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5 fonts that add credibility and professionalism to scientific research

by ikumikayama | Apr 29, 2013 | Uncategorized | 14 comments

best research paper fonts

Choosing the right fonts can affect how your scientific research is received.

Note: This is part 2 of a 2-part blog series about choices in fonts. You can read part 1 here .

You are dressed in your best. You edited the manuscript with a fine-tooth comb…but are your figures and images wearing flip-flops?

Last time we talked about fonts that suck professionalism out of your scientific research . In this article, we’ll talk about fonts that actually add credibility and professionalism to your research. Dress your research in a custom-tailored suit by just using these fonts!

My friend and colleague, Cassio Lynm described how a good figure should be like a billboard found in many highways around the country. Anyone who sees the billboard will understand what they are advertising in a split second. If someone is confused or gets the wrong idea, the image is not very successful.

Similarly, the best professional fonts should be one that’s easy to read with very little “bells and whistles”. When writing prose of informational value such as scientific research, a reader should pay attention to what the text is describing, not how the text looks.  A good professional font should be like air–we don’t really even pay attention to it most of the time.

Some of the fonts I’ll share with you today are considered “boring” and “overused” by some. These fonts are everywhere because they are champions of legibility and simplicity.  Make your work professional and trustworthy by using a time-tested font.

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1. Arial- “All-Around Champion with IBM Roots”

good font for scientific research arial

According to fonts.com , Arial is one of the most used typefaces of the last 30 years. Its electronic origins go back to 1982 for IBM laser-xerographic printers by designers Robin Nicholas and Patricia Saunders. When it came out, it was supposed to compete with Helvetica, which was one of the core fonts in Apple Computers in the mid 1980’s.

Arial letters have more round shapes and the edges of letters do not end in a horizontal line. Instead, the edges are at an angle.

Arial is an easy-to-read font in small and large blocks of text. Nature requests that the figure text be in Arial or Helvetica. It’s especially nice for figure labels and legends. When using Arial as figure legends, keep the font size small ~8 points for best results.

2. Helvetica- “All-Around Champion with Apple Roots”

best research paper fonts

Helvetica is the most heavily-used font. Helvetica was originally designed by a Swiss designer named Max Miedinger in 1957. The font was designed to be an easy-to-read font. The name “Helvetica” comes from “Helvetia” – Latin name for Switzerland. Actually, the font received a facelift in 1983-the newer version is called, you guessed it, Neue Helvetica.

Helvetica even has its own movie . I haven’t seen it yet, but please comment in the section below if you have.

Besides its Hollywood (Indie) status, Helvetica is a font that looks great on both print and on screen.  Nature , Science , and Cell request that their figure labels be in Helvetica. (If you need assistance setting up figures, I’m here to help). It looks great small as in figure labels, and it looks pretty good in large formats as posters. I lost count of how many figures I labeled using Helvetica, since that’s what one of the publishers used for their books.

3. Baskerville- “Tends to have positive influence on readers”

best research paper fonts

Baskerville’s history goes all the way back to 1757 when John Baskerville designed a typeface that works well in print and easy to read.  Mr. Baskerville preferred his letters simple and refined. He was also a writing master, so he had some ornamental letters like the upper case Q.

There was an  informal study  (not official, but some experiments here and there) that showed using Baskerville font increased trustworthiness of the text compared to other fonts. In the same study, Comic Sans had the most negative influence on the readers.

Baskerville is a serif font, which means that there are “tails” at the edge of the letters. Generally, serif fonts are better suited for print. This font works best when used in long blocks of text. Try to keep this font between 8 and 14pts for best results. This font looks dignified, so use this for your important professional occasions-award ceremonies, recognitions, etc.

4. Caslon- “When in doubt, use Caslon”

best research paper fonts

Caslon is another font with a long history. William Cason I designed the typeface back in the early 1700’s. This font is considered as the first original typeface from England. This font was very popular in colonial America, and it was used for many historical documents including the US Declaration of Independence.

Caslon is a serif font (with tails), and is best used in blocks of text. Like Baskerville, try to keep this font between 8 and 14 points for best results. Using this in a report or an application would be a good places.

5. Garamond – “Second best font after Helvetica”

best research paper fonts

This font’s history also goes way back. The font was designed by Claude Garamond (or Jean Jannon), who was commissioned to make a typeface for King Francis I of France (1515-47) to be used in series of books. The modern, electric version was revived in 1989 by Robert Slimbach.

Because there are different sources available for Garamond, there are numbers of different variations of the font. Adobe Garamond is the most popular and widely-available version today.

Garamond is still used extensively by French publishers. They also insist that Garamond be printed in size 9.  Some of the most famous publications in France are in Garamond such as Histoire de l’édition français.  The publishers prefer this font “for its beauty, its richness and its legibility” combined with “an uncluttered graphic style that underscores the rigour of essays and analysis providing a radical critique of contemporary society”.

Garamond is a great font to be used in long proses such as textbooks, dissertations and theses. Keeping it at 9 point is optional. In fact, my master’s thesis was in Garamond.

So that’s the 5 fonts that add credibility and professionalism to your scientific research. Did you find your favorite fonts here? Do you have other favorites? Please share your thoughts in the comment section. Also, please feel free to send this article along to those who might benefit from this short article.

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Now that you know about great scientific fonts, learn more about: PowerPoint Tips for the Scientist

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Sources and Further reading:

Arial vs Helvetica – fonts.com

Research on font trustworthiness: Baskerville vs. Comic Sans

Caslon typeface

History of Garamond

Cell Press Figure Guide

Nature -Guide to preparing final artwork

Science Magazine: Preparing your manuscript

14 Comments

Ewa

I’d rather like to know which font was used to write that article – it’s simple and readable, better than all presented above.

Li

And the font being used for that article is Helvetica, which is one of the fonts mentioned above 😀

ikumikayama

Hi Ewa! Great point. The font used is called “Open Sans” by Steve Matteson. For my blog, I made the font color dark grey to make it easier on the eyes, and also made them slightly bigger than average for easier reading. Hope this helps!

Abraham

Hollo there, i liked the article but none of this fonts looks like the one used in the papers i read, (Journals of the American Chemical Society), do you know which one they use?

Hi There! Thank you for the note! ACS suggests Arial and Helvetica for their journal figures, so that’s what I introduced in this article–for the text, they might very well have their own custom font they use for their publications. I’ll dig into this a little deeper–thank you again!

Martin Silvertant

I’m sorry, but this article is full of misinformation. Part 1 is a reiteration of articles that have been around for years. Absolutely nothing new there, and honestly, is there anyone even considering the typefaces you name there for scientific articles? Is it conceivable that anyone would use Curlz for his essay?

But my real concern goes to the second part. Arial and Helvetica are absolutely not scientific typefaces. The notion that ACS suggests these typefaces doesn’t make them suitable for scientific works. I think you ought to do research as to WHY these typefaces came recommended. Helvetica has history, as it won out of contemporaries like Univers as Helvetica was very heavily marketed. As a side note, Helvetica is actually based on the Akzidenz Grotesk model. Arial was designed to have the same metrics as Helvetica so it could be used on the same printers without having to pay a license fee to use Helvetica. Arial is more legible while Helvetica is more neutral and clear, but neither is particularly great.

So I would say Helvetica and Arial haven’t been chosen because they’re perfect. They’ve been chosen because they’re popular, and Arial is on every Windows computer, so people don’t have to purchase any fonts. I would say neither Arial and Helvetica are known to be particularly good to read. I suspect typefaces like Proxima Nova and Avenir will fair better. To be clear, I don’t think Arial or Helvetica are bad choices for labels and such, but to suggest them as top 5 typefaces, that’s very clearly misinformation.

“When using Arial as figure legends, keep the font size small ~8 points for best results.” For best results? Not entirely. It’s probably a good estimate, but in actuality the pt size should depend on the layout. I would recommend always making a test print to see if the text looks good in print, if that’s what it is intended for. Sometimes 0.2pts more or less could make the difference.

“Helvetica is the most heavily-used font.” I don’t think so. First off, Helvetica is not a font. It’s a typeface. Helvetica Regular would be a font. Helvetica is the most heavily-used typeface in graphic design, and likely the most heavily-used sans typeface. It’s not the most heavily-used typeface. At least, I would be very surprised if it was. I suspect Times New Roman is the most heavily-used.

“The font was designed to be an easy-to-read font.” No, Helvetica was designed to steal the popularity of Akzidenz Grotesk away.

Also, follow this link to see some of the problems of Helvetica at small sizes, and what professionals in the field have to say about it: http://spiekermann.com/en/helvetica-sucks/

“Actually, the font received a facelift in 1983-the newer version is called, you guessed it, Neue Helvetica.” Who would guess that the prefix for the new Helvetica would be German though? Small detail… Anyway, if you like Helvetica but want a more professional typeface (because really, Max Miedinger was not a type designer and as far as I’m concerned that shows), I can recommend Neue Haas Grotesk (a typeface that is true to the original Helvetica, but improved) or Neue Haas Unica (a more fresh looking Helvetica that deviates from the original).

“Helvetica even has its own movie. I haven’t seen it yet, but please comment in the section below if you have.” I have seen it a few times now. It’s quite a pleasure to watch, but there’s a lot of propaganda involved as well. You have the likes of Massimo Vignelli drooling over how great Helvetica is. The man was a pretty great graphic designer (although insisting on always using Helvetica has little to do with graphic design, as one ought to select the perfect typeface for the job, not use one typeface for every job), but he had no insight in type design. On the other hand, you have Erik Spiekermann formulate perfectly what Helvetica stands for. I would say for a type designer the Helvetica documentary is quite pleasant to watch. For the layman I’m afraid the documentary amounts to propaganda. It gives the layman the feeling this is one of the best typefaces out there and it’s simply not, by far.

“Besides its Hollywood (Indie) status, Helvetica is a font that looks great on both print and on screen.” Absolutely not! On Windows computers, websites set in Helvetica tend to look horrendous. The problem is that Helvetica is not well hinted, and so rendering problems occur. Helvetica was obviously not designed for monitors. Neue Helvetica doesn’t have the rendering problem to the same extent I believe, but relatively few people have Neue Helvetica, so it wouldn’t be wise to use that on your website, unless you embed the fonts. For websites I highly recommend using Arial rather than Helvetica.

“Baskerville’s history goes all the way back to 1757 when John Baskerville designed a typeface that works well in print and easy to read.” Easy to read? Not particularly, though it’s not bad either. Baskerville is a transitional typeface, meaning the weight modulation is vertical and the contrast is high. This is the tradition of the Baroque, but it’s not the most pleasant to read. However, Baskerville does look quite academic. For typefaces that are more pleasant to read, I would look at the Garalde style. Garamond and Caslon belong to that classification. They have a diagonal weight modulation, which naturally leads the eyes to the next letters. Typefaces with vertical weight modulation and high contrast tend to feature a fence effect, which disturbs the reading experience. To see this effect well, look at Didone typefaces like Didot and Bodoni.

“This font works best when used in long blocks of text. Try to keep this font between 8 and 14pts for best results.” 14pt seems quite large. Try 9–12pt. This goes for any serif typeface to be used for body text that is intended for print (for the web try 10–14pt, also depending on which device it’s intended for). But again, it will depend on the layout, and always make test prints to make sure it’s pleasant to read.

“Garamond is a great font to be used in long proses such as textbooks, dissertations and theses. Keeping it at 9 point is optional. In fact, my master’s thesis was in Garamond.” I distinctly remember years ago I noticed my Harry Potter book was set in Garamond. Both Garamond and Caslon are still used extensively for books.

However, Garamond may be a bit much for scientific documents. It’s quite classical and it has a low x-height, which these days is not preferable. Caslon is a bit less expressive and has a taller x-height. I would say Caslon is probably better for scientific articles.

One group of typefaces that certainly seems to be missing here is Century. Typefaces like Century Roman and Century Schoolbook. They belong to the Clarendon classification and are reminiscent of typefaces like Baskerville. These typefaces have been popular since the late 19th century and are still used extensively in academic literature. But I suppose you should also make a consideration of whether your article should be about the most comfortable typefaces to read, or the best suitable for scientific work, because they most certainly don’t amount to the same thing, yet you seem to be equating the two in this article.

Hi Martin! Thank you so much for your in-depth note! I have to look over and digest all your excellent points. Would you be open to expanding your writing and be a guest author or send me a link to your website/blog so the readers can have more information about what types to use for their work?

Joylene

THE quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog!!!!!

Elias

Leelawadee is a bit underrated. It is easy on the eyes, and simple. It could use a bit of a TimesNewRoman-punch to it, though.

Kiana

Where can I download Helvetica from? I couldn’t find it anywhere

Charlie Stricklen

Seriously? I don’t know what this smug guy does with typography, in which he seems to be well versed, but if he were to take up writing he would need to work on his grammar.

Michael Phan

I’m not an expert on fonts, but I’m currently using Helvetica for headlines and other Sans text in my thesis and DejaVu for the main text. Feels pretty scientific to me 🙂

Michael Beshai

I enjoyed the historical aspect of this article. Thanks! PS. I see you use a sans serif font.

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Calibri vs Garamond: Can font choice make or break a research paper?

What your preference says about you.

Helen Robertson

best research paper fonts

Credit: Markus Spiske/Unsplash

19 June 2020

best research paper fonts

Markus Spiske/Unsplash

From Times New Roman to Garamond to Cambria, many authors and editors have a preferred font. But does it make a difference when submitting a paper to a journal?

It’s true that a manuscript should be judged on its scientific merit, not on the way it’s presented. But it’s also true that a well-formatted manuscript is more likely to give a good first impression to an editor or reviewer.

Fonts tend to evoke passionate opinions , because appear to have personalities – from serious to comic or gothic. It’s possible that, consciously or not, readers might associate the font choice with the personality or intent of the author.

Jesse Meyer, a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, says he was “overwhelmed” by the heat it generated when he took the topic to Twitter .

The sans-serif font, Calibri, for example, was revealed to be particularly divisive:

Because calibri is ugly. Anything is >> calibri. — Dr. Jessika (@famplanfan) April 30, 2020
Calibri is evil- no idea who thought it should be the Word default font- to me, anything written in calibri screams “I just didn’t care enough to use a reasonable font”- HATE IT (and my lab will back ne up if anyone doubts my vehemence on this topic! — Anita Corbett- VOTE EARLY (She/her) (@acorbe2) May 1, 2020
I use Calibri default as it is the default so avoids any judgement on the font choice, but now I see that using the default creates judgement that I'm too lazy to change the font! 🙃 — Harriet Johnson (@harrietfjohnson) May 1, 2020

Don't stand out for the wrong reasons

So, why is font choice so important to some people?

Kristina Gill, an archaeobotanist and archaeologist at the University of Oregon, believes that typeface should vary between formats.

For manuscript submission, she favours Times New Roman or Garamond, “which is a little more open and easier to read”. For presentations and posters, she prefers Calibri, which she says is easier to read at a distance.

Charlotte Flatebo, an applied physics PhD candidate from Rice University says “you can’t control how your research will work”, but you can control how you present your manuscript. “It’s a little piece of victory.”

For journal submission, don’t overthink it. It defies logic that a journal would reject a manuscript on the basis of typeface alone.

Many journals have no specific requirements regarding format for submission, so if you prefer to write in a particular typeface – within reasonably standard fonts – it’s probably not going to hinder the likelihood of your paper being sent for review.

In fact, the common message from editors is that font choice doesn’t matter, unless it’s really noticeable.

“If your font draws attention to itself, it’s the wrong font,” says Andrew Bissette, senior editor at Communications Chemistry , a journal published by Springer Nature, which also publishes Nature Index. “Your reader should be thinking about your argument, not your presentation.”

Focus on formatting

It’s more important, says Bissette, to focus on “good paragraph structure, clear design of figures, and sensible spacing between lines and paragraphs”.

In other words, font choice is probably an unnecessary concern.

Something that many journals do consider very carefully, however, is the type of font they publish in.

Historically, journals were read as physical copies; now, the vast majority of researchers read academic papers online. Trends in journal fonts clearly reflect this shift from print to digital.

For example, the new Nature typeface , launched in October 2019, was designed specifically for scientific writing, to accommodate the needs of technical content including equations, formulae and symbols while also optimizing readability on a small screen.

According to Nature creative director Kelly Krause: “We aimed for an overall impression of calm, rational intelligence with perhaps a dash of British formality and wit.”

So while the context of the writing can be an important consideration in typeface choice, for an individual researcher, it is mainly a question of personal preference.

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  • v.16(12); 2020 Dec

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Ten simple rules for typographically appealing scientific texts

Lars ole schwen.

Fraunhofer Institute for Digital Medicine MEVIS, Bremen, Germany

Introduction

Text is ubiquitous in everyday scientific work—when was the last time you spent 5 minutes working without writing, reading, or interacting with any kind of equipment that had text (scales, labels, brand name, etc.) on it? Most forms of communicating ideas and findings in science are based on text, e.g., BSc/MSc/PhD theses, manuscript drafts, grant proposals, reports, or job applications. In addition, text appears in figures, (electronic) slides for presentations, and posters, i.e., in formats focused more strongly on a graphical presentation.

