Binary Search Trees: BST Explained with Examples

Binary Search Trees: BST Explained with Examples

What is a Binary Search Tree?

A tree is a data structure composed of nodes that has the following characteristics:

  • Each tree has a root node at the top (also known as Parent Node) containing some value (can be any datatype).
  • The root node has zero or more child nodes.
  • Each child node has zero or more child nodes, and so on. This creates a subtree in the tree. Every node has its own subtree made up of its children and their children, etc. This means that every node on its own can be a tree.

A binary search tree (BST) adds these two characteristics:

  • Each node has a maximum of up to two children.
  • For each node, the values of its left descendent nodes are less than that of the current node, which in turn is less than the right descendent nodes (if any).

The BST is built on the idea of the binary search algorithm, which allows for fast lookup, insertion and removal of nodes. The way that they are set up means that, on average, each comparison allows the operations to skip about half of the tree, so that each lookup, insertion or deletion takes time proportional to the logarithm of the number of items stored in the tree,   O(log n) . However, some times the worst case can happen, when the tree isn't balanced and the time complexity is   O(n)  for all three of these functions. That is why self-balancing trees (AVL, red-black, etc.) are a lot more effective than the basic BST.

Worst case scenario example:  This can happen when you keep adding nodes that are   always  larger than the node before (its parent), the same can happen when you always add nodes with values lower than their parents.

Basic operations on a BST

  • Create: creates an empty tree.
  • Insert: insert a node in the tree.
  • Search: Searches for a node in the tree.
  • Delete: deletes a node from the tree.
  • Inorder: in-order traversal of the tree.
  • Preorder: pre-order traversal of the tree.
  • Postorder: post-order traversal of the tree.

Initially an empty tree without any nodes is created. The variable/identifier which must point to the root node is initialized with a   NULL  value.

You always start searching the tree at the root node and go down from there. You compare the data in each node with the one you are looking for. If the compared node doesn't match then you either proceed to the right child or the left child, which depends on the outcome of the following comparison: If the node that you are searching for is lower than the one you were comparing it with, you proceed to the left child, otherwise (if it's larger) you go to the right child. Why? Because the BST is structured (as per its definition), that the right child is always larger than the parent and the left child is always lesser.

Breadth-first search (BFS)

Breadth first search is an algorithm used to traverse a BST. It begins at the root node and travels in a lateral manner (side to side), searching for the desired node. This type of search can be described as O(n) given that each node is visited once and the size of the tree directly correlates to the length of the search.

Depth-first search (DFS)

With a Depth-first search approach, we start with the root node and travel down a single branch. If the desired node is found along that branch, great, but if not, continue upwards and search unvisited nodes. This type of search also has a big O notation of O(n).

It is very similar to the search function. You again start at the root of the tree and go down recursively, searching for the right place to insert our new node, in the same way as explained in the search function. If a node with the same value is already in the tree, you can choose to either insert the duplicate or not. Some trees allow duplicates, some don't. It depends on the certain implementation.

There are 3 cases that can happen when you are trying to delete a node. If it has,

  • No subtree (no children): This one is the easiest one. You can simply just delete the node, without any additional actions required.
  • One subtree (one child): You have to make sure that after the node is deleted, its child is then connected to the deleted node's parent.
  • Two subtrees (two children): You have to find and replace the node you want to delete with its inorder successor (the leftmost node in the right subtree).

The time complexity for creating a tree is   O(1) . The time complexity for searching, inserting or deleting a node depends on the height of the tree   h , so the worst case is   O(h)  in case of skewed trees.

Predecessor of a node

Predecessors can be described as the node that would come right before the node you are currently at. To find the predecessor of the current node, look at the right-most/largest leaf node in the left subtree.

Successor of a node

Successors can be described as the node that would come right after the the current node. To find the successor of the current node, look at the left-most/smallest leaf node in the right subtree.

Special types of BT

  • Red-black tree
  • Trie (Radix tree)

Data structure: BST

  • Worst-case performance:   O(n)
  • Best-case performance:   O(1)
  • Average performance:   O(log n)
  • Worst-case space complexity:   O(1)

Where   n  is the number of nodes in the BST. Worst case is O(n) since BST can be unbalanced.

