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Computer Input and Output Devices

The functioning of a computer system is based on the combined usage of both input and output devices. Using an input device we can give instructions to the computer to perform an action and the device reverts to our action through an output device. 

In this article, we shall discuss the various input and output devices which can be connected to a computer, along with their functions. Also, some sample questions based on this topic have been given further below in this article. 

This topic is not just important to have a basic awareness of how a computer device works but is also equally important for competitive exam aspirants. This is because Computer Knowledge is a part of the syllabus for major Government exams conducted in the country. 

Let us first discuss the exact definition of an input and output device:

Input Device Definition: A piece of equipment/hardware which helps us enter data into a computer is called an input device. For example keyboard, mouse, etc. 

Output Device Definition: A piece of equipment/hardware which gives out the result of the entered input, once it is processed (i.e. converts data from machine language to a human-understandable language), is called an output device. For example printer, monitor, etc. 

List of Input and Output Devices PDF:- Download PDF Here

Government Exam 2023

List of Input Devices

Given below is the list of the most common input devices along with brief information about each of them.

  • A simple device comprising keys and each key denotes either an alphabet, number or number commands which can be given to a computer for various actions to be performed
  • It has a modified version of typewriter keys
  • The keyboard is an essential input device and computer and laptops both use keyboards to give commands to the computer
  • It is also known as a pointing device
  • Using mouse we can directly click on the various icons present on the system and open up various files and programs
  • A mouse comprises 3 buttons on the top and one trackball at the bottom which helps in selecting and moving the mouse around, respectively
  • In case of laptops, the touchpad is given as a replacement of the mouse which helps in the movement of the mouse pointer
  • It is a device which comprises a stick which is attached at an angle to the base so that it can be moved and controlled
  • Mostly used to control the movement in video games
  • Apart from a computer system, a joystick is also used in the cockpit of an aeroplane, wheelchairs, cranes, trucks, etc. to operate them well
  • It is a wand-like looking device which can directly be moved over the device’s screen
  • It is light-sensitive
  • Used in conjunction with computer’s cathode ray tube
  • Using a microphone, sound can be stored in a device in its digital form
  • It converts sound into an electrical signal
  • To record or reproduce a sound created using a microphone, it needs to be connected with an amplifier
  • This device can scan images or text and convert it into a digital signal
  • When we place any piece of a document on a scanner, it converts it into a digital signal and displays it on the computer screen
  • Barcode Reader
  • It is a kind of an optical scanner
  • It can read bar codes
  • A source of light is passed through a bar code, and its aspects and details are displayed on the screen

All the devices mentioned above are the most commonly used input devices. Several other such types of equipment are used in different fields which can be counted as an input device.

For the reference of candidates and to help them with the common computer-related terms, given below are links to difference between articles which will make these terms easily understandable:

  • Difference Between Search Engine and Web Browser
  • Difference Between RAM and ROM
  • Difference Between Hardware and Software
  • Difference Between IPV4 and IPV 6
  • Difference Between Firewall and Antivirus
  • Difference Between WWW and Internet
  • Difference Between Virus and Malware

Online Quiz 2023

List of Output Device

The commonly used output devices have been listed below with a brief summary of what their function is and how they can be used.

  • The device which displays all the icons, text, images, etc. over a screen is called the Monitor
  • When we ask the computer to perform an action, the result of that action is displayed on the monitor
  • Various types of monitors have also been developed over the years
  • A device which makes a copy of the pictorial or textual content, usually over a paper is called a printer
  • For example, an author types the entire book on his/her computer and later gets a print out of it, which is in the form of paper and is later published
  • Multiple types of printers are also available in the market, which can serve different purposes
  • A device through which we can listen to a sound as an outcome of what we command a computer to do is called a speaker
  • Speakers are attached with a computer system and also are a hardware device which can be attached separately
  • With the advancement in technology, speakers are now available which are wireless and can be connected using BlueTooth or other applications
  • An optical device which presents an image or moving images onto a projection screen is called a projector
  • Most commonly these projectors are used in auditoriums and movie theatres for the display of the videos or lighting
  • If a projector is connected to a computer, then the image/video displayed on the screen is the same as the one displayed on the computer screen
  • They perform the same function as a speaker, the only difference is the frequency of sound
  • Using speakers, the sound can be heard over a larger area and using headphones, the sound is only audible to the person using them
  • Also known as earphones or headset

To learn more about the Fundamentals of Computer , candidates can visit the linked article.