All these documents are usually written to convince the audience of the quality of your ideas or results, ultimately with the goal of a positive evaluation (grading, decision on funding/hiring, etc.). A good visual appearance of the text and graphical elements is key for making a good first impression on the audience. When sustaining this impression by clearly structured and well-written text, professional layout is again important because less-than-optimally typeset texts distract the audience from fully appreciating the high-quality content [ 1 ]. Even though single visual inconsistencies cost the readers only a fraction of a second, these interruptions to the flow of reading add up and subconsciously frustrate the readers, possibly undermining your credibility. Poor visual appearance and language can be spotted at first glance in Fig 1 , and incorrect content (or a confusing structure, not shown in Fig 1 ) take much longer to notice. Properly formatting text is particularly challenging in interdisciplinary fields like Computational Biology, where authors are faced with a variety of text elements, e.g., Greek characters, mathematical formulas, chemical formulas, and source code listings. Similar to inconsistent writing style, inconsistent formatting may indicate plagiarism, e.g., stray dashes resulting from copying and pasting hyphenated text, garbled characters, and fonts/formatting copied from the source.

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Poor formatting, incorrect language, or wrong contents?

Scientists frequently need to produce final document layout themselves, either from scratch or based on a template—where some templates are well designed and others are, well, “designed.” If a template is given, fewer decisions need to be made, but some typographical knowledge is still helpful to understand the template and to deal with issues unforeseen therein. Ideally, the actual typesetting is subsequently done by trained professionals, e.g., working with publishers, who know what they are doing [ 2 ]. Submissions should, in this case, follow the publishers’ guidelines and templates, but still be prepared carefully, as “reviewers’ opinion about a manuscript can be skewed by careless formatting” [ 3 ]. Typography is thus one of the tools of the trade for scientists.

This article is meant as a practical guide for typesetting scientific texts, including motivation for the recommendations. While focusing on the intended layout, the rules also provide hints on how these results can be obtained in common text processing/typesetting tools (such as Microsoft Word/LibreOffice Writer, Google Docs, and LaTeX). These rules are meant to complement

  • detailed typography textbooks or reference books [ 4 – 7 ] by providing hands-on recommendations for everyday scientific writing;
  • software manuals (typically focused on features and how to achieve specific formatting) by explaining which formatting makes sense in which case;
  • style manuals [ 8 – 10 ];
  • tips for scientific writing [ 11 – 17 ] and collaboration tools [ 18 – 21 ]; and
  • specialized recommendations for slides [ 22 , 23 ] and posters [ 24 , 25 ].

The rules primarily apply to English (specifically American English), and many of them also apply to other languages using the Latin alphabet and beyond. However, ligatures and diacritics (Rule 2), punctuation and its spacing (Rule 2), hyphenation (Rule 3), and number formatting (Rule 8) vary between languages.

Rule 1: Fonts—Choose a suitable (type)face for your work

Fonts should be chosen according to the intended function. Documents primarily consisting of text are usually typeset in serif fonts where letters end in horizontal lines (see Fig 2A ) guiding the readers’ eyes through the lines like a “railroad track” [ 26 ]. Moreover, serifs provide distinctive shapes of words ( Fig 2B ). This allows more easily reading text by fixing a few points in each line (saccades, [ 27 ]) rather than continuously reading each individual letter. These properties generally make serif fonts easily readable.

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(A) Terminology to describe the “anatomy” of glyphs. (B, C) Samples of serif (B) and sans serif fonts (C), all of them nominally of the same size (but notice the differences in width, x versus ascender/descender height and overall apparent size). (D) Confusing use of fonts for a purpose they were not designed for.

In contrast, posters, slides, and figure annotations containing only little text and incomplete sentences require each word to be clearly legible. In this case, sans serif fonts are more suitable ( Fig 2C ). Nonproportional (typewriter-like) fonts where each glyph has the same width have a technical appearance and are used, e.g., for source code listings. Calligraphic, handwritten, or otherwise creative fonts may lack a serious appearance and should be used with care in scientific content, e.g., if a handwritten/sketched look is intended [ 28 ]. Besides the function, fonts can convey characteristics like elegant, modern, or traditional (see Fig 2D ) [ 29 ].

In 1 document, only as many fonts as necessary should be mixed. Fonts should be combined to complement each other with the intended level of contrast and with matching x height and length of ascenders/descenders. The main font for the text should include all required diacritics (e.g., for proper names), non-Latin characters (e.g., Greek), and symbols (e.g., arrows or for mathematical formulas), cf. Rule 2.

Rule 2: Individual characters and words—Get the details right

Text is composed of single characters including (uppercase and lowercase) letters, numbers, punctuation, characters with diacritics, and symbols. Typographically, however, text is composed of glyphs, representations of characters in a specific shape and design.

Certain combinations of letters appear differently when combined, forming so-called ligatures (e.g., the “fi” in the word fish in Fig 2A ). Ligatures enhance readability by avoiding visual gaps inside words and are examples of 1 glyph representing multiple characters.

Punctuation is used to structure sentences and should use correct glyphs (cf. Fig 3A ).

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(A) Typographically correct symbols make a difference between sloppily written and conveniently readable texts. (B) Many language use the Latin alphabet combined with different types of diacritics and additional characters.

Quotation marks exist in 2 forms: straight/dumb (as typed on the keyboard) and typographic form. In English, raised 6/66 and 9/99 forms as shown in Fig 3A are used as opening and closing quotation marks, respectively, depending on whether you follow a style using single or double quotes. Punctuation is placed before or after closing quotation marks depending on whether it is part of the quote, except for periods and commas always placed before the closing quotation mark [ 10 ]. Apostrophes have the raised-9 form of a closing single quotation mark. Prime and double prime symbols are used, e.g., for feet/inches, arcminutes/arcseconds in geographic latitude and longitude (cf. Fig 3B ), and derivatives in mathematics and to indicate positions of carbon on ribose rings in molecular biology. Neither of these symbols should be confused with accents (see below).

Dashes come in 3 flavors. For hyphenation (see also Rule 3) and compound words, a standard dash (-) is used. The slightly longer en dash (–) is used for ranges (e.g., pages 24–33), sometimes as the symbol in bullet lists (see Rule 6), and to indicate naming after separate persons (e.g., the Michaelis–Menten reaction) as opposed to hyphenated names (e.g., 2008 Nobel laureate Françoise Barré-Sinoussi). The minus sign is typically similar to the en dash. The em dash—as shown here—is used as a phrase marker—or for adding afterthoughts. However, besides unspaced em dashes, spaced en dashes are also recommended for these purposes [ 7 ].

Accents and other diacritics (cf. Fig 3B ) may be complicated, in particular outside one’s native language. Still, they are worth getting right—imagine what a picky reviewer will think about your scientific work if you cited them, but did not even manage to spell their name correctly.

Correct symbols that cannot directly be typed can be selected/copied from a character table or entered via their respective Unicode code points. Both these options are tedious. Using defined macros or auto-correction features of the text processing software can be more convenient, but do not always work as intended and should be checked.

Rule 3: Lines and paragraphs—Keep the text flowing

Paragraphs consist of lines of text (see Rule 5 for a discussion of line width). Paragraphs can be typeset left-aligned, centered, right-aligned, or fully justified; cf. Fig 4A . Justifying text requires aligning both the left and right ends of lines, and this is commonly achieved by stretching the spacing between words. Paragraphs in continuous text are usually typeset justified. This is most convenient to read as paragraph breaks can be spotted easily, and there is no random graphical emphasis on words at the beginning or end of lines which are longer than the surrounding lines. Shorter pieces of text can also be typeset left-aligned, e.g., on posters and slides. Centered and right-aligned text is sometimes used for headings, displayed equations, or tables (cf. Rule 7). Such alignment is not suitable for longer texts as it makes finding the next line inconvenient ( Fig 4A ).

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(A) Left-aligned text randomly emphasizes words appearing at the end of the line (indicated in orange); right-aligned text makes finding the next line unnecessarily difficult for the readers (indicated in blue); centered text combines both disadvantages; and justified text avoids these issues and has the calmest appearance. (B) Examples where hyphenation or line breaks interrupt the flow of reading (hyphenation examples from p. 115 in [ 30 ]). (C) Indenting the first line of paragraphs (except after headings) clearly indicates where a new paragraph starts, and this may be unclear at the top of a page otherwise.

Line breaks in paragraphs should not interrupt the flow of reading. To prevent undesired line breaks, e.g., between numbers and their unit ( Fig 4B ), non-breaking spaces should be used.

Words may need to be hyphenated to avoid large gaps in lines in justified text. Text should be hyphenated by the respective feature of the text processing/typesetting software. Automatic hyphenation usually works well if language settings are correct, but should be checked for misleading hyphenations ( Fig 4B ). Enforcing hyphenation by manually entering dashes and spaces/line breaks may lead to stray dashes when fur-ther editing the text.

The first line of paragraphs is frequently indented ( Fig 4C ) to clearly indicate that a new paragraph has started (except immediately after headings where indentation would be redundant). In contrast to vertically spacing paragraphs, indenting is also visible after a page break, below a figure, and after lists.

Alignment, indentation, and other formatting of paragraphs should not be applied manually for each paragraph, but via suitably defined paragraph or document styles. Ideally, this is provided by the document template.

Rule 4: Emphasize what is important, and only that

Not all words in a text are equally important, and some need to be distinguished visually. Visual emphasis, however, should not happen by accident (e.g., because a word happens to appear at the end of a line or because a symbol needs to be used from a different font). Instead, emphasis should result from a conscious decision, and a suitable and consistent way of formatting different types of importance should be used. The main purposes of increased visibility of words are.

  • structuring (providing “entry points” on the page where one could start reading),
  • emphasis (where stressing something only makes sense within the context), and
  • markup (e.g., in bibliographies or for syntax highlighting in source code).

Typographically, there are different variants of highlighting ( Fig 5A ), ranging from subtle to highly prominent. The prominence of emphasis can be characterized by the change of “color” [ 7 ] (or “type color” [ 31 ]), i.e., how dark the page appears at some location when viewed out of focus. Larger changes of type color are more prominent highlighting and easier to spot when just glancing at the page/poster/slide. Italic (no change in type color) is usually the formatting of choice for emphasis within context. In contrast, bold (notable change in type color) is useful, e.g., for headings or terms defined in a glossary. Small caps (no change in type color) are sometimes used to distinguish family names from given names or real-world from model entities. Underlining used to be one of the few possibilities of emphasis using a typewriter (see Fig 5B ), but is neither particularly nice nor useful nowadays.

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(A) Text in italics, small caps, or a matching alternative font does not change the type color of the page and emphasizes words within the context while reading. Bold text, uppercase letters, and different colors are more prominent and serve as “entry points” to the text. Using a contrasting alternative font, letter spacing, and underlining words forms an even stronger visual contrast, but is challenging to get looking good. (B) In the era of typewriters, authors were much more limited in using emphasis in their texts. (C) Italic, bold, and small caps should be used as properly designed font variants and not be faked by slanting (making the text look unnatural), making lines thicker (leading to, e.g., shrunken eyes and unbalanced spacing), or scaling capitals (making glyphs skinny). (Disclosure of image manipulation: text typed using a mechanical typewriter was digitized and edited for clarity, and color channels of the RGB image were manipulated to imitate red text from a 2-color ink ribbon).

Emphasis in continuous texts should be used sparingly. If 80% of a text is emphasized, actually the remaining 20% of the text are most visible. In contrast, text not meant to be read as a whole may profit from extensively combining different ways of highlighting, e.g., markup in bibliographies or syntax highlighting in source code listings.

Pitfalls of highlighting are shown in Fig 5C . Italic, bold, and small caps of a font should only be used if available as properly designed variants. Automatically created variants (slanting glyphs, using thicker lines, or shrinking uppercase letters) are of lower quality (“Frankensteinian manipulation” [ 32 ]) and best avoided.

To achieve consistent visual emphasis throughout a document, suitable styles or macros should be defined and used. Naming these by purpose rather than appearance makes it easy to consistently change formatting when editing and revising a document (cf. Rule 9).

Rule 5: Pages—Visually distribute your story

Unlike information on web pages, printed material and presentation slides are arranged on separate pages of fixed size. Contents thus need to be distributed with page breaks at useful locations (unless, of course, only a single page or a poster is needed). Besides text, also non-text material (figures, tables, and footnotes) needs to be positioned on pages.

For good readability, lines should not be longer than 75 to 80 characters [ 7 ] or require additional line spacing; otherwise, the readers’ eyes cannot easily jump from 1 line to the next. Reducing the margin width is thus not a good way to squeeze more content into a given number of pages. Also, margins are needed for the readers simply to hold the document without fingers covering part of the content and to take notes. Only little text such as page numbers should be placed in the margin (top outside, bottom outside, or bottom center). Two-column layout allows more readable text per page, but makes placing wide elements like figures or tables more complex. One-sided layout with page numbers at the bottom center is more robust if readers will likely print the document themselves and might not use duplexing or might print 2-on-1 (swapping left and right pages).

If not defined by a template, one easy way [ 33 ] to define page margins (cf. Fig 6A ) is to first determine how wide the text block needs to be to fit about 70 characters on average. The page is then divided into an n × n grid such that using 2 stripes of cells each as the left and right margins leaves the desired text width. One and 2 horizontal stripes are then used as the top and bottom margins, respectively. For 2-sided layout, each page should have only 1 stripe as the inner margin. In both cases, additional space for binding may need to be considered. For 12-point Cambria text on an A4-sized page, this construction results in n = 12 and margins of 35 mm, 25 mm, and 50 mm on the left/right, top, and bottom, respectively. In contrast, using a default setting of 1-inch margins for a letter-sized page containing 10-point Times New Roman text results in about 115 characters per line, too much for convenient reading.

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(A) One way to construct page margins for 1-sided and 2-sided layouts, also considering the type of binding used (here: spiral binding with narrower inner margin—glue or sewn binding requires enlarging the inner margin). (B) Figures (or tables) are commonly placed at the top of a page (or on figure-only pages), but not in between the text. (C) Orphans and widows, single lines of text separated from the rest of their paragraph, should be avoided.

Besides the running text, documents contain “floating” objects like figures or tables. These also need to be placed on the pages, typically at the top or bottom or on figure-only pages, ideally close to where they are referenced; see Fig 6B . Placing figures inside the running text would interrupt reading and may cause distracting page breaks. Instead, presenting figures in a separate “thread” outside the continuous text also permits readers to just browse through the figures and quickly find what interests them.

Footnotes, as the name suggests, are placed at the bottom of the page where they are referenced (which, clearly, should be done automatically). Footnotes are useful for relevant information complementing the main text without interrupting its flow (e.g., translations), see below for an example. Sometimes (e.g., to make presentation slides self-contained), footnotes are also used for literature references.

When optimizing page breaks, no single lines should be separated from the rest of a paragraph; see Fig 6C . Such single lines at the bottom and top of a page are denoted as widows (“have no future”) and orphans (“have no past”), respectively [ 33 ]. (The previous sentence is an example where a footnote would make sense: This vivid terminology is also used in other languages, e.g., the German terms for widow and orphan are “Hurenkind” [politically correct translation: offspring of a person working in the world’s oldest profession] and “Schusterjunge” [shoemaker’s apprentice].)

Text processing/typesetting software can places figures and partially prevent orphans and widows automatically, but this may require additional fine-tuning. Tricks for optimizing page breaks include rephrasing the text to make a paragraph on the affected page 1 line longer or shorter; enlarging the page vertically or breaking the page a line earlier; and moving, enlarging, or shrinking figures.

Rule 6: Lists—Present some content in structured form

Not all textual information is best presented as complete sentences in continuous text. In particular, as few text as possible should be used on slides [ 22 , 23 ] and posters [ 24 , 25 ]. Also in longer written texts, some information is best presented in (sub-)structured lists, either unsorted (itemized/bulleted) or sorted (numbered) lists; see Fig 7 . The readability of lists may profit from manually optimizing line breaks, in particular on slides and posters.

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Object name is pcbi.1008458.g007.jpg

(A) Hard-to-recognize list, (B) properly formatted unsorted list, and (C) properly formatted numbered list.

Numbered lists are most useful for step-by-step instructions or if some of the entries are referenced from elsewhere (“item 5c” is more convenient than “the third sub-item of the fifth item”). Other common types of structured lists are glossaries (alphabetically sorted definition of terms where readers should quickly find the term they are looking for) and bibliographies (which additionally require cross-referencing from the main text). Itemized and numbered lists should be formatted consistently, i.e., they should be entered as the appropriate type of list and not by manually entering bullets/numbers and indentation; see Fig 7 .

Particularly in bibliographies, it makes sense to conceptually distinguish content and layout. Here, the same information (author, title, journal, volume, year, etc.) should be printed in 1 consistent style (format, referencing from the text, and sorting). Using suitable reference management integrated with the text processing avoids manually formatting bibliographies.

Rule 7: Figures, plots, and tables—Do not neglect the text outside the continuous text

Typography is relevant not only for the continuous text, but also for text in figures, plots, and tables. Figures convey content in easy-to-grasp graphical form, and plots present data in visual form, whereas tables provide precise numbers. Creating high-quality and well-readable figures [ 28 , 34 – 39 ] can be challenging, but is worth spending effort; well-designed figures with self-contained captions telling the main story are a useful way of reaching hurried readers just browsing through your work [ 15 ] or starting reading by looking at figures [ 40 ]. In particular, a good graphical abstract [ 41 ] or concept figure [ 42 ] can attract readers (even though the impact on citations is unclear [ 43 ]).

Figures may contain different amounts of text that should be consistent with the main text not only in terminology, but also in terms of fonts and symbols. Figures are often created in separate software, so consistency may be challenging. However, the limited capability of software is not a convincing excuse for low-quality figures (cf. Fig 8A versus Fig 8B ), and malicious readers could interpret it as limited capability of the author.

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(A) Poor-quality plot: numbers are hard to read, symbols are not displayed properly, and color provides no additional information (except that automatic spell checking marked part of the axis labels as wrong). (B) Same data, better plot quality. (C) Poor-quality table: excessive lines and hard-to-read numbers, even in the right-aligned column due to the footnote symbol and numerals of different width. (D) Same information, better table layout.