Implementation of BST

Here's a definition for a BST node having some data, referencing to its left and right child nodes.

Search Operation

Whenever an element is to be searched, start searching from the root node. Then if the data is less than the key value, search for the element in the left subtree. Otherwise, search for the element in the right subtree. Follow the same algorithm for each node.

Insert Operation

Whenever an element is to be inserted, first locate its proper location. Start searching from the root node, then if the data is less than the key value, search for the empty location in the left subtree and insert the data. Otherwise, search for the empty location in the right subtree and insert the data.

Delete Operation

Binary search trees (BSTs) also give us quick access to predecessors and successors. Predecessors can be described as the node that would come right before the node you are currently at.

  • To find the predecessor of the current node, look at the rightmost/largest leaf node in the left subtree. Successors can be described as the node that would come right after the node you are currently at.
  • To find the successor of the current node, look at the leftmost/smallest leaf node in the right subtree.

Let's look at a couple of procedures operating on trees.

Since trees are recursively defined, it's very common to write routines that operate on trees that are themselves recursive.

So for instance, if we want to calculate the height of a tree, that is the height of a root node, We can go ahead and recursively do that, going through the tree. So we can say:

  • For instance, if we have a nil tree, then its height is a 0.
  • Otherwise, We're 1 plus the maximum of the left child tree and the right child tree.
  • So if we look at a leaf for example, that height would be 1 because the height of the left child is nil, is 0, and the height of the nil right child is also 0. So the max of that is 0, then 1 plus 0.

Height(tree) algorithm

Here is the code in c++.

We could also look at calculating the size of a tree that is the number of nodes.

  • Again, if we have a nil tree, we have zero nodes.
  • Otherwise, we have the number of nodes in the left child plus 1 for ourselves plus the number of nodes in the right child. So 1 plus the size of the left tree plus the size of the right tree.

Size(tree) algorithm

There are 3 kinds of traversals that are done typically over a binary search tree. All these traversals have a somewhat common way of going over the nodes of the tree.

This traversal first goes over the left subtree of the root node, then accesses the current node, followed by the right subtree of the current node. The code represents the base case too, which says that an empty tree is also a binary search tree.

This traversal first accesses the current node value, then traverses the left and right sub-trees respectively.

This traversal puts the root value at last, and goes over the left and right sub-trees first. The relative order of the left and right sub-trees remain the same. Only the position of the root changes in all the above mentioned traversals.

Relevant videos on freeCodeCamp YouTube channel

And Binary Search Tree: Traversal and Height

Following are common types of Binary Trees:

Full Binary Tree/Strict Binary Tree: A Binary Tree is full or strict if every node has exactly 0 or 2 children.

In Full Binary Tree, number of leaf nodes is equal to number of internal nodes plus one.

Complete Binary Tree: A Binary Tree is complete Binary Tree if all levels are completely filled except possibly the last level and the last level has all keys as left as possible

Perfect Binary Tree A Binary tree is Perfect Binary Tree in which all internal nodes have two children and all leaves are at the same level.

Augmenting a BST

Sometimes we need to store some additional information with the traditional data structures to make our tasks easier. For example, consider a scenario where you are supposed to find the ith smallest number in a set. You can use brute force here but we can reduce the complexity of the problem to O(lg n) by augmenting a red-black or any self-balancing tree (where n is the number of elements in the set). We can also compute rank of any element in O(lg n) time. Let us consider a case where we are augmenting a red-black tree to store the additional information needed. Besides the usual attributes, we can store number of internal nodes in the subtree rooted at x(size of the subtree rooted at x including the node itself). Let x be any arbitrary node of a tree.

x.size = x.left.size + x.right.size + 1

While augmenting the tree, we should keep in mind, that we should be able to maintain the augmented information as well as do other operations like insertion, deletion, updating in O(lg n) time.