Input and Output Devices – Sample Questions

As discussed earlier, input and output devices are an important topic for candidates preparing for Government Exams . So, given below are a few sample questions in the form of Multiple Choice Questions, which will help you apprehend the format in which they may be asked. 

Q 1. The _____________ pen is an input device which is used to select and display objects on a computer screen.

  • Character Reader
  • None of the above

Answer: (2) Light

Q 2. The small element at the base of a mouse is called _________.

Answer: (3) TrackBall

Q 3. Which of the following is NOT an input device?

Answer: (5) Speaker

Q 4. Which of the following is an example of a pointing device?

  • All of the above

Answer: (1) Mouse

Q 5. What all keys can be found on a keyboard?

  • Alphabet keys
  • Numerical keys
  • Command keys
  • Start button

Answer: (5) All of the above

Apart from these, to practise questions from other subjects which are a part of the syllabus, aspirants can visit the following links:

For any further assistance regarding the upcoming competitive exams, to get the best study material and preparation tips, visit BYJU’S.

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List of Computer Input and Output Devices

Computer input and output devices are crucial components that enable users to interact with computers and receive processed information. Input devices facilitate the transfer of data and commands from users to computers, while output devices present the results of computer processing in various forms. In this article, we will explore the different types of computer input and output devices, their functions, and their significance in today’s technology-driven world.

computer input and output devices

What are The Examples of Computer Input Devices?

1. keyboard.

The keyboard is one of the primary input devices for computers. It allows users to input text, commands, and other data into the computer. Keyboards come in various layouts and designs, with the QWERTY layout being the most commonly used. They are essential for typing documents, sending emails, and executing commands.

Read also: Keyboard Finger Position Guide – Master Efficient Typing

The mouse is another crucial input device used to control the cursor on the computer screen. By clicking and moving the mouse, users can navigate graphical interfaces, select items, and perform various tasks. Today, there are different types of mice available, including optical, laser, and wireless mice, each designed to enhance the user’s experience.

Read also: Why is My Mouse Lagging? [10 Reasons and Solutions]

3. Touchscreen

Touchscreens have become increasingly popular in recent years, especially with the rise of smartphones and tablets. They act as both input and output devices, allowing users to interact directly with the screen through touch gestures. Touchscreens have revolutionized the way we interact with computers, making them more intuitive and user-friendly.

Scanners are input devices used to convert physical documents and images into digital formats. By scanning a document , users can store and edit it electronically, reducing the need for paper documents and enhancing productivity.

Webcams are input devices equipped with a camera that captures live video and audio. They are widely used for video conferencing, online streaming, and video recording. Webcams enable face-to-face communication, making them indispensable in the modern world of remote work and virtual meetings.

6. Microphone

Microphones are input devices that capture audio and convert sound waves into electrical signals. They are crucial for voice communication, recording audio, and using voice recognition software. Microphones have become integral to applications such as voice assistants, voice-activated commands, and audio recording.

7. Barcode Reader

Also known as an optical scanner, is a device that reads and decodes barcodes attached to products, books, and more. By emitting light onto the barcode, it retrieves specific item details, presenting them on the screen.

8. Joystick

Consists of a movable stick attached to a base, designed for easy control. Primarily used to maneuver characters in video games, it’s also found in airplane cockpits, wheelchairs, cranes, and trucks for precise regulation. While it can move the cursor on the screen, it differs from a mouse in functionality.

9. Light Pen

Resembling a pen, is a pointing input device enabling users to select options and draw on the screen. Equipped with photocells, it sends instructions to the CPU based on light detection. Typically used with a computer’s cathode ray tube (CRT).

10. Digitizer

Converts analog signals into digital signals, translating them into numeric values. A Graphic Tablet is an example of a digitizer, transforming graphics into binary data for digital processing.

What are The Examples of Computer Output Devices?

The monitor, also known as the screen or display, is an essential output device. It visually presents the processed data and information from the computer. Monitors come in various sizes and resolutions, including LCD, LED, and OLED screens, offering users a wide range of choices to suit their preferences .