Table formatting includes proper column alignment. While text should be left-aligned in columns, numbers in columns can only be compared conveniently if printed right-aligned and written in numerals that are all of the same width (table figures). Tables should not include too many prominent lines to prevent the impression of a “prison cell” (cf. Fig 8C versus Fig 8D ). Instead, tables can be structured optically by moderate spacing, light shading of every other row, or light lines. Whitespace is useful for structuring contents [ 44 , 45 ], elsewhere as well, e.g., in figures and lists (cf. Rule 6).

Rule 8: Mathematical and chemical formulas—Do not let doubt enter the equation

Numbers should not only be correct, but should also be formatted appropriately. Numbers with more than 4 digits are grouped using commas between each group of 3 digits: 31,556,952. For decimal numbers, a period (“point”) is used as the decimal separator: 3.14. Following [ 10 ], ordinal numbers should be written as 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, … without superscript letters. When reporting computer-generated results, notation like 5·10 −9 is easier to read than pasting 5e−9 verbatim (and shows that you know what the “e” stands for).

Formulas provide precise information in a very condensed form. They are difficult to get right in the first place, and incorrect typesetting can alter the meaning: consider, e.g., 2 3 = 8 versus 23, or the isotope 14 C versus 14 carbon atoms. Formulas are a particular example where correct typesetting is indispensable to show you understood what you have written. Shorter and simpler formulas can be included “inline” in the text ( Fig 9A and 9B ). In this case, font, font size, and the base line should match the surrounding text. More complex formulas, those to be cross-referenced by number or formulas too high to fit in the text without modified line spacing, are better written as displayed formulas ( Fig 9C and 9D ). From a grammar and punctuation perspective, also displayed formulas should be considered part of the sentences in the containing text. Depending on the text processing software used, formulas can be entered via math syntax or equation editors or (e.g., in case of complex chemical formulas) may need to be created in external software and imported as images.

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Object name is pcbi.1008458.g009.jpg

(A versus B) Formulas in the text should use a font matching the text and match the baseline of the text. Mathematical variables should be typeset in italic, unlike text parts of formulas or certain functions. (C versus D) Similarly, displayed formulas should match the surrounding text and are easier to understand if properly aligned. (E) Chemical formulas include subscript and superscript indices around symbols for chemical elements.

In formulas, mathematical variables are commonly typeset in italic. However, mathematical functions like sin (sine), text (including, e.g., abbreviations in indices), units, chemical elements, and certain constants should not appear in italic ( Fig 9B, 9D, and 9E ). To make longer formulas easier to read, proper alignment and grouped brackets of matching size are helpful ( Fig 9D ).

Rule 9: Use templates and styles for automatic and consistent formatting

When writing texts, unfinished layout may distract from content and structure. However, these topics should be addressed and concentrated on first, see Rule 10. Using software like Microsoft Word, LibreOffice Writer, or Google Docs that uses the “what you see is what you get” principle, layout needs to be ignored actively, unless a structure view, disabled page preview, or similar is used. Writing text in markup languages (e.g., Markdown or LaTeX using “what you see is what you mean”) makes the separation of content/structure and format/layout easier, but requires more technological affinity.

Structure in texts should be defined by styles/macros declaring, e.g., a section heading as a “level 1 heading” rather than manually numbering it, formatting it to a specific font size in bold with additional line spacing, making sure it is not followed by a page break, etc.; see Fig 10 . Properly structuring in this way also permits automatically creating a table of contents, cross-referencing to section numbers without keeping them up to date manually, automatically using the same style, or conveniently switching the style if the template is changed. Similarly, figures and tables with captions should be included as such objects so that they can be positioned automatically at the top/bottom or on separate pages, again with the side effect of automatic numbering and cross-referencing.

An external file that holds a picture, illustration, etc.
Object name is pcbi.1008458.g010.jpg

(A versus B) Marking headings as the appropriate level of headings (instead of manually formatting it bold and larger) ensures consistent layout (Google Docs example). (C) Using automatically numbered headings and proper cross-references (rather than manually entering it) allows keeping them up to date automatically (Microsoft Word example). (D) Using a macro name indicating its purpose (rather than having to remember the formatting for a specific purpose) makes writing easier (LaTeX example).

Rule 10: Iterative writing and typesetting—Do first things first and last things last

Formatting manuscripts is an iterative process, just like writing the contents [ 12 , 16 ]. When drafting contents at an early stage of the writing process, it only makes sense to pay attention to typographic issues that will likely be missed or cause problems/increased efforts later. This includes proper structuring, cross-referencing, and using template styles/macros. When editing the text later on, effort should be invested in those parts to be kept in the final manuscript. Issues relevant at this stage include, e.g., the contents of proper formulas, tables, and figures. Only when the contents have been finalized, it makes sense to polish the layout by optimizing line or page breaks and figure placement. Prematurely polishing either language or layout of parts of text that are deleted later is wasted effort.

Solitary and collaborative [ 18 , 20 ] writing may use a different format/platform than the one used for formatting and finalizing the submission, e.g., one may collaborate via a Google Doc or via Markdown files in a Git repository followed by finalizing the layout in LibreOffice Writer or LaTeX. Moreover, input from one or different authors needs to be unified also on a technical level, regardless of the technical platform used. Enough time should be planned for the work needed to turn finalized content into a formatted document ready for submission.

Acknowledgments

The author would like to thank the organizers of CdE-SommerAkademie 2017 and the participants of the “Getting Things Finished” workshop for providing an inspiring environment where he wrote a substantial part of this manuscript. Moreover, the author would like to acknowledge Simon Kempny for fruitful discussions about a draft of this manuscript.

Funding Statement

The author did not receive funding for preparing this manuscript.

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Best Research Paper Font and Size: Best Styles for an Essay

Best Research Paper Font and Size: Best Styles for an Essay

The Best Word Font in Research Paper

The Best Word Font in Research Paper

As you edit and polish your research paper, you should know the suitable font when formatting. Many students struggle to locate suitable fonts that are appropriate for academia. Thankfully, most of the writing styles such as APA or MLA end this frustration by indicating the right fonts to use in your work.

Many instructors indicate the type of fonts students should use in their assignments. That is because some fonts are large hence prompting one to use more pages than indicated in the instructions section.

best research paper fonts

Best Font for Research Paper

The choice of fonts can affect your academic writing work. The right font should make your work remain credible and professional. Dressing your work with the right fonts is procuring a suitable image.

Ideally, the best font for a research paper is the Times New Roman as it is clear and most requested by university and college faculties. Other common ones are the Arial and Calibri fonts, which are preferred because of their large size compared with New Times Roman.

commonly used fonts

Some fonts can be attractive but hard to read because they have several curls and curves.

When handling research work, use the correct font which has enough allowance between letters to avoid overcrowding.

The professional fonts should be easy to read. The good news for you is that Times New Roman is a popular choice for academic documents.

It is the safest option because most examiners are comfortable with it. Notably, New Times Roman has sound APA support.

Best Font Size for Research Paper

The best font size for a research paper is point 12. This size is the most common ones, especially for New Times Roman, Arial or Calibri fonts. Basically, the size of the fonts should make your work to be readable without straining the audience. We measure size using ‘points’.

Most academic research papers use MLA, APA, and Harvard references and formats.

The point is a percentage of the screen that the font is occupying. For academic papers, the recommended size is 12 points. It is the most comfortable size for the audience without looking oversized or bulky.

using different font sizes

 The font size plays a critical role in making your research work impressive and appealing.

The writer should use the official font size when submitting the project.

This size is key when you want to determine the number of pages that your project should carry.

We use font 12 to calculate and know the number of pages the entire work will have to avoid going beyond or under the given guideline.

If you use a different font size, you may exceed or hit below the word count leading to disqualification or any other penalty as the lecturer may decide.

Commonly Used Fonts for Academic Work

Different writing styles recommend certain fonts for students to use while tackling academic work. Some of them are as follows:

1) Times New Roman

Times New Roman has an authoritative look and feel. It became into practice in 1932 to enhance the legibility and economy of space. This Times New Roman has a narrow printing point that is easily readable.

Arial has been the most used font for the past thirty years. One of the characteristics of Arial fonts is that they have rounded faces. Furthermore, the edges of the letters do not manifest in the horizontal line. Instead, these edges are at an angle.

Besides, this font is easy to read whether used in both large and small blocks. It is a perfect format that one can use in academic work.

Calibri is a humanist font with variable strokes and designs. It is a pretty-looking font suitable for large displays such as presentations.

Factors Determining the Font and Size for Academic Writing

1. teachers instructions.

increasing font size

When you receive your essay assignment, peruse through and find the preferred font type and size. Some professors are comfortable with particular fonts.

The professor will indicate the preferred font for your work. You can begin by writing and polishing your work with your font and size and later format it according to instructions.

Most academic papers target certain pages of the assignments.

For example, when the instructions demand that you use Times New Roman, you should stick to that for you to produce the right number of pages as guided by the instructions.

Teachers know that when you use a particular font and size for your research, you will produce the correct quantity after researching.

2. Your Eye Ability

One will feel comfortable when using certain fonts than others. Reading and writing while you are straining your eyes to see your work can be disastrous. The cool thing is you can settle for the fonts that can make your eye enjoy beholding your work.

Several fonts exist to use for your work without straining your eyes. However, you should ensure that you settle for the right font when formatting your final documents.

For example, some fonts have curls or curves that make affect the readability of your work. Such can make your professor respond unkindly.

If the professor did not offer guidance to you, then you can use the correct font according to the writing styles recommendations.

3. Teacher’s Font Preference and Eye Abilities

A teacher may instruct that you use certain fonts when submitting your project work. More importantly, even if it is not your favorite font to use, you should stick to the instructions and complete your work as guided.  

We have varying eye abilities. Some are comfortable and safe to use a particular font like Arial because they do not strain the eyes while using it. Some fonts are not friendly to some people when working, making your entire writing experience to be hostile.

If you can work well with 12 point font size, well and good. In case the lecturer wants point size 10, use a comfortable font during your writing and editing process then change it to the recommended size before submitting.

4. Type of the Academic work, Essays vs Graphics

The type of academic work dictates the type of font to use for effective delivery. If you are writing an essay, you should use the recommended fonts and sizes as per the writing styles. These styles are MLA, APA, and so on.

You should not use any font which is not official to any writing style. If unsure, it is sensible to consult your instructor and remain on the correct track.

On the other hand, you should also use the correct font when you are working with graphics in your academic projects.

Just like essays, the graphics also have official fonts that students should use when designing and captioning them. Sticking to the rules makes your work hold a professional appeal.

Graphics are the perfect ways of presenting information to make readers create the right perceptions at a glance. Luckily, you should caption them with the recommended fonts and sizes for better delivery.

5. Personal Preference

What appeals to one writer differs from what makes a different writer excited and comfortable. What does that mean? Different writers have varying impressions about what fonts and sizes work for them.

If the instructions for your projects are open to allow you to use multiple fonts from the given list, you should settle for your favorite from the list.

That implies that the instructor may be marking papers that will come with varying font types according to the writer’s preference from the given list of options.

6. Readability

changing word font

There is no secret in this. Some fonts are more readable than others.

For example, when you are using Times New Roman as your favorite font, it will consume less space but score high on legibility.

Remember, a readable document is an attractive document. Do not compromise on this. Use the right font that is legible and easy to read.

Based on the recommended fonts for particular styles, choose the one that looks more attractive.

Check out our tips on how to name a research paper for more guidance on how to prepare your paper before submitting it. This may improve the clarity of your file and promote grading.

Josh Jasen

When not handling complex essays and academic writing tasks, Josh is busy advising students on how to pass assignments. In spare time, he loves playing football or walking with his dog around the park.

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What font should I choose for my thesis?

This post is by DrJanene Carey, a freelance writer and editor based in Armidale NSW. She occasionally teaches academic writing at the University of New England and often edits academic theses, articles and reports. Her website is http://www.janenecarey.com

Arguably, this question is a classic time waster and the student who poses it should be told to just get on with writing up their research. But as someone who edits theses for a living, I think a bit of time spent on fonts is part of the process of buffing and polishing what is, after all, one of the most important documents you will ever produce. Just bear in mind that there is no need to immerse yourself so deeply in the topic that you start quibbling about whether it’s a font or a typeface that you are choosing .

Times New Roman is the standard choice for academic documents, and the thesis preparation guidelines of some universities stipulate its use. For many years, it was the default body text for Microsoft Word. With the release of Office 2007, the default became a sans serif typeface called Calibri. Lacking the little projecting bits (serifs) at the end of characters makes Calibri and its many friends, such as Arial, Helvetica and Verdana, look smoother and clearer on a screen, but generally makes them less readable than a serif typeface when used for printed text . The other problem with choosing a sans serif for your body text is that if you want passages in italics (for example, lengthy participant quotes) often this will be displayed as slanted letters, rather than as a true italic font.

You would like your examiners to feel as comfortable as possible while their eyes are traversing the many, many pages of your thesis, so maximising legibility and readability is a good idea. Times New Roman is ubiquitous and familiar, which means it is probably the safest option, but it does have a couple of drawbacks. Originally designed for The Times in London, its characters are slightly narrowed, so that more of them can be squished into a newspaper column. Secondly, some people intensely dislike TNR because they think it has been overused, and regard it as the font you choose when you are not choosing a font .

If you do have the luxury of choice (your university doesn’t insist you use Times New Roman, and you have defined document styles that are easy to modify, and there’s enough time left before the submission deadline) then I think it is worth considering what other typefaces might work well with your thesis. I’m not a typographical expert, but I have the following suggestions.

  • Don’t use Calibri, or any other sans serif font, for your body text, though it is fine for headings. Most people agree that dense chunks of printed text are easier to read if the font is serif, and examiners are likely to expect a typeface that doesn’t stray too far from the standard. To my eye, Calibri looks a little too casual for the body of a thesis.
  • Typefaces like Garamond, Palatino, Century Schoolbook, Georgia, Minion Pro, Cambria and Constantia are all perfectly acceptable, and they come with Microsoft Word. However, some of them (Georgia and Constantia, for example) feature non-lining numerals, which means that instead of all sitting neatly on the base line, some will stand higher or lower than others, just like letters do. This looks nice when they are integrated with the text, but it is probably not what you want for a tabular display.
  • Consider using a different typeface for your headings. It will make them more prominent, which enhances overall readability because the eye scanning the pages can quickly take in the hierarchy of ideas. The easiest way to get a good contrast with your serif body text is to have sans serif headings. Popular combinations are Garamond/Helvetica; Minion Pro/Myriad Pro; Times New Roman/Arial Narrow. But don’t create a dog’s breakfast by having more than two typefaces in your thesis – use point sizes, bold and italics for variety.

Of late, I’ve become quite fond of Constantia. It’s an attractive serif typeface that came out with Office 2007 at the same time as Calibri, and was specifically designed to look good in print and on screen. Increasingly, theses will be read in PDF rather than book format, so screen readability is an important consideration.  Asked to review Microsoft’s six new ClearType fonts prior to their release, typographer Raph Levien said Constantia was likely to be everyone’s favourite, because ‘Even though it’s a highly readable Roman font departing only slightly from the classical model, it still manages to be fresh and new.’

By default, Constantia has non-lining numerals, but from Word 2010 onwards you can set them to be lining via the advanced font/number forms option, either throughout your document or in specific sections, such as within tables.

Here is an excerpt from a thesis, shown twice with different typefaces. The first excerpt features Calibri headings with Constantia body text, and the second has that old favourite, Times New Roman. As these examples have been rendered as screenshots, you will get a better idea of how the fonts actually look if you try them on your own computer and printer.

Calibri Constantia

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13.1 Formatting a Research Paper

Learning objectives.

  • Identify the major components of a research paper written using American Psychological Association (APA) style.
  • Apply general APA style and formatting conventions in a research paper.

In this chapter, you will learn how to use APA style , the documentation and formatting style followed by the American Psychological Association, as well as MLA style , from the Modern Language Association. There are a few major formatting styles used in academic texts, including AMA, Chicago, and Turabian:

  • AMA (American Medical Association) for medicine, health, and biological sciences
  • APA (American Psychological Association) for education, psychology, and the social sciences
  • Chicago—a common style used in everyday publications like magazines, newspapers, and books
  • MLA (Modern Language Association) for English, literature, arts, and humanities
  • Turabian—another common style designed for its universal application across all subjects and disciplines

While all the formatting and citation styles have their own use and applications, in this chapter we focus our attention on the two styles you are most likely to use in your academic studies: APA and MLA.

If you find that the rules of proper source documentation are difficult to keep straight, you are not alone. Writing a good research paper is, in and of itself, a major intellectual challenge. Having to follow detailed citation and formatting guidelines as well may seem like just one more task to add to an already-too-long list of requirements.

Following these guidelines, however, serves several important purposes. First, it signals to your readers that your paper should be taken seriously as a student’s contribution to a given academic or professional field; it is the literary equivalent of wearing a tailored suit to a job interview. Second, it shows that you respect other people’s work enough to give them proper credit for it. Finally, it helps your reader find additional materials if he or she wishes to learn more about your topic.

Furthermore, producing a letter-perfect APA-style paper need not be burdensome. Yes, it requires careful attention to detail. However, you can simplify the process if you keep these broad guidelines in mind:

  • Work ahead whenever you can. Chapter 11 “Writing from Research: What Will I Learn?” includes tips for keeping track of your sources early in the research process, which will save time later on.
  • Get it right the first time. Apply APA guidelines as you write, so you will not have much to correct during the editing stage. Again, putting in a little extra time early on can save time later.
  • Use the resources available to you. In addition to the guidelines provided in this chapter, you may wish to consult the APA website at http://www.apa.org or the Purdue University Online Writing lab at http://owl.english.purdue.edu , which regularly updates its online style guidelines.