Since, we know that the value of x.left.size will give us the number of nodes which proceed x in the order traversal of the tree. Thus, x.left.size + 1 is the rank of x within the subtree rooted at x.

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Assignment 11

This assignment is an exercise in implementing the map ADT using a binary search tree. You will need to write a template structure to represent a tree node, and a template class to represent the tree.

1. Initial Setup

Log in to Unix.

Run the setup script for Assignment 11 by typing:

2. Files You Must Write

You will need to write one template structure and one template class for this assignment. A main program to test your class will be provided.

Since this is a C++ template, all of the code for both the structure and the class should be placed in a single file, bstree.h . That includes both structure / class definitions as well as the definitions for all of the functions. See the Hints section for an outline of how to structure this file and the order that things need to be coded.

The node structure

Data members

This template structure should have four data members: a member of the template parameter type used to store a key, a member of the template parameter type T used to store a value, a pointer to a node<K, V> that points to the node's left subtree, and a pointer to a node<K, V> that point's to the node's right subtree.

Member functions

Constructor

The structure should have a constructor that can be used to initialize the data members of the tree node.

The bstree class

This class should have two data members. The first should be a pointer to a node<K, V> that will point to the root node of the tree (or be nullptr if the tree is empty). The second should be a size_t variable that will be used to store the tree size, the number of elements or values currently stored in the binary search tree.

The bstree class should implement the following member functions.

template <class K, class V> bstree<K, V>::bstree()

The class should have a default constructor that sets the root pointer data member of the tree to nullptr and the tree size to 0.

template <class K, class V> bstree<K, V>::~bstree()

The class should have a destructor. The destructor can simply call the clear() method.

template <class K, class V> bstree<K, V>::bstree(const bstree<K, V>& x)

The class should have a proper copy constructor. Making a copy of the tree nodes can be done by performing a modified preorder traversal as described in the course notes on binary search trees.

template <class K, class V> bstree<K, V>& bstree<K, V>::operator=(const bstree<K, V>& x)

The assignment operator should be properly overloaded.

template <class K, class V> void bstree<K, V>::clear()

This member function should set the tree back to the empty state, deleting all of the nodes in the tree and setting the size back to 0.

template <class K, class V> size_t bstree<K, V>::size() const

Returns the tree size.

template <class K, class V> size_t bstree<K, V>::height() const

Returns the tree height. In this assignment, we will use a slightly modified definition for the height of a tree. An empty tree will have height 0, a tree with only a root node will have height 1. The height of any other node in the tree is the height of its parent node + 1. The height of the tree can then be defined as the maximum height of any of its nodes.

template <class K, class V> bool bstree<K, V>::empty() const

Returns true if the tree size is 0; otherwise, returns false.

template <class K, class V> const K& bstree<K, V>::min() const

This member function should return the minimum key in the tree. You may assume that this function will not be called for an empty tree.

template <class K, class V> const K& bstree<K, V>::max() const

This member function should return the maximum key in the tree. You may assume that this function will not be called for an empty tree.

template <class K, class V> bool bstree<K, V>::insert(const K& key, const V& value)

This member function should attempt to insert a key and value into the binary search tree. If the key already exists in the tree, the function should return false. Otherwise, a new tree node containing the key and value should be inserted in the correct spot to maintain the ordered property of the binary search tree, the size of the tree should be incremented, and the function should return true.

template <class K, class V> bool bstree<K, V>::remove(const K& key)

This member function should attempt to remove the specified key from the binary search tree. If the key is not in the tree, the function should return false. Otherwise, the node with a matching key should be removed, the size of the tree should be decremented, and the function should return true.

template <class K, class V> const node<K, V>* bstree<K, V>::find(const K& key) const

This member function should attempt to find the specified key in the binary search tree. If the key is not in the tree, the function should return nullptr . Otherwise, it should return the address of the node that contains the specified key.

template <class K, class V> void bstree<K, V>::preorder() const

This member function should perform a preorder traversal of the tree from left to right. As each node is visited, it should have its key and value printed (see Output below for the required format).

template <class K, class V> void bstree<K, V>::inorder() const

This member function should perform a inorder traversal of the tree from left to right. As each node is visited, it should have its key and value printed (see Output below for the required format).

template <class K, class V> void bstree<K, V>::postorder() const

template <class K, class V> void bstree<K, V>::level_order() const

This member function should perform a level order traversal of the tree from left to right. As each node is visited, it should have its key and value printed (see Output below for the required format).

