of mass destruction. Kovalchuk also warned that the global elite, overseen by the United States, was developing a genetically edited caste of laboring “servant people” who would eat little, not think, and only reproduce on command.

This bizarre and dark worldview may explain a series of government decrees in the 2018-2020 period intended to strengthen the development of genetic technologies in Russia—a program that would have a planned budget of 230 billion rubles (or more than $3.8 billion). The program intends to create three genomic centers and 65 laboratories and research centers, while training some 3,000 individuals. President Putin has compared this effort to the atomic and space projects of the 20th century. Furthermore, a presidential decree in March 2019 prescribed the genetic certification of the population and the formation of a genetic profile of Russians. Kovalchuk’s Kurchatov Institute will provide the scientific leadership for the new program and house a center for digitization and storage of genomic data. A prototype of the biorepository should be ready at the institute in 2024 and overseen by the FSB . The energy company Rosneft will help create a special center capable of decoding the genomes of 100,000 people living in Russia (mostly employees of Rosneft and their family members).

There are competing agendas behind the program, which has some troubling parallels to the decision to create Biopreparat in the 1970s. For President Putin, this program is designed to defend against and presumably also to research and develop genetic weapons. Russian scientists even joked about the fantastical genetic weapons the president likely must have imagined when he agreed to their proposal. President Putin has apparently not been satisfied with whatever research into genetic weapons was undertaken following his essay in 2012 and Defense Minister Serdyukov’s subsequent pledge to develop such weapons. Others—like former education and science minister Andrey Fursenko—hoped to use the program as a belated attempt to catch up with the West in molecular genetics. According to the Russian news aggregation site Meduza , this is badly needed: Russia lacks equipment like DNA sequencers and has only 340 medical geneticists and slightly more than 600 geneticists.

The program could possibly also be viewed as an example of cronyism. It is difficult to ignore that so many of Putin’s associates and friends and even a family member (the president’s eldest daughter Maria Vorontsova is overseeing the program) are involved in the genetics program. One anonymous geneticist quoted by Meduza expressed skepticism regarding the program in sardonic terms: "On the one hand, they want some kind of results, but then they treat science like tractor manufacturing. This country has had this system for the last 20 years. Have you seen it work yet?"

It is also questionable how strong the science behind the Russian fixation on genetic weapons is, and to what extent it instead reflects the rise of pseudo-science in contemporary Russia, which also includes attempts to rehabilitate Lysenko . The possibility of making genetic weapons was first mentioned by Swedish scientist Carl A. Larson in Military Review in 1970. In 1999, the British Medical Association warned that the biotechnological revolution and projects like the Human Genome Project could create a breakthrough for the development of such weapons. Since then it has only become clearer how challenging this would be. As a recent US report made it clear, it would be very hard to make such a weapon, although future technological changes could yet alter this assessment. The Russian scientist Valery Ilyinsky, the founder of the DNA testing company Genotek, called the idea of genetic weapons an "utter absurdity" and "the stuff of science fiction movies." Russian scientist Mikhail Gelfand completely dismissed the possibility of genetic weapons : "It is probably possible—although very expensive and very difficult—to create a weapon against some very small ethnic group that has not mixed with anyone for the last thousand years. The Russians are not such an ethnic group."

At the very minimum, President Putin’s interest in genetic weapons and more generally gene technology suggest a commitment to a new generation of biological weapons. Although the Russian government undoubtedly would portray this as a defensive response, one cannot ignore the possibility that the Russian government would attempt to develop its own genetic weapons. At the same time, the dubious science behind genetic weapons and the poor state of Russian biotechnology makes it unlikely that Russian scientists will quickly achieve a breakthrough in this field.

biology assignment hsc 2022

Mikhail Kovalchuk delivers a speech at the Federation Council in 2015, where he espouses "the golden billion", a conspiracy theory that posits that the human population must be reduced to one billion people globally. ( TRV-Science.ru )

The threat from Russian biological weapons

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Meeting between Russian President Vladimir Putin and his French counterpart Emmanuel Macron, in Moscow, on February 7, 2022. ( Elysée )

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In a last-ditch attempt to avert a Russian invasion of Ukraine, French president Emmanuel Macron visited President Putin in Moscow in February 2022. Their meeting took place at a very long table in the Kremlin, because President Macron had refused to take a COVID-19 test before meeting his Russian counterpart. Macron’s motive for refusing a Russian PCR test was telling: He did not want Russian intelligence to get a sample of his DNA.