General Formatting Guidelines

This chapter provides detailed guidelines for using the citation and formatting conventions developed by the American Psychological Association, or APA. Writers in disciplines as diverse as astrophysics, biology, psychology, and education follow APA style. The major components of a paper written in APA style are listed in the following box.

These are the major components of an APA-style paper:

Body, which includes the following:

  • Headings and, if necessary, subheadings to organize the content
  • In-text citations of research sources
  • References page

All these components must be saved in one document, not as separate documents.

The title page of your paper includes the following information:

  • Title of the paper
  • Author’s name
  • Name of the institution with which the author is affiliated
  • Header at the top of the page with the paper title (in capital letters) and the page number (If the title is lengthy, you may use a shortened form of it in the header.)

List the first three elements in the order given in the previous list, centered about one third of the way down from the top of the page. Use the headers and footers tool of your word-processing program to add the header, with the title text at the left and the page number in the upper-right corner. Your title page should look like the following example.

Beyond the Hype: Evaluating Low-Carb Diets cover page

The next page of your paper provides an abstract , or brief summary of your findings. An abstract does not need to be provided in every paper, but an abstract should be used in papers that include a hypothesis. A good abstract is concise—about one hundred fifty to two hundred fifty words—and is written in an objective, impersonal style. Your writing voice will not be as apparent here as in the body of your paper. When writing the abstract, take a just-the-facts approach, and summarize your research question and your findings in a few sentences.

In Chapter 12 “Writing a Research Paper” , you read a paper written by a student named Jorge, who researched the effectiveness of low-carbohydrate diets. Read Jorge’s abstract. Note how it sums up the major ideas in his paper without going into excessive detail.

Beyond the Hype: Abstract

Write an abstract summarizing your paper. Briefly introduce the topic, state your findings, and sum up what conclusions you can draw from your research. Use the word count feature of your word-processing program to make sure your abstract does not exceed one hundred fifty words.

Depending on your field of study, you may sometimes write research papers that present extensive primary research, such as your own experiment or survey. In your abstract, summarize your research question and your findings, and briefly indicate how your study relates to prior research in the field.

Margins, Pagination, and Headings

APA style requirements also address specific formatting concerns, such as margins, pagination, and heading styles, within the body of the paper. Review the following APA guidelines.

Use these general guidelines to format the paper:

  • Set the top, bottom, and side margins of your paper at 1 inch.
  • Use double-spaced text throughout your paper.
  • Use a standard font, such as Times New Roman or Arial, in a legible size (10- to 12-point).
  • Use continuous pagination throughout the paper, including the title page and the references section. Page numbers appear flush right within your header.
  • Section headings and subsection headings within the body of your paper use different types of formatting depending on the level of information you are presenting. Additional details from Jorge’s paper are provided.

Cover Page

Begin formatting the final draft of your paper according to APA guidelines. You may work with an existing document or set up a new document if you choose. Include the following:

  • Your title page
  • The abstract you created in Note 13.8 “Exercise 1”
  • Correct headers and page numbers for your title page and abstract

APA style uses section headings to organize information, making it easy for the reader to follow the writer’s train of thought and to know immediately what major topics are covered. Depending on the length and complexity of the paper, its major sections may also be divided into subsections, sub-subsections, and so on. These smaller sections, in turn, use different heading styles to indicate different levels of information. In essence, you are using headings to create a hierarchy of information.

The following heading styles used in APA formatting are listed in order of greatest to least importance:

  • Section headings use centered, boldface type. Headings use title case, with important words in the heading capitalized.
  • Subsection headings use left-aligned, boldface type. Headings use title case.
  • The third level uses left-aligned, indented, boldface type. Headings use a capital letter only for the first word, and they end in a period.
  • The fourth level follows the same style used for the previous level, but the headings are boldfaced and italicized.
  • The fifth level follows the same style used for the previous level, but the headings are italicized and not boldfaced.

Visually, the hierarchy of information is organized as indicated in Table 13.1 “Section Headings” .

Table 13.1 Section Headings

A college research paper may not use all the heading levels shown in Table 13.1 “Section Headings” , but you are likely to encounter them in academic journal articles that use APA style. For a brief paper, you may find that level 1 headings suffice. Longer or more complex papers may need level 2 headings or other lower-level headings to organize information clearly. Use your outline to craft your major section headings and determine whether any subtopics are substantial enough to require additional levels of headings.

Working with the document you developed in Note 13.11 “Exercise 2” , begin setting up the heading structure of the final draft of your research paper according to APA guidelines. Include your title and at least two to three major section headings, and follow the formatting guidelines provided above. If your major sections should be broken into subsections, add those headings as well. Use your outline to help you.

Because Jorge used only level 1 headings, his Exercise 3 would look like the following:

Citation Guidelines

In-text citations.

Throughout the body of your paper, include a citation whenever you quote or paraphrase material from your research sources. As you learned in Chapter 11 “Writing from Research: What Will I Learn?” , the purpose of citations is twofold: to give credit to others for their ideas and to allow your reader to follow up and learn more about the topic if desired. Your in-text citations provide basic information about your source; each source you cite will have a longer entry in the references section that provides more detailed information.

In-text citations must provide the name of the author or authors and the year the source was published. (When a given source does not list an individual author, you may provide the source title or the name of the organization that published the material instead.) When directly quoting a source, it is also required that you include the page number where the quote appears in your citation.

This information may be included within the sentence or in a parenthetical reference at the end of the sentence, as in these examples.

Epstein (2010) points out that “junk food cannot be considered addictive in the same way that we think of psychoactive drugs as addictive” (p. 137).

Here, the writer names the source author when introducing the quote and provides the publication date in parentheses after the author’s name. The page number appears in parentheses after the closing quotation marks and before the period that ends the sentence.

Addiction researchers caution that “junk food cannot be considered addictive in the same way that we think of psychoactive drugs as addictive” (Epstein, 2010, p. 137).

Here, the writer provides a parenthetical citation at the end of the sentence that includes the author’s name, the year of publication, and the page number separated by commas. Again, the parenthetical citation is placed after the closing quotation marks and before the period at the end of the sentence.

As noted in the book Junk Food, Junk Science (Epstein, 2010, p. 137), “junk food cannot be considered addictive in the same way that we think of psychoactive drugs as addictive.”

Here, the writer chose to mention the source title in the sentence (an optional piece of information to include) and followed the title with a parenthetical citation. Note that the parenthetical citation is placed before the comma that signals the end of the introductory phrase.

David Epstein’s book Junk Food, Junk Science (2010) pointed out that “junk food cannot be considered addictive in the same way that we think of psychoactive drugs as addictive” (p. 137).

Another variation is to introduce the author and the source title in your sentence and include the publication date and page number in parentheses within the sentence or at the end of the sentence. As long as you have included the essential information, you can choose the option that works best for that particular sentence and source.

Citing a book with a single author is usually a straightforward task. Of course, your research may require that you cite many other types of sources, such as books or articles with more than one author or sources with no individual author listed. You may also need to cite sources available in both print and online and nonprint sources, such as websites and personal interviews. Chapter 13 “APA and MLA Documentation and Formatting” , Section 13.2 “Citing and Referencing Techniques” and Section 13.3 “Creating a References Section” provide extensive guidelines for citing a variety of source types.

Writing at Work

APA is just one of several different styles with its own guidelines for documentation, formatting, and language usage. Depending on your field of interest, you may be exposed to additional styles, such as the following:

  • MLA style. Determined by the Modern Languages Association and used for papers in literature, languages, and other disciplines in the humanities.
  • Chicago style. Outlined in the Chicago Manual of Style and sometimes used for papers in the humanities and the sciences; many professional organizations use this style for publications as well.
  • Associated Press (AP) style. Used by professional journalists.

References List

The brief citations included in the body of your paper correspond to the more detailed citations provided at the end of the paper in the references section. In-text citations provide basic information—the author’s name, the publication date, and the page number if necessary—while the references section provides more extensive bibliographical information. Again, this information allows your reader to follow up on the sources you cited and do additional reading about the topic if desired.

The specific format of entries in the list of references varies slightly for different source types, but the entries generally include the following information:

  • The name(s) of the author(s) or institution that wrote the source
  • The year of publication and, where applicable, the exact date of publication
  • The full title of the source
  • For books, the city of publication
  • For articles or essays, the name of the periodical or book in which the article or essay appears
  • For magazine and journal articles, the volume number, issue number, and pages where the article appears
  • For sources on the web, the URL where the source is located

The references page is double spaced and lists entries in alphabetical order by the author’s last name. If an entry continues for more than one line, the second line and each subsequent line are indented five spaces. Review the following example. ( Chapter 13 “APA and MLA Documentation and Formatting” , Section 13.3 “Creating a References Section” provides extensive guidelines for formatting reference entries for different types of sources.)

References Section

In APA style, book and article titles are formatted in sentence case, not title case. Sentence case means that only the first word is capitalized, along with any proper nouns.

Key Takeaways

  • Following proper citation and formatting guidelines helps writers ensure that their work will be taken seriously, give proper credit to other authors for their work, and provide valuable information to readers.
  • Working ahead and taking care to cite sources correctly the first time are ways writers can save time during the editing stage of writing a research paper.
  • APA papers usually include an abstract that concisely summarizes the paper.
  • APA papers use a specific headings structure to provide a clear hierarchy of information.
  • In APA papers, in-text citations usually include the name(s) of the author(s) and the year of publication.
  • In-text citations correspond to entries in the references section, which provide detailed bibliographical information about a source.

Writing for Success Copyright © 2015 by University of Minnesota is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

Font Readability Research: Key Difference Between Serif Vs Sans Serif Font

Author's photo

We have been creating designs for over 8 years. There are not very many objective and verifiable laws in graphic   design as well as in UX/UI design, and when we needed to find out something, we looked for information in professional books, blogs of cool guys and asked art directors we knew.

In this post:

And then we learned that scientists had already figured out a hundred years before what the designers are still arguing about.

At Geniusee, we compared the opinions of famous designers and science font opinion about serif vs sans serif readability.

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Why did we do this?

One day, our design team thought about how to choose a font. We found it better to use serif fonts for large texts, because the eyes fatigue less and serifs help keep the line in line.

Then the designer's team lead came and uttered his frequently asked question: "Proofs?"

"It's obvious," we thought, and opened Wikipedia:

The conventional wisdom is that serifs guide eye movement along lines when reading large volumes of printed text. They facilitate the connection of letters into a single line, making the text easier to read.

There were no proofs on Wikipedia, so we went to the bookcase.

In my opinion, serif typefaces less fatigue during long reading of regular, "paper" editions than grotesque, for two reasons. Firstly, serifs emphasize the endings of strokes, becoming additional “sense-discerning”. Secondly, serif letters are somewhat more complex in shape, so they differ more from each other than grotesque ones. And our reader's eye is more in need of a balance of individuality and unification than a designer's eye, which enjoys mirror ideality.

Yuri Gordon "Book of letters from Aa to Ya", Where did they come from and why do we need serifs, p. 51

In general, the personal view of Yuri Gordon is a pretty strong argument, but nevertheless, we still looked in the articles of Jan Tschichold:

A sans serif font only seems to be the simplest. Its shape has been specially simplified for children, and it is more difficult for adults to read it than an Antiqua, because serifs are not only for decoration.

Jan Tschichold "The Form of a Book", On Typography, p. 21

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Jan Tschichold

The books did not help us much with sans serif vs serif readability, and we tried to use scientific articles to figure out if there is any evidence that serif is easier, faster or more enjoyable to read than sans serif. Of course, this is not complete scientific research, but it is better than the "conventional wisdom". So let’s have a journey to understand what is the best font for reading.

Concepts: legibility vs readability

Font legibility depends on the accuracy of its elements, which usually means the ability to recognize individual letters or words.

Readability of serif font vs sans serif is directly related to the optimal layout and structure of the entire body of text.

Serifs guide the eye along the line

Wikipedia and a million other design articles say serifs guide eye movement along lines when reading large blocks of printed text.

Here you need to know that the eyes do not move smoothly. When we read or search for an object in our field of vision, the eyes "jump" from point to point, making rapid movements called saccades.

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Moreover, the eyes perform saccades even when a person tries to focus strictly on one point.

Jaret Screws conducted an experiment: he asked 10 people to read several texts and followed the movement of their eyes using special equipment.

Here's what happened:

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They measured the duration of gaze fixation, the average number of words between them, the amplitude of saccades, and the number of times a person lingered on the same word.

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All differences were found to be insignificant. Oh... Then it seems that the hypothesis that the gaze moves more easily over serif text has not been confirmed.

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Serif and sans serif fonts equally "hold" the line

There is a catch though. The test used a 128 pt font. This is ten times more than in a regular book, and perhaps the research is not very well applied to the usual reading process.

Quantitative Analysis of Font Type’s Effect on Reading Comprehension Jaret Screws Clemson University Clemson, United States.

Children find it easier to read sans serif type than adults

Even if this is not so, the manufacturers of the alphabet definitely believe in it. Try to find at least one alphabet with Antique.

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The scientists took 80 children who were 10 years old and 80 children two years older, asked them to find the right word in the text (screening test) and measured how quickly the children did it.

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The control group was given the same font both times, and the experimental group was given first serif and then sans serif.

The differences are statistically insignificant, and the authors say there doesn't seem to be essential difference in child legibility between serif and sans-serif fonts.

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Performance differences between Times and Helvetica in a reading task Rudi W. De Lange, Henry L. Esterhuizen and Derek Beatty.

What about guys with poor eyesight?

There is a lot of research on visually impaired people and typefaces. The Journal of Visual Impairment and Blindness published a review of 18 studies in which the total number of subjects was more than 1500 people. The researchers' conclusion: For people with low vision, sans-serif fonts such as Arial, Helvetica, Verdana or Adsans are more readable than serif fonts.

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The Legibility of Typefaces for Readers with Low Vision: A Research Review Elizabeth Russell-Minda, Jeffrey W. Jutai, J. Graham Strong, Kent A. Campbell, Deborah Gold, Lisa Pretty, and Lesley Wilmot.

Fonts and dyslexics

It is difficult for people with dyslexia to read. Will it be possible to make their life easier with the help of some fonts?

A page that displays text as people with dyslexia see it at dyslexiarf.com

Scientists, using technology that monitors eye movement, examined 97 people, half of whom had dyslexia. They were allowed to read 12 similar texts typed in different fonts, measured the speed, number and duration of gaze stops, comprehension of the text, and using questionnaires to find out the preferences of users.

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The sans-serif font Arial came out on top as the best reading font for both ordinary people and dyslexics (interestingly, Helvetica, which is similar to it to the point of being indistinguishable, is in fourth place). But the second place was unexpectedly taken by the monospaced squared Courier.

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The preferences of people are generally unambiguous: the top 3 fonts for both dyslexics and non-dyslexics are sans serifs.

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The Effect of Font Type on Screen Readability by People with Dyslexia LUZ RELLO and RICARDO BAEZA-YATES.

Emotions and fonts

Maybe it's not about reading speed and legibility, but the special mood that serif fonts create?

The Software Usability Research Lab at Wichita State University tried to figure out how people perceive fonts. Participants filled out a questionnaire where they indicated what, in their opinion, characteristics of different fonts.

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Interestingly, serif fonts were ranked first as formal, mature, practical and stable. And sans serif fonts came first in the ranking ... nowhere. That is, they did not have any pronounced emotional trace.

Perception of Fonts: Perceived Personality Traits and Uses By A. Dawn Shaikh, Barbara S. Chaparro, & Doug Fox

For another study, they took two satirical passages from the New York Times: one on government issues, the other on education policy. They were printed in the same size Times New Roman and Arial fonts and shown at random to 102 university students who graded them using predefined adjectives.

The satirical articles printed by Times New Roman were perceived as funnier and more treacherous than those printed by Arial.

Emotional and Persuasive perception of fonts Samuel Juni, Julie S. Gross.

This is most likely the same sans serif neutrality effect as in the first study.

Does this mean that all sans serif fonts are faceless? Generally not, but a neutral serif is less neutral than a neutral sans serif.

Fonts readability on electronic screens

We read most of the texts from electronic screens. Electronic devices and even different programs on the same device handle fonts differently.

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Scientists have tried to figure out how anti-aliasing affects readability. They compared four fonts printed on paper and on-screen, with and without anti-aliasing.

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Interestingly, the most readable was the anti-aliasing screen font (not printed), and that sans-serif font is Arial. The second after him is Verdana, also sans serif.

But without anti-aliasing, Georgia, a serif font, was best read.

A STUDY OF THE READABILITY OF ON-SCREEN TEXT By Eric Michael Weisenmiller.

Summarizing the Difference Between Serif and Sans Serif Fonts

Typefaces can tell a lot about what you're looking at. For example, a typeface on a logo can provide insight into the history of a company and its relationship to its audience. The type in advertising materials can hint at what audience the ad is intended for, and the type on the covers of books and movie posters can hint at their genre. As you may have understood earlier, choosing the right font for a specific project is not easy, so first you need to decide which font is better to use - Serif or Sans Serif. Below we will tell you a little more detail about sans serif vs serif typeface and how sans-serif differs from the serif.

Serifs are a typeface characterized by decorative letter legs. In other words, this font is easily recognizable by the small lines that extend beyond the edges of the letters typed in this font. Serif is a typeface believed to date back to the time of the Romans, who decorated their letters by engraving them on stones. Stone engravers made these long lines to carve letters and alphabets neatly into the stone. The word serif is believed to be derived from the Dutch shreef, meaning a line or stroke of a pen or pencil.