3. Files We Give You

The setup script will create the directory Assign11 under your csci241 directory. It will copy a makefile named makefile to the assignment directory.

You will also receive a driver program named assign11.cpp which contains a main() function that will test your bstree class.

The correct output for this assignment is shown below:

If you would like a copy of this output to compare against your own program's output using the diff command, it is available on Unix at the pathname /home/turing/t90kjm1/CS241/Output/Spring2022/Assign11/output11.txt .

The driver program is designed to make this assignment easy to develop incrementally. Simply comment out all of the lines of the driver program that call functions that you haven't written yet. You should be able to write, test, and debug function at a time.

This assignment sheet describes the "public interface" for the binary search tree class. You are welcome (and encouraged) to write additional private member functions for your class as needed.

Pseudocode for many of the tree member functions can be found in the notes on Binary Tree Traversals and Binary Search Trees on the course web site.

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Precedence and associativity of operators in python.

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Ternary Operator in Python

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Assignment operators in python.

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In Python programming, Operators in general are used to perform operations on values and variables. These are standard symbols used for logical and arithmetic operations. In this article, we will look into different types of Python operators. 

  • OPERATORS: These are the special symbols. Eg- + , * , /, etc.
  • OPERAND: It is the value on which the operator is applied.

Types of Operators in Python

  • Arithmetic Operators
  • Comparison Operators
  • Logical Operators
  • Bitwise Operators
  • Assignment Operators
  • Identity Operators and Membership Operators

Python Operators

Arithmetic Operators in Python

Python Arithmetic operators are used to perform basic mathematical operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication , and division .

In Python 3.x the result of division is a floating-point while in Python 2.x division of 2 integers was an integer. To obtain an integer result in Python 3.x floored (// integer) is used.

Example of Arithmetic Operators in Python

Division operators.

In Python programming language Division Operators allow you to divide two numbers and return a quotient, i.e., the first number or number at the left is divided by the second number or number at the right and returns the quotient. 

There are two types of division operators: 

Float division

  • Floor division

The quotient returned by this operator is always a float number, no matter if two numbers are integers. For example:

Example: The code performs division operations and prints the results. It demonstrates that both integer and floating-point divisions return accurate results. For example, ’10/2′ results in ‘5.0’ , and ‘-10/2’ results in ‘-5.0’ .

Integer division( Floor division)

The quotient returned by this operator is dependent on the argument being passed. If any of the numbers is float, it returns output in float. It is also known as Floor division because, if any number is negative, then the output will be floored. For example:

Example: The code demonstrates integer (floor) division operations using the // in Python operators . It provides results as follows: ’10//3′ equals ‘3’ , ‘-5//2’ equals ‘-3’ , ‘ 5.0//2′ equals ‘2.0’ , and ‘-5.0//2’ equals ‘-3.0’ . Integer division returns the largest integer less than or equal to the division result.

Precedence of Arithmetic Operators in Python

The precedence of Arithmetic Operators in Python is as follows:

  • P – Parentheses
  • E – Exponentiation
  • M – Multiplication (Multiplication and division have the same precedence)
  • D – Division
  • A – Addition (Addition and subtraction have the same precedence)
  • S – Subtraction

The modulus of Python operators helps us extract the last digit/s of a number. For example:

  • x % 10 -> yields the last digit
  • x % 100 -> yield last two digits

Arithmetic Operators With Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, Modulo and Power

Here is an example showing how different Arithmetic Operators in Python work:

Example: The code performs basic arithmetic operations with the values of ‘a’ and ‘b’ . It adds (‘+’) , subtracts (‘-‘) , multiplies (‘*’) , computes the remainder (‘%’) , and raises a to the power of ‘b (**)’ . The results of these operations are printed.