This episode once again raises the question whether Russia still has an offensive biological weapons program. The short answer to that question is: yes. Although there is no definitive proof—nor should one expect such proof from the current Russian government—there are numerous public indications that suggest that Russia has maintained and modernized the surviving parts of the Soviet biological weapons program. The indications include, but are not limited to, the Russian government’s repeated admission and subsequent, repeated denials that it had inherited a large part of the Soviet biological weapons program; press and other public accounts of continuing research into biological weapons (including non-lethal biological weapons); and the Russian pursuit of a disinformation campaign that is directed against the Cooperative Threat Reduction program and attempts to characterize it as a US bioweapons effort. Meanwhile, the "debate" and policy decisions regarding genetic weapons demonstrate that the Russian leadership is obsessed with the idea of a new generation of advanced bioweapons.

It needs to be stressed that thanks to years of relentless Russian state-sponsored propaganda, many Russians take it for granted that the US military has an offensive biological weapons program. According to a recent Russian survey , 84.4 percent of Russians have heard about a US biological weapons program in Ukraine and 66.5 percent believe that bioweapons were being developed there. Russian virologist and professor Alexander Chepurnov used this disinformation to call for reinvigorating the Russian biological weapons program in order to deter the Americans: "And here it is important to understand that the study of biological weapons is necessary not only in order to fend off the looming biological threats over our country, but also so that the counterthreat deters those who want to use it."

While all of this is concerning, this assessment of the Russian bioweapons program must be accompanied by several caveats. The backward nature of Russian biotechnology, poor management, brain drain (accelerated by the Russia-Ukraine War), and corruption will all impede both the quality and quantity of any Russian bioweapons research. While the Russian preoccupation with genetic weapons is deeply disturbing, it is unclear how Russian scientists—or anybody else, for that matter—can ever develop a weapon which can kill Swedes but not Germans, or Arabs but not Israelis, etc. The Russian genetic weapons campaign bears all the hallmarks of pseudo-science, not unlike Lysenkoism.

The Russia-Ukraine War could facilitate the Russian military to address these issues. Most likely, the Russian military is right now searching for weapons that can turn the tide of war on the battlefield in Ukraine and that might also prove useful in a wider war against NATO. As professor Chepurnov warned , Russia will "need to solve a lot of things and quickly so as not to be naked in this war." That would mean curbing problems like corruption in the 48th CSRI. The war might also force the Russian leadership to take a new look at genetic weapons and search for more realistic solutions. Even if genetic weapons are a dead-end, there are plenty of ways in which genetic engineering can be used to enhance existing bioweapons or develop entirely new ones. If nothing else, the last 30 years since the fall of the Soviet Union has demonstrated that the Russian government never abandoned the belief that biological weapons could play an important role in future warfare. It would be very foolish to ignore this belief and the threat it poses.

Robert Petersen , MA in History and Middle East Studies, PhD in history, is an analyst at the Centre for Biosecurity and Biopreparedness (CBB) in Denmark. He works with open source intelligence, the history of biological weapons and biological warfare as well as regulatory aspects of biosecurity in Denmark.

[1] Allison Puccioni: "Facility analysis: Sverdlovsk-19". Jane's by IHS Markit, October 20 2017.

[2] All the articles are scientific publications and the majority are available on the website of the journal "Problems of Particularly Dangerous Infections", which is being published by Federal State Scientific Institution “Russian Research Anti-Plague Institute “Microbe” .

[3] To understand the difference between Lysenkoism and the modern studies in epigenetics, please read "Russia’s new Lysenkoism" by Edouard I. Kolchinsky et al .

[4] Vladimir Slipchenko’s book, Sixth Generation Wars: Weapons and Military Art of the Future , is available for free online but requires browser-based translation software to read in English.

guest

So sad that The Bulletin is pushing anti Russia propaganda. The sensational title: ” Fear and Loathing in Moscow” undermines the scientific credibility essential for The Bulletin to be taken as a objective source of information. The failure to report on NATO or US bio weapons further weakens The Bulletin’s credibility. I will no longer support The Bulletin. This one sided propaganda increases the probability of nuclear war therefore The Bulletin has become worse then nothing. I have no love for the Russian government just a commitment to dispassionately reduce the probability of nuclear war. Retract the sensational propaganda and …  Read more »

marice nelson

russian belief in the plausibility of a genetic weapon, regardless of its effectiveness on a target population, could still result in death, disease and disability in large numbers of people if it were ever used. the results would just be seen in a much larger group than the target population. given their denial of other incidents, it is unlikely they would ever admit to the use of such a weapon and depending on the effects, it might take some time if ever to figure out what had happened. the amount of current genetic knowledge is infinitesimal compared to what is …  Read more »

Jeffrey .H.

I am overwhelmed by my fear, I had nothing to say. . . . ????????

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