Sans serif font

Sans is a French word meaning "without". Thus, a sans serif is a typeface that has no traces or lines extending from the edges of letters and alphabets. This way, there are no curls, and the sans serif letters appear simple and rounded. The Sans font is clean and the best font for reading on screen. The sans font does not have decorative feet for the letters, but it looks neat and elegant. Verdana, Arial and Tahoma are some of the good examples of sans serif fonts.

Main difference between serif and sans serif

  • Actually, serif and sans serif fonts can be used for most fonts.
  • Serifs are characterized by decorative letter legs that are absent in sans serifs.
  • Serif is the Dutch word for shreef, which means line or stroke of a pen.
  • Sans is a French word meaning "without".
  • Sans is considered simple yet elegant, while serifs are heavy and decorative.
  • Serifs are better for printing, while sans serif are better for on screen.
  • While Arial is the best example of a sans serif font, Times New Roman is the best example of a serif font.

Our Approach

Creating an ideal UI / UX project is impossible without a well-oiled process that combines a number of interrelated stages:

1. Strategy formation. We define business tasks and user needs, form a UX strategy.

2. Formalization of requirements. The strategy is transformed into a set of clear, formalized requirements for the system and interface.

3. Information architecture. We think over the information architecture of the project, taking into account the functional specifics and the importance of providing convenient and quick access to content.

4. Interaction Design / Prototyping. For each unique template of the future project, a prototype is created, which is then adapted for mobile devices.

5. Interface design. A design concept is developed, on the basis of which the design of all screens of the application or pages of the site is created. The interface takes on the appearance of a finished product.

The Geniusee team knows how to build user-friendly web and mobile apps. We also know how to engage the user in an effective interaction with the product. Our designers also have experience in choosing the right sans serif or serif for web and mobile applications. Skillfully working with the information architecture of the project, we organize logical paths of user transitions and get a truly unique designing interface.

You can find out more about the service on the UI / UX design services.

Conclusions

We wanted to test if it's really better to use serif fonts for large texts. It turned out that for the average person there are almost no differences, but for those who have problems with reading - the elderly, children, people with poor eyesight or dyslexia - sans-serif is preferable.

Here, we have given reviews of just a few articles. We looked through a couple of dozens more, but did not include them in the article so as not to make it endless. In fact, there are even more of them. But the result is about the same in all: either the differences turn out to be statistically insignificant, or the grotesques are slightly ahead of the serif.

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If you are interested in this topic, you can do your own research: search scholar.google.com on request such as Font readability research . There you can find studies about the optimal line spacing, and about the perception of different typefaces, and about the differences in readability depending on the size.

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12 Best Fonts for Academic Papers in Microsoft Word

Good academic papers deserve good academic fonts. You might not have thought too much about which font you use before, but they play a big part in whether people will take your paper seriously or not. This article will explore the best fonts for academic papers.

Best Fonts for Academic Papers in Microsoft Word

The best fonts for academic papers are Times New Roman, Baskerville Old Face, and Georgia. There are plenty of good options, but you’ll mainly want to stick to serif fonts. They look much neater and more professional while showing that the reader can trust what you say.

Best Fonts for Academic Papers in Microsoft Word

Times New Roman

Times New Roman is the most famous font on Microsoft Word. It should come as no surprise that it’s a good pick when writing academic papers. It’s got everything you could possibly need when it comes to professionalism and readability.

Times New Roman is the best font to use in most situations. If you’re looking for a more formal font, you’ll find that Times New Roman ranks very highly on the list, regardless of what else is required.

It’s a fairly small font, which looks more appealing for an academic paper. A common pitfall that most people fall for is they try to use a font that’s too large, which can make their paper look less trustworthy and more informal. Neither of those traits is good for academics.

Baskerville Old Face

Baskerville Old Face is a great font to use in an academic paper. There have been studies in the past about different fonts and how they engage readers. It’s believed that Baskerville is one of the most reliable fonts, and the writer tends to be more “truthful” when using it.

Whether you buy into studies like this or not isn’t important. What is important is that Baskerville Old Face is a fantastic choice for most academic papers. It looks really good (like a more concise Times New Roman), and it’s very popular.

Baskerville is a fairly popular choice for published novels, so you might already be familiar with the font style. If you like the way it looks in some of the novels or publications you’ve read, you’ll find that it converts very well to your academic papers.

Georgia ranks very highly when looking for a formal font that will work well in an academic paper. It’s slightly larger than Times New Roman, but a lot of people say that this helps it to become a more “readable” font.

When writing academic papers, it’s wise not to overwhelm your reader with information. The more condensed the font is, the harder it can be to make sense of what you’re writing. With Georgia, this isn’t an issue.

Georgia might be one of the larger fonts listed here, but it makes for an easy read. Plenty of readers will be happy to read through an entire paper written in Georgia, but they might be a bit against reading one in something smaller.

Garamond is another decent option that can work well for academics. Garamond is the smallest font we have included on the list, which can allow you to get a lot of information into a very small space without overwhelming a reader too much.

While it’s not always ideal for including lots of information, Garamond does it really well. It’s readable and professional, allowing your readers to make sense of even the most concise explanations you might include.

It’s also quite a popular choice for many writers. You’ll find that it ranks quite highly simply because of how popular it’s become among a lot of writers on Word.

Cambria is a solid font choice that a lot of people like to use. It’s another default font (though it’s mainly reserved for sub-headings in most Word formats). It runs true to the font size, making it a fairly decent choice if you’re looking for something compact.

The serif style of this font makes it easy to read. It’s nearly indistinguishable from some of the other more popular serif fonts like Times New Roman and Georgia, which is why it is such a popular choice.

However, since it looks so similar, it can make it difficult for people to recognize the font or to figure out which font you’re using. While this isn’t the end of the world, it certainly won’t help you to create a unique feel for your paper either.

Book Antiqua

Book Antiqua is another suitable serif font. It’s not as popular as some of the others, but it looks really good as far as formal fonts go. People like it because it offers a slightly more authentic feel and looks like it could be used in a published novel or academic study.

It’s a standard-sized font, and it’s quite easy to read. A lot of people enjoy using it because it can offer a lot of character to their writing. You might not think that a font has that much power, but you’d be surprised once you try and use Book Antiqua a bit more.

Bookman Old Style

Bookman Old Style is another good font that can look like something out of a published paper. What makes this one special is its size. It’s quite a large font with a decent amount of width to each letter (without going too overboard with the letter spacing).

This font is quite popular for people looking to make their academic papers stand out. It’s not the same style as most of the other serif fonts, allowing your paper to bring a little bit extra that some other people might miss out on.

We encourage you to try this one in multiple different situations. It can work both formally and informally, depending on what you’re looking to get out of it.

Palatino Linotype

Palatino Linotype is a good font for many occasions. You’ll often find it used in academic papers because of the interesting style that comes with it. It looks like a classical font, which takes inspiration from some of the older styles of writing that came before computers.

If you want your academic paper to come across as a bit more traditional or formal, you’ll love this font.

Palatino Linotype offers a great deal of character without changing too much of the original formula that makes fonts like Times New Roman and Georgia so special.

Lucida Bright

Lucida Bright is a great font that is very large compared to most. It works well in academic papers, but you’ve got to make sure you know when to use it. If your paper is particularly word-heavy, it might not be wise to use a font that makes each word much larger.

For example, if you have a page limit on your paper, it might be wise to use a smaller font. Lucida Bright will definitely carry you far over that page limit before you come close to the words you might need to use to explain something.

Nevertheless, it’s still a very attractive font that looks really good in most academic papers. If you’re looking for something that’s stylish and readable, Lucida Bright is a good option.

Calibri is a sans serif font, and it’s the first of its kind on the list. We have only included serif fonts because they tend to be more readable and professional. However, Calibri can work really well if you’re looking for a slightly more approachable feel with your font.

Calibri is like the Times New Roman of the sans serif fonts. It is very popular, and most Microsoft Word versions come with it preloaded as the default font for most written pieces.

That’s what makes it such a valuable choice. You can use it in almost any situation (informal and formal) to a great degree.

Arial is another popular sans serif font that you will be able to use in your academic writing. You don’t always have to use the more formal serif fonts, and Arial is a great example of what can be achieved when you’re a little less formal with your presentation.

Arial is much larger than Calibri when the same font size is used. This makes it a lot more visually appealing, though you have to make sure you don’t overdo it with the number of pages it uses.

Before Calibri replaced it, Arial was also the default sans serif font on Microsoft Word. This has allowed it to be a fairly popular choice for many users, and it remains one of the most popular ones today.

Century Gothic

Century Gothic is the final font we want to cover. It’s a sans serif font that can work really well if you’re looking for a slightly larger font. It’s larger than Arial, making it an easy-to-read font that a lot of people like to utilize.

The only issue you might come across is that the size of it can make it seem much more informal. You should be careful with how you use this font, as it could take away from the professionalism or reliability of your academic paper.

You may also like: 12 Best Fonts for Notes in Microsoft Word 12 Best Victorian Fonts in Microsoft Word 12 Best Chalkboard Fonts for Microsoft Word

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Martin holds a Master’s degree in Finance and International Business. He has six years of experience in professional communication with clients, executives, and colleagues. Furthermore, he has teaching experience from Aarhus University. Martin has been featured as an expert in communication and teaching on Forbes and Shopify. Read more about Martin here .

  • 12 Best Serif Fonts in Microsoft Word
  • 12 Smallest Fonts In Microsoft Word
  • 12 Best Victorian Fonts in Microsoft Word
  • 5 Best LaTeX Fonts in Microsoft Word

Fonts for Professional and Credible Scientific Research

No matter if you are a writer, or a scientist writing your research reports, choosing the correct fonts is important, as it can give you more credible looks in your scientific research reports, your thesis, and your article’s writing. The best font for movie or website might not be the best for scientific reports, hence, there are always the correct fonts for the correct situations.

If you want to know more about the fonts used, and the recommendations for the use of fonts for every situation, design, and writing, then you have come to the right place. Here, we can give you many recommendations not just for writing a thesis, or professional writing, but we also provide our selections for the best font for movie, website design, or T-shirt logo design.

When choosing the correct fonts for a professional research report, you need to consider a few things, such as the readability, legibility, and credibility of the fonts you choose. To get you better idea of how to choose the correct fonts to give your research more credibility, and readability, read our article here.

Why is it important to use proper fonts?

To put it simply, imagine that you have written your scientific masterpiece, you compile your research result carefully, creating smooth and organized contents in your writings, and edited your manuscript to each letter, and number, however, your images, and figures are used cartoonish flip-flops of fonts? This is why proper fonts are always needed to bring out more legibility and credibility of the research.

Choosing the correct fonts for your scientific manuscript

Here are 4 notable fonts that give your paper more professionalism and credibility:

Arial is one of the most common, and most used typefaces in the last decades, and its origin has been known from the IBM laser-xerographic printers. This font was supposed to compete with Helvetica as one of the most prominent, and core fonts for IBM computers, and Apple computers.

Arial is one of the most common, and prominent typefaces, that can be used as standard research fonts. It is also standard font for website articles and online research papers. The design for this font is thin, with rounded edges, and a sharp tone.

Helvetica has been one of the most prominent competitors for Arial fonts. If Arial was developed by IBM, Helvetica was developed by Apple. inc. Helvetica was designed by Swiss designer, Max Miedinger, and it was designed as an easy-to-read font. Unique facts, the name Helvetica comes from the word “Helvetia” a Latin word for Switzerland.

Helvetica looks great for printing and also gives you professional looks for the research paper. It is also widely used by many university papers as their common standard font. Helvetica along with Arial has been the most common fonts to use for proper research papers.

When in doubt about what fonts to use, choose Caslon. Caslon was designed by William Caslon, as a common typeface to use in England. It is then very popular as the typeface for newspapers, magazines, and research papers. Caslon was popular in the Colonial America era, and when they gain independence, Caslon has even used in the US declaration of independence.

Caslon is one of the most commonly used serif fonts, and it is used commonly in the body of text. Along with other fonts like Baskerville, it is best to use this font in around the size of 8 to 14 and become one of  best font for movie.

  • Baskerville

Baskerville has had a long history since 1757. It was designed by John Baskerville as a typeface that is a standard, easy-to-read font. It has simple letters, yet a refined style. It is now widely regarded as a classic font with the roots of the classic England era.

There was even a study that stated that using Baskerville fonts will give out more positivity, increase the trustworthiness of the text, and bring out more legibility, and credibility to the text. These are the perfect fonts to use when you are looking for research fonts for your papers.

That’s it on our guide on how to choose professional fonts to make your research reports way more credible, and looks professional. These are important things to know, as they can give your research more credibility, and professionalism, and avoid critics regarding the writing of your research. See also our other article for the best font for movie and web design.

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best research paper fonts

Font To Choose for Your Research Paper: Best Font for Essays

Font To Choose for Your Research Paper: Best Font for Essays

We’ve all, at some time in our lives, pondered the question of how to create an essay that gets good grades. You may find millions of instructions that will walk you through the process of writing an excellent essay by doing a simple search on Google. However, a lot of individuals neglect to think about typefaces. In addition to learning how to acquire material and present it in an organized manner, students should also be taught how to style their written assignments, such as essays. When it concerns font for essay , typefaces are also a very important factor.

You will require to choose a typeface that is easy on the eyes. The issue is that there are literally thousands upon thousands of typefaces from which to choose. And after you’ve decided which one is the greatest, you’ll need to choose the appropriate size. Is it preferable to have a font size of 12 for the body paragraph and 14 for the titles? Let’s see what the best fonts for essays are out there check DoMyEssay  .

What About the Font Size?

When it comes to standard font size for essays, it’s usually 12 or 14. But 12 is usually recommended font size for college papers. New Times Roman, Arial, and Calibri are most often seen in this size. The typefaces you choose should be large enough so that your work can be read without putting undue strain on the eyes of the reader. Points are the standard unit of measurement for distances. MLA, American Psychological Association, and Harvard are the most used citation styles and conventions for scientific research publications. The value indicates the proportion of the display that the typeface uses.

Generally, 12 points are considered the minimum acceptable size for academic writing. Size-wise, it’s ideal for the target demographic without seeming too big or cumbersome. The text size you choose for your research paper is crucial in letting it seem professional and attractive. When completing the assignment, the author should utilize the prescribed font size. In figuring out how many webs pages your work needs, this aspect ratio is crucial. To ensure that we don’t go over or under the page count for the whole project, we’ve been using a font size of 12 to do the calculations.

Wensley Modern Serif Font Family

This one is a standard essay font that people use nowadays. Wensley is a contemporary serif font design that is widely used by undergraduates in a variety of educational institutions. This is the ideal look to go for if you wish to give off an air of sophistication and competence to your teachers, which is exactly what you should strive for. This typeface supports a variety of non-English letters, making it suitable for use in any language.

Serif Or Sans Serif, That’s Always A Dilemma

Serif and Sans Serif are always in sort of a rivalry within academic fonts. When deciding whether to choose one of them for your study, the level of formality of the document and the environment in which it will be presented are the two most important factors to consider. The informality of sans serif typefaces makes them a good choice for casual presentations, while the beauty of serif fonts makes them a good choice for more official scholarly articles. It is often advised to choose a sans serif since it is more readable and less tiresome to write on a pc screen. If we are thinking about the place it will be released, we should take this into consideration.

The majority of analyses and publications, regardless of the publication venue in which they appear, benefit from having either serif or sans serif font for college essay included in the same document. The headlines or restricted quotations in a piece of writing will often benefit link from using one style, whereas the main section of the text may benefit from using the other.

Our further font research leads us to Calibri. The popularity of this typeface is comparable to that of the font Times New Roman. In addition to that, Calibri is a Sans typeface. There are a number of advantages to using this font, including the fact that it is not unusual, that it is simple to read, that it is user-friendly for cell devices, and many more. It is one of the safest options for some of the best research paper writing services too. However, this does not always imply that every aspect of this typeface has solely positive qualities. The fact that it is easy to forget about and not particularly thrilling is another one of its many drawbacks. On the other hand, it is commonly used by electronic firms who are responsible for the creation of websites.

Times New Roman

If you ask any best essay writer service which font is the most appropriate to choose, he or she will pick Times New Roman. The Times of London, a magazine published in the United Kingdom, is where this typeface got its name. A new font was commissioned to be designed by the Times in 1929 by typographer Stanley Morison. He was in charge of leading the project, while Victor Lardent, an advertisement designer for the Times, was the one who designed the letterings under his supervision.

Even when it was brand new, Times New Roman was met with opposition. The fact that the new typeface was featured in a daily paper contributed to its meteoric rise to fame among manufacturers of the era. Times New Roman has consistently been one of the very first typefaces offered for each new writing device, despite the fact that composing technologies have changed significantly in the intervening decades.  As a consequence of this, its scope has grown even more.

Creating an essay for high school or university requires the student to pay attention to numerous details. Among the most crucial aspects of an excellent college essay are its subject, structure, substance, trustworthiness of resources, the writer’s voice, simplicity of ideas, and continuity of views. There is, nevertheless, a factor that many university learners grossly undervalue. Making sure you choose a legible typeface is just as important as providing a well-thought-out argument throughout your academic paper.

best research paper fonts

Before you go, Check this out!

The Ultimate Starter Kit For Photo Editors And Photographers

7 Best Fonts For University Essays (Teachers Choice)

Choosing the best font for university essays is really difficult. As a university student, you have to stand out from other students’ academic papers.

What are the best fonts for university essays? Arial and Helvetica sans-serif style is a common font choice among university students. Some universities do have guidelines on their website about what fonts are allowed in academic essays, so make sure to check before you start typing.