Note: Refer to Differences between / and // for some interesting facts about these two Python operators.

Comparison of Python Operators

In Python Comparison of Relational operators compares the values. It either returns True or False according to the condition.

= is an assignment operator and == comparison operator.

Precedence of Comparison Operators in Python

In Python, the comparison operators have lower precedence than the arithmetic operators. All the operators within comparison operators have the same precedence order.

Example of Comparison Operators in Python

Let’s see an example of Comparison Operators in Python.

Example: The code compares the values of ‘a’ and ‘b’ using various comparison Python operators and prints the results. It checks if ‘a’ is greater than, less than, equal to, not equal to, greater than, or equal to, and less than or equal to ‘b’ .

Logical Operators in Python

Python Logical operators perform Logical AND , Logical OR , and Logical NOT operations. It is used to combine conditional statements.

Precedence of Logical Operators in Python

The precedence of Logical Operators in Python is as follows:

  • Logical not
  • logical and

Example of Logical Operators in Python

The following code shows how to implement Logical Operators in Python:

Example: The code performs logical operations with Boolean values. It checks if both ‘a’ and ‘b’ are true ( ‘and’ ), if at least one of them is true ( ‘or’ ), and negates the value of ‘a’ using ‘not’ . The results are printed accordingly.

Bitwise Operators in Python

Python Bitwise operators act on bits and perform bit-by-bit operations. These are used to operate on binary numbers.

Precedence of Bitwise Operators in Python

The precedence of Bitwise Operators in Python is as follows:

  • Bitwise NOT
  • Bitwise Shift
  • Bitwise AND
  • Bitwise XOR

Here is an example showing how Bitwise Operators in Python work:

Example: The code demonstrates various bitwise operations with the values of ‘a’ and ‘b’ . It performs bitwise AND (&) , OR (|) , NOT (~) , XOR (^) , right shift (>>) , and left shift (<<) operations and prints the results. These operations manipulate the binary representations of the numbers.

Python Assignment operators are used to assign values to the variables.

Let’s see an example of Assignment Operators in Python.

Example: The code starts with ‘a’ and ‘b’ both having the value 10. It then performs a series of operations: addition, subtraction, multiplication, and a left shift operation on ‘b’ . The results of each operation are printed, showing the impact of these operations on the value of ‘b’ .

Identity Operators in Python

In Python, is and is not are the identity operators both are used to check if two values are located on the same part of the memory. Two variables that are equal do not imply that they are identical. 

Example Identity Operators in Python

Let’s see an example of Identity Operators in Python.

Example: The code uses identity operators to compare variables in Python. It checks if ‘a’ is not the same object as ‘b’ (which is true because they have different values) and if ‘a’ is the same object as ‘c’ (which is true because ‘c’ was assigned the value of ‘a’ ).

Membership Operators in Python

In Python, in and not in are the membership operators that are used to test whether a value or variable is in a sequence.

Examples of Membership Operators in Python

The following code shows how to implement Membership Operators in Python:

Example: The code checks for the presence of values ‘x’ and ‘y’ in the list. It prints whether or not each value is present in the list. ‘x’ is not in the list, and ‘y’ is present, as indicated by the printed messages. The code uses the ‘in’ and ‘not in’ Python operators to perform these checks.

in Python, Ternary operators also known as conditional expressions are operators that evaluate something based on a condition being true or false. It was added to Python in version 2.5. 

It simply allows testing a condition in a single line replacing the multiline if-else making the code compact.

Syntax :   [on_true] if [expression] else [on_false] 

Examples of Ternary Operator in Python

The code assigns values to variables ‘a’ and ‘b’ (10 and 20, respectively). It then uses a conditional assignment to determine the smaller of the two values and assigns it to the variable ‘min’ . Finally, it prints the value of ‘min’ , which is 10 in this case.

In Python, Operator precedence and associativity determine the priorities of the operator.

Operator Precedence in Python

This is used in an expression with more than one operator with different precedence to determine which operation to perform first.