Printers are output devices that produce physical copies of electronic documents. They come in different types, such as inkjet, laser, and 3D printers . Printers are commonly used in offices, schools, and homes for generating hard copies of various materials.

3. Speakers

Speakers are output devices that produce sound from audio files, videos, or other multimedia content. They are vital for computer users who require sound output for entertainment, gaming, or communication purposes. Speakers vary in size and quality, from built-in laptop speakers to external, high-fidelity speaker systems.

4. Headphones

Headphones are personal audio output devices worn over the ears or inserted into the ear canal. They provide a private listening experience and are commonly used for multimedia consumption, gaming, and voice communication without disturbing others.

5. Projector

An optical output device that displays moving or still images on a screen. Often used in auditoriums and cinemas for video screenings and lighting effects. When connected to a computer system, the projector shows the same content as the monitor but on a larger screen, offering a grand visual experience.

6. Braille Reader

A crucial device for blind users, enabling those with low or no vision to recognize data by reading it through touch. By running their fingers over the device, they can easily understand letters, alphabets, and more, providing comfort and facilitating their studies.

7. Global Positioning System (GPS)

Aids users with precise directions by utilizing satellite technology to track their geographical locations. Continuous latitudinal and longitudinal calculations ensure accurate results. Today, GPS is built into all smart devices.

8. Video Card

A video card is a device installed on the computer’s motherboard, enhancing digital content display on output devices. It plays a crucial role in facilitating the use of multiple devices simultaneously.

A plotter is a device used for creating graphics and lifelike images. It requires a graphic card for optimal performance. Resembling a pen, it generates precise designs on a computer.

10. Television

Television is a ubiquitous output device found in every household. Users can watch video and audio files displayed on the screen. Modern televisions often feature plasma displays, replacing the older CRT screens.

Read also: The Advantages and Disadvantages of TV

Computer input and output devices play an integral role in enabling seamless interaction between users and computers. From traditional keyboards and mice to advanced touchscreens and webcams, each input device empowers users to communicate effectively with their computers. On the other hand, output devices such as monitors, printers, speakers, and headphones provide the sensory experience, presenting data, producing hard copies, and delivering audio outputs. Understanding the functions and features of these devices enhances the computing experience and allows users to harness the full potential of modern technology. As technology continues to advance, input and output devices will undoubtedly evolve, shaping the future of human-computer interaction.

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Input and Output Devices: Everything You Need To Know

Input and Output Devices

We’ll also be talking about the differences between both while providing you with examples of each device type.

Input Devices

List of input devices, output devices, list of output devices, the difference between input and output devices, what are input and output devices.

An input device is a peripheral with the ability to receive instructions or commands from a user and relay the information to another device. Input devices are incapable of accepting information from other devices.

Once an input device gets a command from a user, it changes the command into electrical signals, encodes the signals in binary code, and sends it to the receiving device. Binary code is a digital computer language that can only be understood by computers. Examples of input devices include keyboards , mice, etc.

Types of Input Device

There are two main types of input devices — direct input devices and indirect devices.

Direct input devices have the ability to store data in binary code. Examples of a direct input device include floppy disks, hard disks, and optical disks.

On the other hand, indirect input devices provide data to a computer using signs and letters. These signs and letters are incomprehensible to the computer. The computer’s processing unit translates them into binary code, allowing the system to understand the data provided by the user. Examples of indirect input devices include scanners, keyboards, printers , etc.

The keyboard is the most populous input device for issuing commands and providing data to a computer. It’s an intermediary tool that’s essential for human-computer interaction . The keyboard has a layout that’s similar to a typewriter’s though there are extra keys for performing other operations.

Each of the keys on a keyboard has a special character or symbol . Some of them can even carry more than one symbol. You may need to press multiple keys at a time to execute a command. Devices like touchscreen laptops , notebooks, and tablet PCs have detachable keyboards or virtual keyboards.

Most keyboards are available in two different sizes : 101-key keyboards or 84-key keyboards. However, some of the keyboards designed nowadays feature up to 108 keys.

Types of Keys on a Keyboard:

  • Typing Keys

These keys are labeled A to Z and 0 to 9 . They are used to type letters, words, data, and more into the computer.