The right font can make your paper look more professional and appealing to readers. But it’s hard to find fonts that are both beautiful and easy to read especially when there are thousands of them available online!

Best Fonts will help you easily choose the most suitable font for your project by offering expert suggestions based on your needs and interests.

I’ve dedicated myself to helping students succeed in their studies with our website full of useful tips on how to write an effective essay or research paper, as well as relevant information about different types of fonts (serif, sans serif, script, etc).

Our team consists of experienced writers who also know what it takes to get top grades at universities around the world! So if you need some extra help writing your next academic paper or just want some advice on choosing.

If you are in a hurry! Then you should be considered these quick recommended picks.

UNLIMITED DOWNLOADS: 50+ Million Resume Templates & Design Assets

best research paper fonts

All the Resume Templates you need and many other design elements, are available for a monthly subscription by subscribing to Envato Elements . The subscription costs $16.50 per month and gives you unlimited access to a massive and growing library of over 50 million items that can be downloaded as often as you need (stock photos too)!

best research paper fonts

What Are The Best Fonts For University Essays?

Students often use clear sans-serif style Arial, Times New Roman, Helvetica, Calibri fonts on their university academic essays, and some universities have a proper guideline on their website about the fonts that should be used.

But for my academic papers, I’ve been researching on the internet and find these 10 best fonts for university essays that are clear in human eyes and look so professional. Your university professor will love your academic papers and essays after using these fonts.

1. Wensley Modern Serif Font Family (Top Pick)

The font of choice for many university students, Wensley is a modern serif font typeface. If you want to impress your professors with an elegant and professional appearance then this style will be perfect for the job! This font includes non-english characters so it can fit any language perfectly.

best research paper fonts

Wensley Font

  • This font is known as the perfect headline maker.
  • Improved readability.
  • Available in a variety of weights and styles.
  • Fast delivery to your inbox.
  • All fonts are 100% licensed, free lifetime support.

2. Madelin Serif Font Family

The font Madeline is a well accepted serif font among the universities and colleges. This high classed font includes all types of non-english characters and basic glyphs, making it perfect for students in academia. If you are a university student then this new typeface will drastically improve your academic papers.

best research paper fonts

Madelin Font

  • Impress your professor with a professional looking paper.
  • Make an academic research paper look more interesting and engaging to readers.
  • Fonts that are easy to read on screens and in print.
  • The best typeface for any design project.
  • Be creative with your fonts!
  • Unique and exciting typeface
  • Can be used in any environment or situation
  • Will have your audience drooling over this font
  • Curvaceous letters make for an attractive design

3. Glamour Luxury Serif Font Family

Glamour Luxury Serif is a font for those looking to be both stylish and minimalistic. With many variations, it can make your paper stand out from the rest or you can use it on your resume as well!

best research paper fonts

Glamour Luxury Serif Font Family

The wide variety of options in Glamour Luxury Serif means that students will have an easy time finding this typeface for their institution work while professionals will find just what they need in order to maximize their efficiency at work with its clean design.

  • The best way to express yourself on the academic papers
  • Increase visibility, increase recognition and get a leg up on competitors
  • Make your content stand out with bold fonts that are beautifully designed
  • Fonts mixes aesthetics with readability so you can use them unapologetically

4. Adrina Modern Serif Font Family

Adrina is a modern rounded serif font with 3 weights that can be used by creatives and commercial professionals. It also has multilingual support to help university students, adults in the professional world, or anyone who needs it!

best research paper fonts

Aridina Font

  • Give your design a unique touch with our extensive library of stylish fonts
  • With over 100 fonts on offer you have an entire world to explore
  • Whether it’s for personal or commercial use these typefaces are perfect for all occasions, big and small
  • The variety means that there’s something to suit every project – whether it’s formal, laid back or fun.

5. Immani Serif Font Family Pack

Immani serif font is a logos-ready font with a modern, eye-catching serif look! This classy typeface is perfect for including in headings and other text collaborations within your project. With its sleek fonts, you can easily create stylish headlines or any other type of text that will catch the eyes of those all around you. It’s time to stop searching: this font is what you need!

best research paper fonts

Immani Font

Effortlessly design your next project with FontsTTD Serif TTF Typewriter Font. Including a variety of letter and number characters, as well as an additional 5 ornaments at each.

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  • You will be able to combine both Font Weight Regular and Light
  • Fonts with different fonts, ensuring any text is legible.
  • You will also have the option of using a web font kit or downloading an OTF or TTF file.
  • No worries about missing out on any key characters!

6. Bergen Text – Sans Serif Font

Bergen Text is an elegant, clean and minimalistic font for university and college academic papers. It has been designed specifically in a small 9-pixel size for easy legibility and accessibility reasons.

best research paper fonts

Bergen Font

In contrast to Fontana families (that are heavy with serifs), Bergen Text is very straightforward. This makes it the perfect candidate for creative works that need a commercial license and readability that will satisfy any customer’s needs.

UNLIMITED DOWNLOADS: 50 Million+ Fonts & Design Assets

best research paper fonts

All the Fonts you need and many other design elements, are available for a monthly subscription by subscribing to Envato Elements . The subscription costs $16.50 per month and gives you unlimited access to a massive and growing library of over 50 million items that can be downloaded as often as you need (stock photos too)!

best research paper fonts

Envato element offers key resources and parent tips about effective teaching strategies so students can learn more effectively, from pre-kindergarten to high school.

  • Fonts designed for people who use small text sizes
  • Sans font is available!
  • Get a wide variety of fonts with just one purchase
  • Improve legibility by using different weights and styles

7. Morton – Sans Serif Font

University students always find the best font to use on their academic papers and essays. However, some university has its own criteria to write these papers.

best research paper fonts

Morton Font

But most of the universities don’t have these font selections criteria on their academic guideline. That’s why students use basic and regular free fonts like Helvetica, Arial, Calibri.

If you want to stand out and increase your marks in academic and university essays. Then try to use a unique font. Because everyone is using the same font in their essays.

Related Post: 10 Best Dark & Moody Lightroom Presets Free and Premium

That’s why choosing a unique and stylish sans serif font in your writing is the best way to mark better.

  • Fonts are a single click away.
  • It’s perfect for small text sizes.
  • A grotesque typeface classic.
  • Comes in nine weights and stylistic variations for the nerd in all of us.

Final Words

Unique fonts are the key to standing out and making eye-popping clear academic papers. These best fonts can be really unique with clean formatting. Students and professionals always need these great typefaces for their documents, presentations, or any other assignment that needs design

You can check out Envato elements Fonts to get the most out of it. Thank you

Al Shariar Apon

I'm a digital content creators and tech-savvy enthusiast. In this website I would like to share my knowledge and Google productivity tools, tips, templates. Thank you.

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How-To Geek

5 must-use word features for professional documents.

Five sure-fire ways to impress with your Word document formatting.

Quick Links

Step 1: set word's styles, step 2: create word's multilevel lists, step 3: insert word's page breaks, step 4: format word's page numbers, step 5: add word's table of contents.

Microsoft Word offers many tools for formatting your document in a way that will present your work professionally and impressively. We'll show you five of these tools in a step-by-step guide that you can follow to impress your readers.

This is our unformatted document that we're going to spruce up.

Word document with unformatted text.

The first step is to customize and use the styles offered by Word. This is the main look of your document and will dictate much of what is presented and how. The "Styles" can be found in the "Home" tab.

Word's 'Styles' group.

Format the headings and the normal text to however you want them to look through the styles. Right-click on a style in the "Styles" group and click "Modify" to alter their settings. We'd recommend the following modifications:

  • Use the same font typeface for every style. Size 12 is a good starting point for the normal text. Size 14 is appropriate for the headings, decreasing by 0.5 pt for each heading and sub-heading you use.
  • Use single or 1.5 line spacing for all styles.
  • Set the paragraph spacing to 0 pt before and 12 pt after (if you're using size 12 font in your main body) for all styles.
  • Make sure your headings are all bold and set to "Keep With Next".
  • Set your normal style to the justified alignment.

Use Word's Format Painter to save time. Once you have formatted the first heading through styles, double-click the "Format Painter" icon and simply click on all the headings you want to have the same style. Use the same method for the other styles in your document.

Here's what we have after having modified and applied the styles:

Word document showing text with the styles modified and applied.

We now need to use the multilevel list function to number our headings. Now that we've applied the heading styles, Word knows that these are the parts that need to be numbered. Click your first heading and click the "Multilevel List" icon. Next, click "Define New Multilevel List".

You can choose an existing multilevel list style here, but this gives you less flexibility, and we think it's best to define your own settings.

Multilevel list

In the dialog box that opens, change your settings to how you would like them to be.

We like to use the following settings:

  • Delete anything that is already written in the "Enter Formatting For Number" box.
  • Choose the number style. "1, 2, 3" is our preferred style for the first level of our list, followed by a period.
  • Click the "Font" button to set the font to the right formatting for this level in the list (size 14 and bold for heading 1, and so on).
  • Set "Text Indent At" to 1 cm.
  • Click "More" to bring up more settings to the right (the "More" button will change to "Less").
  • Choose "Tab Character" in the "Follow Number With" option and make sure "Add Tab Stop At" is checked and set to 1 cm.

'Define New Multilevel List' dialog box with the six steps highlighted.

Now, move to level 2 at the top of the dialog box and set the same settings, except for the font size (in our case, this is 13.5 pt), and in the "Include Level Number From" setting, choose "Level 1". When you have finished this step, click "OK".

Your first header will now be correctly formatted. Use the Format Painter to apply the multilevel list to the other level 1 headings in your document. Then, click any of your level two headings, go back to the multilevel list icon, and choose the style you have just created. If your level 2 numbering isn't accurate, right-click the number and click "Continue Numbering".

Word document showing the menu that appears when you right-click the level 2 numbering, and highlighting where 'Continue Numbering' is located.

Here's what our document looks like after adding styles and creating the multi-level list.

Word document with the headings and multilevel lists formatted.

We now want to separate our introduction section from the rest of the chapters in our document by adding a page break . First, turn on the "Show/Hide" function by clicking the "¶" icon in the "Paragraph" group of the "Home" tab—this lets us see where the page break is once we have added it.

Word document highlighting where the Show/Hide icon is in the 'Paragraph' group.

Click before the heading of your second section (where you want the break to appear). Then, in the Layout tab in the ribbon, click "Breaks" in the Page Setup group. Finally, click "Page" in the drop-down options that appear.

Word document showing how to add a page break in the 'Page Setup

You will see that the introduction is now separated from the next section in your document.

Word document with the first two sections separated by a page break.

We also want to separate the conclusion onto its own page, so follow the same steps again to do this.

If your multilevel list numbering disappears after the page break, use the Format Painter to fix it.

The second-to-last step to achieving a perfectly formatted document is to add page numbers to the footers. Double-click in the footer area of any page in your document. Then, click "Page Number" in the Header and Footer group, hover over "Bottom Of Page," and click "Plain Number 2". This will add page numbers to the bottom of our page, centrally aligned.

Word document with the page numbering options open.

If you'd prefer, you can make the page numbering not appear on the first page of your document.

The final step is to add a table of contents , which we can do because we have set header styles and added page numbers to our document.

Go to the very start of your document, click between your first header's number and title, press Enter, and then move your cursor back up to the space you have created above your first header.

In the "References" tab of the ribbon, click "Table of Contents" and click "Custom Table Of Contents".

Word document with the 'Table of Contents' menu open and 'Custom Table Of Contents' highlighted.

In the dialog box, create the following settings:

  • Check the "Show Page Numbers" box.
  • Check the "Right Align Page Numbers" box.
  • Choose the dotty "Tab Leader".
  • Tables of contents start to look untidy if there are more than two levels showing, so limit "Show Levels" to a maximum of 2.

Table of Contents dialog box in Word with the four options highlighted.

Click "OK" to see your table of contents appear. To add a heading to the contents table, place your cursor at the top of the table, press Enter, and then create your heading using the first heading style. You should also add another page break after the contents to separate this from your introduction.

Finally, click the "¶" icon one more time to remove the paragraph markers, and you'll see the final product!

Word document fully formatted using the five steps in the article.

You can now edit and proofread your document , and save it as a PDF to lock your new formatting!

best research paper fonts

Best Fonts for Your Biology Research Paper

Every detail counts when crafting an academic paper in biology, and surprisingly, this includes the font you choose. The right font does more than just display text; it plays a crucial role in how your work is perceived and understood. In biology, where precision and clarity are paramount, the importance of font selection cannot be overstated. 

The ideal font for a biology research paper should meet critical criteria: it must be readable, exude professionalism, and align with the standards of scientific writing. This choice, often overlooked, can significantly impact the overall quality and reception of your academic work.

The Role of Fonts in Academic Writing

Font choice in an academic paper is more than an aesthetic decision; it directly influences how readers interact with and comprehend the content. For instance, when writing about complex biology research topics, a service like Essaypay can guide students in selecting a well-chosen font that facilitates readability, making it easier for readers to process intricate biological information and data. Fonts that are too decorative or hard to read can detract from the text, leading to misunderstanding or disinterest.

Typography and Academic Credibility

There is also a deeper relationship between typography and academic credibility. A paper with a standard, widely accepted font like Times New Roman or Arial is often perceived as more professional and scholarly. This perception stems from these fonts’ longstanding association with academic writing. Conversely, using unconventional or overly stylized fonts may raise questions about the seriousness and rigor of the research.

Characteristics of Ideal Fonts for Biology Research Papers

The primary goal of any academic font choice should be to enhance readability and comprehension. The font must facilitate easy reading for biology research papers where complex data and detailed explanations are commonplace. Key features to consider include:

  • Font Size: Typically, a font size of 10 to 12 points is ideal for the main text. It’s large enough to be legible without taking up excessive space.
  • Spacing: Proper spacing in a font is crucial. Line spacing of 1.5 to 2.0 is recommended for academic papers to prevent the text from appearing cramped.
  • Style: The style of the font should be straightforward and clear. Fonts with overly ornate details or unusual designs can distract the reader from the content.
  • Consistency: Consistent use of fonts throughout the paper, including headings, subheadings, and body text, aids in creating a cohesive and professional look.

The font choice should strike a balance between visually appealing and functionally practical. Aesthetically pleasing fonts that are also clear and easy to read can enhance the overall presentation of the research without detracting from the paper’s scholarly nature.

Serif vs. Sans Serif Fonts

The debate between serif and sans-serif fonts is a long-standing one in typography. Serif fonts, such as Times New Roman, are characterized by small lines or strokes attached to the ends of their letters. They are traditional and widely used in print media. Sans serif fonts, like Arial or Helvetica, lack these embellishments and offer a cleaner, more modern appearance.

Suitability for Biology Research Papers

The choice between serif and sans serif fonts for biology research papers often boils down to the nature of the content and the medium of publication.

  • Print vs. Digital: Serif fonts are typically more accessible to the eyes for printed materials due to their distinct letterforms that guide the reader’s eye along the lines of text. Sans serif fonts can be more legible for digital publications or presentations, especially on lower-resolution screens.
  • Text-Heavy Documents: For papers that are dense with text, a serif font might be preferable for its readability over extended periods.
  • Data Presentation: Due to its clean and uncluttered look, a sans-serif font can be more appropriate in sections with more data visualization, like charts and graphs.

Popular Font Choices in Academic Biology Papers

In academic biology papers, specific fonts have become standard due to their readability and professional appearance.

  • Times New Roman : Perhaps the most ubiquitous font in academic writing, Times New Roman is favored for its traditional look and readability in print form. It’s often the default choice for many research papers.
  • Arial: Arial is a sans-serif font known for its clarity and simplicity, making it a popular choice for digital documents. Its clean lines offer excellent on-screen readability.
  • Helvetica: Similar to Arial, Helvetica is another sans serif font widely used in scientific publications. It’s known for its neutral and transparent appearance, which works well in print and digital formats.

Pros and Cons in Biology Research Context

  • Times New Roman : While highly readable, it can sometimes feel overused and may need a more modern touch than some researchers prefer.
  • Arial: Its simplicity is a strength, but it may be too plain for a detailed research paper.
  • Helvetica: Offers excellent readability, though it’s not as commonly used as Times New Roman and Arial, which could be a drawback in traditional academic circles.

Considering the Requirements of Scientific Journals

Many scientific journals have specific font requirements for submissions. These requirements ensure consistency and readability across publications. Journals often specify the font type and the size, line spacing, and margin sizes.

Adapting to Journal Guidelines

  • Research and Conformity: Before beginning your paper, research the specific font requirements of the journal you wish to submit. Adhering to these guidelines is crucial for the acceptance of your paper.
  • Balancing Guidelines with Personal Preference: While following the guidelines is essential, you can still find ways to incorporate your style within these parameters. For instance, use the stipulated font for the main text but experiment with different (yet acceptable) fonts for headings or subheadings if allowed.
  • Standard of Excellence: Regardless of the font, ensure that your paper maintains a high standard in terms of formatting, which includes consistent use of font types, sizes, and styles throughout the document. A well-formatted paper reflects attention to detail and professionalism.

Accessibility and Inclusivity in Font Selection

In academic writing, particularly in biology research papers, the inclusivity and accessibility of font selection are paramount. This consideration is a matter of aesthetics and enhancing IT support for students , including those with visual impairments. Selecting fonts that are easily readable by all audiences is crucial. A clear, well-spaced, and size-appropriate font can make a significant difference in accessibility. By focusing on accessibility in font design, we can significantly aid in the comprehension and readability of the text, ensuring that educational materials are inclusive and accessible to everyone.