Let’s see an example of how Operator Precedence in Python works:

Example: The code first calculates and prints the value of the expression 10 + 20 * 30 , which is 610. Then, it checks a condition based on the values of the ‘name’ and ‘age’ variables. Since the name is “ Alex” and the condition is satisfied using the or operator, it prints “Hello! Welcome.”

Operator Associativity in Python

If an expression contains two or more operators with the same precedence then Operator Associativity is used to determine. It can either be Left to Right or from Right to Left.

The following code shows how Operator Associativity in Python works:

Example: The code showcases various mathematical operations. It calculates and prints the results of division and multiplication, addition and subtraction, subtraction within parentheses, and exponentiation. The code illustrates different mathematical calculations and their outcomes.

To try your knowledge of Python Operators, you can take out the quiz on Operators in Python . 

Python Operator Exercise Questions

Below are two Exercise Questions on Python Operators. We have covered arithmetic operators and comparison operators in these exercise questions. For more exercises on Python Operators visit the page mentioned below.

Q1. Code to implement basic arithmetic operations on integers

Q2. Code to implement Comparison operations on integers

Explore more Exercises: Practice Exercise on Operators in Python

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  1. Insertion in a Binary Tree in level order

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  2. Pointer representation of a binary tree.

    assignment operator binary tree

  3. Representing Algorithms Using A Binary Expression Tree (BET)

    assignment operator binary tree

  4. Learning Progress Binary Tree consisting of four levels: Assignment

    assignment operator binary tree

  5. Assignment

    assignment operator binary tree

  6. Operations on Binary Tree

    assignment operator binary tree

VIDEO

  1. Video Assignment

  2. DSA Live Course

  3. Class14 Bitwise operators (part1: Understanding binary representation) in C #cprogramming #btech

  4. 21. Binary operator overloading part-1

  5. Binary Operators

  6. data types (arithmetic operator + binary number + make calculator in java )

COMMENTS

  1. c++

    I am having a huge issue with my recursive function in my binary search tree. My project is due in a few hours and I cannot for the life of me get ahold of my instructor. My function seems to only be traversing the left most branch of my tree. Assignment Operator: template<typename Type>. BST<Type>& BST<Type>::operator=(const BST& that)

  2. c++

    I am writing various operator overloads for a binary tree function that I am creating, the specifications require an overload for copying one tree to another. binary_tree& binary_tree::operator=(const binary_tree &other) { return binary_tree(); } the test for the operator working is as follows,

  3. Basic Operations on Binary Tree with Implementations

    The tree is a hierarchical Data Structure.A binary tree is a tree that has at most two children. The node which is on the left of the Binary Tree is called "Left-Child" and the node which is the right is called "Right-Child". Also, the smaller tree or the subtree in the left of the root node is called the "Left sub-tree" and that is on the right is called "Right sub-tree".

  4. A binary tree , its copy constructor and assignment operator

    1) I would make three functions for printing: {pre, in, post}-order. 2) Use std::shared_ptr<T> instead of raw pointers - you will not need to implement your own destructor in that case. An interesting addition would be to try and implement the move assignment operator and move constructor as well. value = other.value;

  5. Binary Tree Data Structure

    A Binary Tree Data Structure is a hierarchical data structure in which each node has at most two children, referred to as the left child and the right child. It is commonly used in computer science for efficient storage and retrieval of data, with various operations such as insertion, deletion, and traversal.

  6. Binary Search Trees: BST Explained with Examples

    A binary search tree (BST) adds these two characteristics: Each node has a maximum of up to two children. For each node, the values of its left descendent nodes are less than that of the current node, which in turn is less than the right descendent nodes (if any). The BST is built on the idea of the binary search algorithm, which allows for ...

  7. PDF Binary Search Trees

    Overloading Less-Than To store custom types in Maps or Sets in C++, overload the less-than operator by defining a function like this one: bool operator< (const Type& lhs, const Type& rhs); This function must obey four rules: It is consistent: writing x < y always returns the same result given x and y. It is irreflexive: x < x is always false. It is transitive: If x < y and y < z, then x < z.