  • Numeric Keys

List of Input Devices

  • Control Keys

Control keys include but are not limited to the Home, End, Escape, Insert, Delete, Alt, End, and Ctrl or Command keys. The four directional arrow keys are also known as control keys. A control key helps you control the screen, pointer, and information you’re sending to the system.

  • Function Keys

These keys are labeled F1 to F12 and are often found at the topmost row on the keyboard. They are used to control some of the accessible technical aspects of the system.

  • Special Keys

Special keys are endowed with specific functions . Some good examples are Shift, Caps Lock, Enter, Tab, Num Lock, Print Screen, etc.

The mouse of a computer is just as popular as the keyboard. A mouse is a pointing device . It’s an essential hardware that helps the user interact with the graphical environment of the system.

The mouse controls the cursor and provides the user with the ability to select and move elements, such as files, texts, icons, and more in the computer.

Computers depend on the mouse for movement. The mouse features two buttons , known as the left-click and right-click buttons. Some mice come with trackballs or scroll wheels to help you navigate the pages on a computer screen. The right-click button on a mouse provides extra menus, while the left-click button allows you to select, drag, or move items.

  • The Scanner

A scanner is an input device with the capability to convert images and text documents to manageable and storable files on a computer. Scanners use a special program known as the Optical Character Recognition to convert scanned texts or images into readable and editable files that can be saved as normal digital files.

This input device is capable of scanning more than just texts, documents, and images. Scanners have the ability to scan books, maps, camera negatives, and more. The converted digital file can be saved and printed from the computer . You can even manipulate and make adjustments to a scanned file before printing.

A joystick is similar to a mouse because it also works as a pointing device . It’s often used in Computer-Aided Design, otherwise known as CAD.

Two spherical balls are attached to both ends of the joystick. The ball at the bottom is placed in a socket that’s connected to the computer. When the lower spherical ball slides in the socket, it relays its angle information to the system in 2D or 3D .

Joysticks have a wide variety of built-in buttons for different commands. They are often used in computer gaming for precise control and movements.

Light Pen

A touchpad is an input device that acts as a pointing device . It’s designed with a sensor connected to its surface to help it analyze and relay the hand movement and position of the user.

Its mode of operation is similar to what you get on a mouse. However, trackpads are often found on laptops and notebook PCs .

  • Barcode Readers

A barcode is scannable data encoded by a set of light and dark spaces and lines with different widths. This data can be translated into numbers that identify a product, internet address, etc. Barcode scanners are mostly used in stores and supermarkets to help identify a product with a numeric code.

There are two main types of barcodes: matrix and linear barcodes . A barcode scanner scans the encoded image, converts it into alphanumeric values, and relays the data to the system it’s connected to. Barcode readers are also known as optical readers.

  • Web and Digital Cameras

A digital camera is an input device that uses CMOS or CCD sensors to take and store images . Images captured by the camera’s sensor are saved in the camera’s memory for later use after undergoing several processing steps.

A web camera , on the other hand, is either attached to a computer via a USB connection or built into the computer. Webcams are tiny digital cameras that take and record videos and images on your computer . These cameras are accompanied by software that allows you to utilize them. The software also allows you to broadcast videos in real-time over the web.

While many webcams are capable of taking HD videos and images, they don’t offer the same quality as most digital cameras. Digital cameras can be found in modern mobile devices as well.

  • Optical Character Recognition

Optical character recognition, also known as OCR, is an input device that’s capable of reading printed texts . An OCR scans each character in the text, converts it to machine-readable code, and stores it in the computer’s memory.


  • Pointing Stick

A pointing stick is a small button that looks like a pencil eraser.

It functions as a mouse and is often installed between the letters B, G, and H keys on some keyboards. When you apply a bit of pressure to the pointing stick, it moves the cursor in the same direction you applied pressure on.

  • Steering Wheels

A steering wheel is an input device associated with racing video games. It’s a computer peripheral that functions as a normal steering wheel. Once installed, you’ll be able to move your video game race cars like you would move cars in real life.

Some of the functions of a steering wheel include turning your in-game vehicle left and right . A steering wheel is often designed with mechanisms that work as the brake pedal and acceleration gear. Gamers with this input device often have an edge over those without it.