Fonts Known for Accessibility

  • Verdana: With its wide spacing and clear distinction between letters, Verdana is known for its high readability, particularly on digital screens.
  • Arial: Its simplistic and uncluttered design makes Arial a go-to choice for clear readability.
  • Tahoma: Similar to Verdana, Tahoma has a broader body, making it easy to read even at smaller sizes.

These fonts are practical for those with visual impairments and generally enhance readability for all readers.

Integrating Graphics and Text

When incorporating charts, graphs, and images into biology research papers, it’s crucial to ensure that the font style used in these graphical elements complements the paper’s main text.

  • Consistent Font Style: Use the same or similar font styles in your graphical elements as in your text. This consistency helps maintain a cohesive look throughout the paper.
  • Legibility in Graphics: Ensure any text included in graphics (like labels or annotations) is legible, significantly when graphs or charts are scaled down.

Maintaining Font Consistency

Consistency in font usage is key to a professionally presented research paper. It means using the same font (or a very similar one) throughout the paper, including in your headers, footers, and any included graphics. Such consistency not only enhances aesthetics but also reinforces the professional integrity of the document.

Best Practices in Font Usage

  • Readability First: Prioritize fonts that are easy to read. Avoid overly stylized fonts that might detract from the content.
  • Professional and Appropriate: Choose fonts that convey a sense of professionalism. Traditional fonts like Times New Roman or Arial are often preferred in academic settings.
  • Size Matters: Use a font size that is easy to read but fits nicely on the page. Typically, a 10 to 12-point size is standard for body text.
  • Consistency Across the Paper: Use the same font for body text, headings, and captions throughout your paper. Consistency helps in creating a seamless reading experience.

Balancing Aesthetics and Functionality

The font choice should strike a balance between aesthetic appeal and practical functionality. The font should enhance the visual appeal of your paper without compromising its primary purpose – to communicate your research clearly and effectively. By adhering to these best practices, you can ensure that your biology research paper is not only informative but also accessible, inclusive, and professionally presented.

In conclusion, the meticulous process of selecting the appropriate font for a biology research paper is a testament to scientific inquiry’s thoroughness and detail-oriented nature. The choice of font, often a subtle and overlooked aspect of academic writing, plays a pivotal role in how the information is presented and perceived. Whether it’s the traditional elegance of Times New Roman, Arial’s clean simplicity, or Helvetica’s neutral clarity, the font you choose can significantly impact your work’s readability and professional integrity.

By considering factors such as readability, inclusivity, journal requirements, and consistency in graphics and text, researchers can ensure that their papers are visually appealing but also accessible and credible. Ultimately, the proper font choice in a biology research paper enhances the communication of complex scientific ideas, making them more understandable and engaging to the reader, thereby contributing to broader dissemination and impact of scientific knowledge.

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FontSaga

Best Font For Memorization: A Quick Guide

Memorization has become a lost art in our digital age. With instant access to information at our fingertips, retaining knowledge has become less of a priority. Everything can impact your ability to retain information, from the content you’re studying to the environment you’re in.

However, there are still many situations where memorizing information is crucial, such as school tests, presentations, or lectures. The font you choose can play an important role in how well you retain information. Believe it or not, different fonts can profoundly affect information processing and memory retention.

Studies have shown that certain fonts are more effective at retaining information than others. We’ll discuss the best font for memorization and explore how it works.

Best Font For Memorization

Table of Contents

10 Best Font For Memorization

10 Best Font For Memorization

Regarding choosing the best font for memorization, several options have been found to be particularly effective. These fonts are designed to enhance readability and retention, making them ideal for studying, note-taking, and other activities requiring memorization. Here are 10 of the best fonts for memorization:

People have long regarded serif fonts as the ideal choice for enhancing memorization. People widely recognize fonts like Times New Roman and Georgia for their readability and familiarity. With their small lines or strokes at the ends of letters, serif fonts offer visual guidance, aiding the eye in smoothly transitioning from one letter to the next.

This quality makes them conducive to deeper processing and improved memory retention. Their widespread usage in printed materials such as books and newspapers is a testament to their efficacy in facilitating easy reading and better information absorption.

Studies have confirmed that serif fonts can substantially enhance reading comprehension and memory recall compared to other font styles. Thus, when selecting a serif font for memorization purposes, it is crucial to consider factors like legibility, spacing, and readability at different font sizes. By adopting a serif font, individuals can optimize their efforts in retaining key information and enhancing the effectiveness of their memorization techniques.

Times New Roman

Times New Roman

People recognize and choose Times New Roman as a classic font in academic and professional settings. As a serif font, it features small lines or extensions at the ends of its characters, creating a distinct visual style. Studies have indicated that serif fonts like Times New Roman can enhance reading comprehension and memory retention.

Additionally, familiarity with Times New Roman can facilitate greater focus on the content, aiding in information retention. It is worth noting, however, that the ideal font for memorization can vary depending on individual preferences and learning styles.

People frequently choose Arial, a widely recognized and versatile font, for various memorization tasks. Its clean and straightforward design promotes ease of reading and recognition while facilitating memory retention.

Unlike serif fonts, Arial belongs to the sans-serif family, boasting a lack of decorative lines at the ends of its letters. This absence renders Arial more readable, particularly with smaller font sizes. Numerous studies have consistently demonstrated the positive impact of employing a legible font, such as Arial, on reading comprehension and the ability to recall information.

Consequently, whether you construct comprehensive study notes or endeavoring to complete a meticulous research paper, Arial can significantly contribute to your educational achievements and overall scholarly success.

Verdana is widely recognized as one of the best fonts for memorization. We highly recommend this font because of its clear and easy-to-read design. With a large x-height and rounded letterforms, Verdana enhances legibility and aids in the brain’s information processing.

The generous spacing between letters and words further improves readability, making it easier for readers to absorb and remember the content. Especially beneficial for individuals with dyslexia or visual impairments, Verdana minimizes confusion between similar letters. When it comes to promoting memorization, Verdana’s clarity, optimal spacing, and legibility make it a font worth considering.

Georgia

Georgia is widely recognized as one of the best fonts for readability and memorization due to its distinct letterforms and comfortable spacing. With its larger and more distinguishable letterforms, Georgia makes it easier for the brain to process information and differentiate between characters.

The spacing and line height in Georgia contributes to the font’s legibility, allowing for effortless reading and retention of information. Georgia’s effectiveness extends to longer text passages, making it an ideal choice for study materials or presentations. Studies have shown that using Georgia as the font for learning materials can improve reading speed, comprehension, and memory retention compared to other fonts.

Courier is recognized as one of the best fonts for enhancing memorization. Its distinct characters and consistent spacing aid in processing and remembering information. The simplicity of Courier without any decorative elements reduces distractions and enhances focus.

Studies have shown that using courier or similar monospaced fonts improves reading speed and retention. Individuals can improve memory and recall abilities by choosing Courier, making it an optimal font for memorization.

Calibri, a popular memorised font choice, stands out with its clean and modern design. Its simplicity and ease of reading make it an ideal font for studying and retaining information. With balanced proportions and consistent letterforms, Calibri helps minimize distractions, allowing for better focus and deeper content processing.

Calibri offers versatility in presenting and organizing information in various styles and weights. Studies have shown that fonts with high legibility, such as Calibri, can improve reading speed and comprehension, ultimately aiding in memory retention. Educational outcomes can be enhanced by using Calibri as the font of choice for study notes, presentations, and other learning materials.

Century Gothic

Century Gothic

Century Gothic, a widely used sans-serif font, is recognized for its clean and modern appearance. Studies have shown that fonts like Century Gothic, which feature larger letter spacing, can significantly improve reading speed and comprehension.

Its simple and uniform design makes it easily legible and conducive to memorization. With rounded edges and open letterforms, Century Gothic enhances readability and reduces distractions. This font is frequently employed in educational materials, presentations, and other contexts where memorization is paramount. It is ideal for study notes and can contribute to better educational outcomes.

Garamond is considered one of the best fonts for memorization. Its elegant and legible design facilitates easy reading and optimal retention of information. Several studies have shown that using Garamond as the font for study materials can significantly enhance memory retention compared to other fonts.

This serif font’s balanced letterforms, and consistent spacing contribute to its remarkable readability and memorability. When choosing a font for memorization, it is important to consider factors such as readability, legibility, and visual appeal. Thanks to its classic and timeless style, Garamond perfectly aligns with these criteria.

Baskerville

Baskerville, an elegant serif font created by John Baskerville in the 18th century, enhances reading comprehension and aids in memory retention. Its clean and sophisticated design captivates readers, making it a favourable choice in academic settings such as textbooks, research papers, and study materials.

Studies have shown that using Baskerville significantly improves recall and retention, making it a font of choice for optimizing learning outcomes. Its highly legible and distinct letter shapes facilitate deeper cognitive processing, resulting in better information encoding and storage in memory.

Finding the best font for memorization is crucial for retaining information. Research has shown that certain fonts can enhance memory and make information easier to recall. Choosing the right font allows you to optimize your study sessions and improve your ability to remember important details.

Whether you’re a student preparing for exams or someone looking to enhance their learning abilities, selecting the right font is a small but impactful step towards improving your memory retention. By applying the knowledge gained from this study, we can optimize our learning and memorization abilities and potentially improve our overall academic or professional performance.

Frequently Asked Questions

1.What Font Is Best For Memorising?

Ans: When memorization, using a sans-serif font like Arial or Verdana is generally recommended. These fonts have clear and distinct letterforms that are easier to remember. Avoid decorative or cursive fonts as they can be difficult to read and memorize. Experiment with different fonts to find what works best for your learning style.

2.What Is The Best Font For Studying?

Ans: When studying, fonts like Arial or Times New Roman are considered the best. Clear and distinct letterforms enhance readability and comprehension. Avoid overly decorative fonts as they may be harder to read. The choice of font ultimately depends on personal preference and readability for each individual.

3.What Is The Best Font For Revision Notes?

Ans: The best font for revision notes is a clean and legible option like Arial or Times New Roman. Avoid fancy or decorative fonts that may hinder quick reading. Use a comfortable font size to avoid eye strain, and consider using bold or italic formatting to emphasise important information.

4.Can Font Style Affect Memory?

Ans: Font style can indeed impact memory. Studies show that fonts like Arial or Times New Roman, which are highly legible and readable, are more memorable. Clear and simple fonts reduce cognitive load, aiding in better information retention. Choose a font that is easy on the eyes for optimal memorization.

5.What Factors Should I Consider When Choosing A Font For Memorization Purposes?

Ans: When selecting a font for memorization, prioritize clarity and readability. Stick to fonts like Arial or Times New Roman that are easy to read. Avoid overly decorative or unconventional fonts. Pay attention to letter and word spacing, as well as overall legibility. Use a font size that doesn’t strain your eyes.

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The 3 Best Lithium Stocks to Buy in February 2024

W ith electric vehicle powerhouses like Tesla (NASDAQ: TSLA ) getting off to a bad start this year, the concept of best lithium stocks to buy might seem unusually risky. After all, even lithium players have struggled amid the fallout. You could say that EVs represent their best customers.

However, it’s also possible that this juncture may be the ideal time to consider the best lithium stocks to buy. Fundamentally, most research papers emphasize that EVs represent the future of mobility. For example, a recent Bloomberg report pointed out that the market could be headed for 22% growth this year. Also, with demand rising in other parts of the world, lithium may become short in supply.

Finally, it’s worth keeping in mind that the supply demand profile of critical commodities can change rapidly. Just look at uranium. Prior to the supply disruption, the radioactive material was in a glut. Now, people can’t get enough of it. On that note, below are enticing ideas for best lithium stocks to buy.

Albemarle (ALB)

Writing this ahead of the fourth-quarter earnings report of Albemarle (NYSE: ALB ) puts me at a distinct near-term disadvantage. However, irrespective of whatever the print might be, ALB stock represents a serious investment in the broader EV space. A global specialty chemicals company, Albemarle operates in multiple segments, including bromine specialties, catalysts and of course lithium.

According to MarketsandMarkets, the lithium metal sector reached a valuation of $2.5 billion in 2023. By 2028, analysts project that the segment could expand at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 20.4%. At the forecast’s culmination, the industry could be worth $6.4 billion. Combined with Albemarle’s other business units, the enterprise appears to be trading at an attractive multiple.

Yes, ALB suffered a steep drop this year. However, it’s now trading at 4.11X trailing-year earnings (without non-recurring items). As well, the price/earnings-to-growth ( PEG ) ratio sits at 0.4X. Analysts rate shares a consensus moderate buy with a $148 average price target, implying 32% upside potential. Thus, it’s a solid candidate for best lithium stocks to buy.

Lithium Americas (LAC)

A pure-play North American lithium company, Lithium Americas (NYSE: LAC ) is a resource company focused on the development of lithium projects in the Americas. Specifically, it owns exploration projects in Argentina along with the Thacker Pass project in Nevada. Thanks to its geographic focus, LAC stock could benefit cynically from brewing international dynamics.

According to the World Economic Forum, the biggest lithium producer is Australia. Annually, it produces 55,416 tons of the commodity, or 52% of global production. However, China comes in third place with 14,000 tons, not too far behind Chile at 26,000. Over the years, the world’s second-largest economy has pivoted aggressively to EVs. Therefore, competition could quickly erupt for supply, making LAC a potentially lucrative idea for the best lithium stocks to buy.

Analysts believe strongly in Lithium Americas’ potential, pegging shares a consensus moderate buy with a $10.91 price target. That implies almost 162% upside potential if the experts turn out to be accurate. However, the company focuses mainly in upstream activities. That’s a fancy way of saying it’s a pre-revenue speculative opportunity.

Piedmont Lithium (PLL)

An emerging name among the best lithium stocks to buy, Piedmont Lithium (NASDAQ: PLL ) is strategically located in North Carolina. While the company admits that it’s an uncommon position, Piedmont seeks to completely reimagine and reinvent the conventional lithium supply chain. Fundamentally, the company’s operations depend on the size and richness of the deposits that are part of the Carolina Tin-Spodumene Belt.

As a homegrown outfit, one of its main objectives is to foster responsible lithium hydroxide manufacturing while simultaneously decreasing reliance on foreign sourcing for the EV industry. It’s moving in the right direction. Per the company’s investment highlights screen, Piedmont posted revenue of $47.1 million on sales of 29,011 dry metric tons of lithium concentrate.

Further, management disclosed net income of $22.9 million and adjusted net income of $16.9 million. It also features cash and cash equivalents of $94.5 million as of Sept. 30.

To be fair, while the company is enjoying financial momentum, it’s off to an ugly start in 2024. Nevertheless, analysts hope for a reversal, rating shares a moderate buy with a $48.33 price target, implying 267% upside.

On the date of publication, Josh Enomoto did not have (either directly or indirectly) any positions in the securities mentioned in this article.  The opinions expressed in this article are those of the writer, subject to the InvestorPlace.com  Publishing Guidelines .

A former senior business analyst for Sony Electronics, Josh Enomoto has helped broker major contracts with Fortune Global 500 companies. Over the past several years, he has delivered unique, critical insights for the investment markets, as well as various other industries including legal, construction management, and healthcare. Tweet him at @EnomotoMedia.

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OpenAI teases an amazing new generative video model called Sora

The firm is sharing Sora with a small group of safety testers but the rest of us will have to wait to learn more.

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OpenAI has built a striking new generative video model called Sora that can take a short text description and turn it into a detailed, high-definition film clip up to a minute long.

Based on four sample videos that OpenAI shared with MIT Technology Review ahead of today’s announcement, the San Francisco–based firm has pushed the envelope of what’s possible with text-to-video generation (a hot new research direction that we flagged as a trend to watch in 2024 ).

“We think building models that can understand video, and understand all these very complex interactions of our world, is an important step for all future AI systems,” says Tim Brooks, a scientist at OpenAI.

But there’s a disclaimer. OpenAI gave us a preview of Sora (which means sky in Japanese) under conditions of strict secrecy. In an unusual move, the firm would only share information about Sora if we agreed to wait until after news of the model was made public to seek the opinions of outside experts. [Editor’s note: We’ve updated this story with outside comment below.] OpenAI has not released a technical report or demonstrated the model actually working. And it says it won’t be releasing Sora anytime soon.

The first generative models that could produce video from snippets of text appeared in late 2022. But early examples from Meta , Google, and a startup called Runway were glitchy and grainy. Since then, the tech has been getting better fast. Runway’s gen-2 model, released last year, can produce short clips that come close to matching big-studio animation in their quality. But most of these examples are still only a few seconds long.  

The sample videos from OpenAI’s Sora are high-definition and full of detail. OpenAI also says it can generate videos up to a minute long. One video of a Tokyo street scene shows that Sora has learned how objects fit together in 3D: the camera swoops into the scene to follow a couple as they walk past a row of shops.

OpenAI also claims that Sora handles occlusion well. One problem with existing models is that they can fail to keep track of objects when they drop out of view. For example, if a truck passes in front of a street sign, the sign might not reappear afterward.  

In a video of a papercraft underwater scene, Sora has added what look like cuts between different pieces of footage, and the model has maintained a consistent style between them.

It’s not perfect. In the Tokyo video, cars to the left look smaller than the people walking beside them. They also pop in and out between the tree branches. “There’s definitely some work to be done in terms of long-term coherence,” says Brooks. “For example, if someone goes out of view for a long time, they won’t come back. The model kind of forgets that they were supposed to be there.”

Impressive as they are, the sample videos shown here were no doubt cherry-picked to show Sora at its best. Without more information, it is hard to know how representative they are of the model’s typical output.   

It may be some time before we find out. OpenAI’s announcement of Sora today is a tech tease, and the company says it has no current plans to release it to the public. Instead, OpenAI will today begin sharing the model with third-party safety testers for the first time.