  8. PDF Lecture 15 Binary Search Trees

    invariant is a core idea of binary search trees; it's what makes a binary tree into a binary search tree. Ordering Invariant. At any node with key k in a binary search tree, the key of all entries in the left subtree is strictly less than k, while the key of all entries in the right subtree is strictly greater than k.

  9. Binary Search Tree

    A Binary Search Tree is a data structure used in computer science for organizing and storing data in a sorted manner. Each node in a Binary Search Tree has at most two children, a left child and a right child, with the left child containing values less than the parent node and the right child containing values greater than the parent node.

  10. PDF CS271: Data Structures Binary Search Trees

    Binary Search Trees 1. Implement a binary search tree class. Name the class BinarySearchTree and make it templated. You will eventually implement the following methods: copy constructor default constructor destructor assignment operator insert inOrderWalk search max min predecessor successor remove 2. You will need a node class to hold items in ...

  11. Binary Tree

    Thus, there are two types of skewed binary tree: left-skewed binary tree and right-skewed binary tree. Skewed Binary Tree 6. Balanced Binary Tree. It is a type of binary tree in which the difference between the height of the left and the right subtree for each node is either 0 or 1. Balanced Binary Tree. To learn more, please visit balanced ...

  12. Introduction to Binary Tree

    Binary tree is a tree data structure (non-linear) in which each node can have at most two children which are referred to as the left child and the right child. The topmost node in a binary tree is called the root, and the bottom-most nodes are called leaves. A binary tree can be visualized as a hierarchical structure with the root at the top ...

  13. Assignment 11

    The class should have a proper copy constructor. Making a copy of the tree nodes can be done by performing a modified preorder traversal as described in the course notes on binary search trees. template <class K, class V> bstree<K, V>& bstree<K, V>::operator=(const bstree<K, V>& x) The assignment operator should be properly overloaded.

  14. Binary search tree implementation with Rule of Three

    1. One remark: While implementing a binary tree with dynamic allocation of nodes is a good programming exercise, binary search data structures can be implemented in a much much more efficient manner by packing everything in an array / std::vector (instead of allocating each node independently). - BrunoLevy.

  15. BST overload assignment operator

    Why would an assignment destroy the copied object? If you say x = y, you don't usually expect y to be cleared. x is not "stealing" y's value. It's copying the value ("copy assignment"). Only if you say x = std::move(y) would you expect y to be cleared (a "move assignment"). Here's a quick'n'dirty example.

  16. Assignment Operators In C++

    In C++, the addition assignment operator (+=) combines the addition operation with the variable assignment allowing you to increment the value of variable by a specified expression in a concise and efficient way. Syntax. variable += value; This above expression is equivalent to the expression: variable = variable + value; Example.

  17. Binary Search Tree (BST)

    Learn about the binary search trees, implementing CRUD operations, tree traversals (in-order, pre-order, post-order, and level-order).This video is a part of...

  18. binary search tree assignment operator (recursion)

    Ravi thanks man, the code compiles! However there must be an issue with my logic as the program crashes when attempting to run the assignment operator with the following message: Unhandled exception at 0x77c815de in binaryst_10.1.exe: 0xC0000005: Access violation reading location 0xfeeefef6.

  19. Assignment Operators in Programming

    Assignment operators are used in programming to assign values to variables. We use an assignment operator to store and update data within a program. They enable programmers to store data in variables and manipulate that data. The most common assignment operator is the equals sign (=), which assigns the value on the right side of the operator to ...

  20. Memory leak in assignment operator for binary search tree

    Poor code structure. C++ gives you every facility for doing this, yet you're taking little or no advantage of it. You need to delete the root of the current tree, in the operator function, and then copy-construct the new nodes; and you need to fix your destructors.. The recursive copy helper should be a copy constructor in the Node class:

  21. Python Operators

    Assignment Operators in Python. Let's see an example of Assignment Operators in Python. Example: The code starts with 'a' and 'b' both having the value 10. It then performs a series of operations: addition, subtraction, multiplication, and a left shift operation on 'b'.