  • Microphones

A microphone is used to send audio to a computer. The microphone has the ability to capture sound and convert it into electrical signals that can be encoded and saved on the PC.

A paddle is an alternative to a joystick . It’s a simple input device used for playing PC games.

Paddles are designed with a wheel that looks like a volume knob for increasing and decreasing the volume of a sound. Turning this knob controls the cursor and allows you to move in-game objects back and forth.

  • Speech Recognition Software

This input device uses artificial and computer intelligence to recognize human speech and convert them to text. It’s often in form of software built into computers or smart devices. The speech recognition software is highly beneficial to users who are unable to type or utilize a keyboard .

  • Touch Screen

Touch Screen

The word modem is derived from the words Modulator and Demodulator. A modem is a hardware input device capable of converting digital signals to analog and analog signals to digital . The modem takes data from your internet service provider and converts it into data that can be used by your computer, smartphones, and other network equipment.

  • Virtual Reality

Otherwise known as VR, virtual reality creates a life-like experience through your computer . The VR concept is based on the simulation of a world that’s not part of our reality. With a VR device, you can enter a virtual space that’s different from your real-life environment and have a particular experience.

The experiences offered by VR can range from entertainment to educational, scientific, and even industrial experiences. Users will be able to interact with the virtual environment by using input devices like gloves, headphones, headsets, etc.

  • Biometric Devices

These input devices capture the biological characteristics of a person’s eye cornea, fingerprints, face structure, and more. Some of the characteristics can be used to identify a user and have been used to enhance the security on many smart devices.

The output device of a computer is a peripheral that receives information from a computer’s processor and produces a result . While an output device cannot send information to another device, it can relay data from one computer system to the other.

Output devices are capable of translating the binary code sent by input devices to a language that the computer user can understand. Examples of output devices include printers, computer monitors, etc.

Monitors are some of the most important output devices for a computer. They display the images, texts, icons, and symbols over a screen. For every input or command given to and executed by a computer, the output is returned and displayed on the monitor .

List of Output Devices

  • Cathode-Ray Tube Monitors

Also known as CRT monitors , the cathode-ray tube monitor creates visual elements through tiny pixels . The tinier the pixels, the better the resolution or image quality of the monitor.

  • Flat Panel Display Cathode Ray Tube Monitors

Flat-panel displays are designed with a flat panel. They offer less weight, volume, and power consumption. These displays can be large enough to be hung on the wall or small enough to be worn on the wrist. Flat-panel displays are used in a wide range of devices , including calculators, monitors, handheld video games, laptops, and other graphical displays.

Printers are output devices capable of providing the information in your computer or smart device on a piece of paper . The information printed can be images, texts, icons, etc. There are two main types of printers: impact and non-impact printers.

  • Impact Printers

This printer type prints information on a piece of paper by printing characters through a ribbon that’s crushed against the printing paper.

Impact printers are often:

  • Have low consumption
  • Used for large scale printing
  • Needs physical contact with the paper to print out images
  • Non-Impact Printers

This printer type doesn’t use a ribbon to print characters on a piece of paper. They are also known as page printers because they can print full pages at a time .

Non-impact printers are:

  • Provide excellent quality
  • Make less noise
  • Support multiple character sizes and typefaces

A speaker is an output device that converts electromagnetic waves into sound waves . They can be attached to a computer system or used as separate hardware. Thanks to the advancement in technology, wireless speakers are now available and can be connected via Bluetooth and other applications.

The audio produced by the speakers in a computer is done through a sound card, which is pre-installed inside the computer. Laptop computers have upward-facing speakers which can be found beside or at the top of the laptop’s keyboard. Speakers are available on many other devices, such as radios, TVs, toys, smartphones, etc.

Plotters are output devices with the capability to print high-quality graphics and images in different color formats . They are similar to printers but come with advanced features, better accuracy, high-resolution graphics, and faster printing speeds.

Plotters are used to print 3D postcards, large maps, architectural drawings, advertisement signs, large-format prints, charts, and more. These printers are often found in engineering and architectural environments .

A projector is an optical device that produces still and moving images on a projection screen . Projectors used to be limited to movie theaters and auditoriums. With the advancements in technology, there are now projectors that can be used at home and in offices; some can even be used without projection screens.