In particular, the firm is worried about the potential misuses of fake but photorealistic video . “We’re being careful about deployment here and making sure we have all our bases covered before we put this in the hands of the general public,” says Aditya Ramesh, a scientist at OpenAI, who created the firm’s text-to-image model DALL-E .

But OpenAI is eyeing a product launch sometime in the future. As well as safety testers, the company is also sharing the model with a select group of video makers and artists to get feedback on how to make Sora as useful as possible to creative professionals. “The other goal is to show everyone what is on the horizon, to give a preview of what these models will be capable of,” says Ramesh.

To build Sora, the team adapted the tech behind DALL-E 3, the latest version of OpenAI’s flagship text-to-image model. Like most text-to-image models, DALL-E 3 uses what’s known as a diffusion model. These are trained to turn a fuzz of random pixels into a picture.

Sora takes this approach and applies it to videos rather than still images. But the researchers also added another technique to the mix. Unlike DALL-E or most other generative video models, Sora combines its diffusion model with a type of neural network called a transformer.

Transformers are great at processing long sequences of data, like words. That has made them the special sauce inside large language models like OpenAI’s GPT-4 and Google DeepMind’s Gemini . But videos are not made of words. Instead, the researchers had to find a way to cut videos into chunks that could be treated as if they were. The approach they came up with was to dice videos up across both space and time. “It’s like if you were to have a stack of all the video frames and you cut little cubes from it,” says Brooks.

The transformer inside Sora can then process these chunks of video data in much the same way that the transformer inside a large language model processes words in a block of text. The researchers say that this let them train Sora on many more types of video than other text-to-video models, varied in terms of resolution, duration, aspect ratio, and orientation. “It really helps the model,” says Brooks. “That is something that we’re not aware of any existing work on.”

“From a technical perspective it seems like a very significant leap forward,” says Sam Gregory, executive director at Witness, a human rights organization that specializes in the use and misuse of video technology. “But there are two sides to the coin,” he says. “The expressive capabilities offer the potential for many more people to be storytellers using video. And there are also real potential avenues for misuse.” 

OpenAI is well aware of the risks that come with a generative video model. We are already seeing the large-scale misuse of deepfake images . Photorealistic video takes this to another level.

Gregory notes that you could use technology like this to misinform people about conflict zones or protests. The range of styles is also interesting, he says. If you could generate shaky footage that looked like something shot with a phone, it would come across as more authentic.

The tech is not there yet, but generative video has gone from zero to Sora in just 18 months. “We’re going to be entering a universe where there will be fully synthetic content, human-generated content and a mix of the two,” says Gregory.

The OpenAI team plans to draw on the safety testing it did last year for DALL-E 3. Sora already includes a filter that runs on all prompts sent to the model that will block requests for violent, sexual, or hateful images, as well as images of known people. Another filter will look at frames of generated videos and block material that violates OpenAI’s safety policies.

OpenAI says it is also adapting a fake-image detector developed for DALL-E 3 to use with Sora. And the company will embed industry-standard C2PA tags , metadata that states how an image was generated, into all of Sora’s output. But these steps are far from foolproof. Fake-image detectors are hit-or-miss. Metadata is easy to remove, and most social media sites strip it from uploaded images by default.  

“We’ll definitely need to get more feedback and learn more about the types of risks that need to be addressed with video before it would make sense for us to release this,” says Ramesh.

Brooks agrees. “Part of the reason that we’re talking about this research now is so that we can start getting the input that we need to do the work necessary to figure out how it could be safely deployed,” he says.

Update 2/15: Comments from Sam Gregory were added .

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Students often worry about safety issues when using the services of custom writing companies—and with good reason! Most institutions view such practices as cheating, making it particularly risky if professors discover that your assignment was completed by someone else.

The negative consequences can damage your reputation in the academic world and disrupt your career prospects. However, your fears should not deter you from seeking help. In fact, established and reliable companies are absolutely safe for users. They protect your private data and do not share any information with third parties. Your identity will remain confidential, ensuring that no one, including your instructors, will ever know if your assignment was commissioned.

According to their privacy policies, names, orders, and banking details provided by customers cannot be disclosed to anyone. Violating this policy puts a company’s reputation at risk and leads to a loss of clients. Therefore, if you encounter multiple positive reviews and a large customer base, you can be confident that the chosen service is 100% safe.

How much does it cost to buy a research paper?

Price is one of the most important aspects to consider when choosing a custom writing company. If you are a student on a budget, you are probably limited in the amount of money to spend on your studies.  Hence, you must be wondering if buying a research paper online is expensive. It’s difficult to give an exact answer to this question because the prices vary dramatically from one service to another. What’s more, they depend on your academic level and some other criteria.

For instance, high school papers can be found at rates starting from $7 per page, while college students will typically pay more, with professional writing services charging at least $10 per page for college-level work. Ph.D. research papers command even higher prices. There are websites that offer cheap research papers, but more often than not, they are written by amateur writers or by AI.

When calculating the cost of your order, companies also consider the discipline you’re studying. The more complex the subject, the higher the price. Deadline urgency is another critical factor; tighter deadlines mean higher costs as you’re required to pay a premium for expedited service.

Who will write my research paper?

In most cases, selecting the individual who will write your research paper is your responsibility. Websites typically provide a list of writers, featuring brief descriptions of their education, skills, and experience. You can review the degrees held by each specialist and the dates they were conferred. Generally, all writers possess advanced degrees, ensuring the high quality of their work.

For instance, if you need a paper completed in Economics, you can choose a reputable research paper writer with higher education in this specific field. This approach is applicable to any discipline you are studying.

Your choice can also extend between ESL (English as a Second Language) writers and native English speakers. However, it’s important not to be influenced by stereotypes. Some people assume that native speakers are invariably superior to ESL writers. But is this assumption accurate? In reality, certifications like the IELTS Academic demonstrate an individual’s proficient command of English and their capability to perform their job effectively. Therefore, verifying qualifications is crucial.

How soon can I have my custom research paper written?

Students often turn to essay writing services when they can’t manage their homework on time. Tight deadlines prompt young people to seek help, making the delivery speed of your research paper critically important.

The good news is that nearly all reputable essay writing services are capable of completing your urgent assignments. If you’re facing imminent deadlines, you can have your term paper completed within a few days. Some services even promise to finish college tasks within 24 hours. However, be prepared to pay extra for swift services. Why? Because writers must prioritize your order, which increases their workload.

In fact, the more time you allow for the completion of your paper, the less it will cost. If you require a custom research paper to be written in just a few hours, the price can escalate to $36 per page or more.

Is it illegal to buy research papers online?

Since most institutions strictly prohibit using the services of assignment writing companies, it raises a lot of concerns among young people. Students are often worried about the legal consequences of their actions. They are afraid of being punished according to the existing laws. However, it doesn’t make any sense because there are no laws prohibiting paper writing services. If a company has a license and operates according to the required business regulations, it’s absolutely safe.

Officially registered agencies that don’t break any general rules are a great solution for busy university students. But the question is “How to make sure that you’ve chosen the right essay writing service?” Well, actually it’s pretty easy. All you need to do is just to check their official website and see if there is any information about licensing.

Where can I buy a research paper online?

Now, obtaining research paper assistance online is no longer a challenge. The availability of writing services that cater to academic assignments is on the rise. By simply searching phrases like ‘buy college research paper,’ ‘write my assignment for me,’ or ‘order research paper’ on Google, you’ll be presented with a lengthy list of companies.

Hundreds of agencies are capable of completing almost any academic task. Among the most renowned are PaperHelp, BBQPapers, WritePaperForMe, EssayPro, and SpeedyPaper. When selecting a service, it’s crucial to gather as much information about it as you can. Evaluate its pricing, review the qualifications of its writers, and scrutinize its terms and conditions meticulously.

Where can I get research papers for free?

You can find research papers in your area of study for free from a variety of online directories and libraries. But keep in mind that they are not for submitting as your own work. Instead, you can use them to bolster your own original research paper. Some sites offering free papers include:

  • Library Genesis

What are the dangers of hiring a research paper writer on Reddit?

Hiring a research paper writer from Reddit or any other place that isn’t a reputable writing company comes with a plethora of dangers, including:

1. Plagiarism risk

Writers on Reddit don’t have protocols in place to ensure complete originality in the final product. Submitting a research paper filled with plagiarism or unoriginal thoughts could seriously impact your grades and, depending on your institution, lead to expulsion.

Checking for plagiarism should be of utmost importance, and hiring a Reddit-based writer doesn’t necessarily give you this peace of mind.

2. Late delivery

As you know, the punctual submission of term papers and research papers is paramount to success. If the writer fails to meet the deadline you set, the paper could be useless, wasting time and money.

While life does through curveballs to everybody, hiring a writer from Reddit provides no assurance that they’ll deliver your paper on time.

3. Poor writing quality

Poor writing quality is very likely if you fail to use a legitimate writing service and instead choose to hire a writer from Reddit.

It’s unlikely that they will show you samples of their previous work, causing your grades to slip if they can’t meet the high standards of academic writing.

4. Failure to meet requirements

Every essay has criteria that must be met. Writers who aren’t experienced with such writing can fail to meet the standards or conduct a thorough research.

We recommend hiring expert writers from reputable websites only, despite the potentially low cost of those advertising their services on Reddit.

How can a research paper writing website guarantee original, plagiarism-free papers?

Naturally, you need original, plagiarism-free work from your writing service. Otherwise, your grades are at stake.

Only reliable services offer guarantees of originality and ensure they write the paper from scratch. So, that’s the first thing you should look for when deciding where to buy a research paper online.

The services ensure original work by running all final papers through at least one plagiarism checker. Depending on the specific site, they may give you this report for free.

Reasons to Buy Custom Research Paper Online

The advantages of buying research papers from reputable companies are numerous. Firstly, it’s all about quality. Well-known agencies value their reputation on the market, so they never deliver papers of a poor quality. Otherwise, you will get your money back. What’s more, recognized assignment writing services complete orders on time.

Therefore, you can be confident about submitting your homework due to the deadline date. Another important feature of highly-rated companies is that they can write your paper very fast. So if you have an urgent task, you can pay extra and get it done in 24-72 hours.

Just in case you’ve noticed any mistakes in your paper, you can ask writers for a revision. Usually, credible companies offer an unlimited number of revisions, so you can request them until your requirements are completely met.

And last but not least, reputable sites where you can order research paper online typically provide clients with a plagiarism report. Hence, you can make sure that your research paper is original. For your instructors, it will be impossible to reveal that your work was written by somebody else.

Buying research papers online is a common practice nowadays. Many students turn to special services that complete their assignments for money. This is a very convenient way to get your homework done when you are overloaded with academic and professional responsibilities. A reliable writing service can save your time and energy, helping you avoid emotional burnout.

Before you choose a company to buy a paper from, you need to do proper research. Try to find as much information about different platforms as possible. Also, compare their prices and terms. Judging by multiple reviews, one of the best services available today is PaperHelp. But the choice is completely up to you, so you should make your own analysis.

Article paid for by: Ocasio Media The news and editorial staffs of the Bay Area News Group had no role in this post’s preparation.

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COMMENTS

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    1. Arial- "All-Around Champion with IBM Roots" According to fonts.com, Arial is one of the most used typefaces of the last 30 years. Its electronic origins go back to 1982 for IBM laser-xerographic printers by designers Robin Nicholas and Patricia Saunders.

  2. What is the standard/recommended font to use in papers?

    20. If there's no template, then the choice is yours. However, you should make sure to pick a font that's easy to read. The usual standards in academia tend to be the Times, Helvetica/Arial, and Computer Modern families. This doesn't restrict you from using fonts like Book Antiqua, Myriad Pro, Goudy Old Style, or Garamond, but they're ...

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    1. Barnaby Barnaby is a text serif that works beautifully as body text. Designed to be used at a smaller scale, this particular font works well whether you're submitting your paper digitally or in print.

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    Rule 1: Fonts—Choose a suitable (type)face for your work. Fonts should be chosen according to the intended function. Documents primarily consisting of text are usually typeset in serif fonts where letters end in horizontal lines (see Fig 2A) guiding the readers' eyes through the lines like a "railroad track" [].Moreover, serifs provide distinctive shapes of words (Fig 2B).

  6. Best Research Paper Font and Size: Best Styles for an Essay

    Ideally, the best font for a research paper is the Times New Roman as it is clear and most requested by university and college faculties. Other common ones are the Arial and Calibri fonts, which are preferred because of their large size compared with New Times Roman.

  7. How to Format Your Research Paper

    This table describes how to format your research paper using either the MLA or APA guidelines. Be sure to follow any additional instructions that your teacher provides. 12-pt. Times Roman or Courier. For figures, however, use a sans serif font such as Arial. Leave one space after a period unless your teacher prefers two. Leave one space after a ...

  8. What font should I choose for my thesis?

    Popular combinations are Garamond/Helvetica; Minion Pro/Myriad Pro; Times New Roman/Arial Narrow. But don't create a dog's breakfast by having more than two typefaces in your thesis - use point sizes, bold and italics for variety. Of late, I've become quite fond of Constantia.

  9. 10 Excellent STEM and Science Fonts

    1. TR2N. TR2N is reminiscent of the Disney cult classic Tron. This font is a capitals-and-numbers-only font that isn't designed for long documents, but for headlines and attention-grabbing design work. The font is well-made and readable (for what it is), but is stylized so you have to keep that in mind.

  10. Best Font For Academic Papers: Elevate Your Research

    A good font to use for academic papers is Times, New Roman. It is easy to read, professional-looking, and standard size. Another font that you may want to consider is Arial. It is also professional and easy to read, but it is slightly smaller than Times New Roman. If you are unsure which font to use, ask your professor or the person grading ...

  11. 13.1 Formatting a Research Paper

    Set the top, bottom, and side margins of your paper at 1 inch. Use double-spaced text throughout your paper. Use a standard font, such as Times New Roman or Arial, in a legible size (10- to 12-point). Use continuous pagination throughout the paper, including the title page and the references section.

  12. Which Font Looks Best in a Figure?

    As examples of the use of a sans serif font, like Arial or Helvetica, images from two of our most highly downloaded papers are included here in Figures 3 and 4. In Figure 3, the authors introduce calcium ion batteries; in the paper, they need to describe materials and structure, as well as device performance. As can be seen from the figure, the authors succeed in demonstrating both, and use a ...

  13. Font

    A variety of fonts are permitted in APA Style papers. Font options include the following: sans serif fonts such as 11-point Calibri, 11-point Arial, or 10-point Lucida Sans Unicode; serif fonts such as 12-point Times New Roman, 11-point Georgia, or normal (10-point) Computer Modern (the default font for LaTeX); We recommend these fonts because they are legible and widely available and because ...

  14. Font Readability Research: Serif vs Sans Serif Font

    Sans is a French word meaning "without". Sans is considered simple yet elegant, while serifs are heavy and decorative. Serifs are better for printing, while sans serif are better for on screen. While Arial is the best example of a sans serif font, Times New Roman is the best example of a serif font.

  15. 12 Best Fonts for Academic Papers in Microsoft Word

    The best fonts for academic papers are Times New Roman, Baskerville Old Face, and Georgia. There are plenty of good options, but you'll mainly want to stick to serif fonts. They look much neater and more professional while showing that the reader can trust what you say. Times New Roman Times New Roman is the most famous font on Microsoft Word.

  16. Fonts for Professional and Credible Scientific Research

    Helvetica looks great for printing and also gives you professional looks for the research paper. It is also widely used by many university papers as their common standard font. Helvetica along with Arial has been the most common fonts to use for proper research papers. When in doubt about what fonts to use, choose Caslon. Caslon was designed by ...

  17. Font To Choose for Your Research Paper: Best Font for Essays

    You will require to choose a typeface that is easy on the eyes. The issue is that there are literally thousands upon thousands of typefaces from which to choose. And after you've decided which one is the greatest, you'll need to choose the appropriate size. Is it preferable to have a font size of 12 for the body paragraph and 14 for the titles?

  18. The Best Fonts for Google Docs Documents

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  19. 7 Best Fonts For University Essays (Teachers Choice)

    6. Bergen Text - Sans Serif Font. Bergen Text is an elegant, clean and minimalistic font for university and college academic papers. It has been designed specifically in a small 9-pixel size for easy legibility and accessibility reasons.

  20. Use These Fonts to Help Remember What You Study

    Some of the best research on font-associated disfluency—or "the metacognitive experience of difficulty associated with a cognitive task"—was published in 2010 and is still cited by ...

  21. 5 Must-Use Word Features for Professional Documents

    Use the same font typeface for every style. Size 12 is a good starting point for the normal text. Size 14 is appropriate for the headings, decreasing by 0.5 pt for each heading and sub-heading you use. Use single or 1.5 line spacing for all styles.

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    3. Font difficulty and distractibility. Research summary: Another study found that hard-to-read fonts shielded the reader against background noise whereas background noise significantly impaired accuracy and comprehension of fictional biological information when presented in an easy-to-read font (Halin, 2016).

  23. Best Fonts for Your Biology Research Paper

    The ideal font for a biology research paper should meet critical criteria: it must be readable, exude professionalism, and align with the standards of scientific writing. This choice, often overlooked, can significantly impact the overall quality and reception of your academic work. ... Also Read: 15 Best Fonts for Fashion: A Stylish Guide for ...

  24. Best Font For Memorization: Unlock Your Memory Power

    Serif People have long regarded serif fonts as the ideal choice for enhancing memorization. People widely recognize fonts like Times New Roman and Georgia for their readability and familiarity.

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    Fundamentally, most research papers emphasize that EVs represent the future of mobility. For example, a recent Bloomberg report pointed out that the market could be headed for 22% growth this year.

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