When a projector is connected to a PC, the projected image is often the one on the PC’s screen . Projectors are used to project or cast videos, educational content, business presentations, graphs, documentaries, animations, and more.


We’ve talked about many input and output devices as well as the differences between both. Here is a quick summary to make sure you know all you need to know about input and output devices:

  • Input devices take data from the user and send it to the computer’s processor
  • Output devices receive data from the processor and present it to the user
  • Input devices translate human language to machine language
  • Output device translates machine language to human-readable content
  • Computers communicate in binary code
  • Direct input devices store data in binary code and provide the data when the computer needs it
  • Indirect input devices receive and send information to the computer immediately

Input and output devices work hand-in-hand to provide the ideal computer experience. A computer can’t work without an input and output device. Once input is entered, a computer software uses the pre-installed processor to process the information. And when it’s done, the output device takes the information and presents it to the user.


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2.2.2: Input Devices and Output Devices (1 of 2)

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Learning Objectives

  • Identify the methods by which data is entered into the system unit.
  • Identify how information (the result of processing) is displayed or stored.
  • Compare various input and output devices and determine which ones best fit a specific situation or need.

Input Devices

Regardless of the type of system unit that has been chosen, data still needs to be entered into the computer for processing. Unless the data source is a type of electronic sensor that checks the environment and automatically sends relevant data to the computer, the human-computer interface (HCI) most likely uses one of the following devices to enter data into the computer.

Within the above list of typical input devices, you will find a wide variety of configurations and choices. We will look at just one of these here—the keyboard—but much of the same information applies to deciding which mouse device to use.

PC Keyboards: How to Decide Which Keyboard Is Best for You

Ergonomics is the study of designing equipment or tools to help users work comfortably and reduce strains on the body that can cause injury , such as carpal tunnel syndrome. Carpal tunnel syndrome is a painful condition affecting the hands and wrists, usually associated with repetitive movements such as using a keyboard. Thus, you should ask yourself several questions when shopping for a keyboard, whether for a new desktop system or to replace the keyboard you have. Even if you are working on a laptop, you have some options, although fewer than for a desktop system.

Here are some issues to consider:

Do you want this keyboard to be wired or wireless? What are the advantages and disadvantages of each configuration? Those that connect via a cable (plugged into a USB port on the system unit) are the most cost effective, but they limit your mobility in terms of where or how close you must sit to the system unit and monitor. A wireless keyboard uses batteries and allows more flexibility in terms of distance from the system unit. Battery life should be considered when choosing a wireless keyboard.

Connectivity protocols for a wireless keyboard

Radio frequency (RF) keyboards can be used within about 15 feet of the system unit. The RF protocol for these wireless keyboards is similar to that used in the remote control unit for your television. You should ensure that there is no interference to the frequency used by the keyboard.

Infrared (IR) keyboards require line-of-sight to the system unit. They have a smaller range of use, about 5 to 10 feet. There is less chance of interference with the signal unless the keyboard is used on a very cluttered surface.

Bluetooth keyboards can be used up to 30 feet from the system unit and are less prone to interference than RF keyboards. It is advantageous to use only plug-and-play units—ones that work right out of the box—because setting up a Bluetooth device that is not plug-and-play can be somewhat challenging.

The following guidelines should help you determine the best keyboard for your particular situation.

Keyboard layout

There are standard full-alphabetic keyboards, keyboards with smaller footprints that are used in laptops, and the small “thumb” keyboards found on tablet PCs and smartphones. In addition to standard keyboards, there are foldable keyboards, often used as an accessory for tablet PCs when the user finds the embedded thumb keyboard too small. Some foldable keyboards are standard size but made of a flexible plastic or silicone material that can be rolled up when not in use, and they often are waterproof. A software keyboard is not an actual physical board, but a keypad that is projected on the computer screen or an external flat surface.

Consider any special purposes for which you will be using this keyboard. If you play games extensively, consider a gaming keyboard with specific and unique keys used for game commands. There are special multimedia keyboards that can be programmed for specific tasks such as remotely accessing music or video applications.

If you often eat or drink near your keyboard, consider one that has been made waterproof. The feel of the keys on these keyboards is different; they are more flat and feel less like a typewriter keyboard.

Internal lighting on keyboards is becoming more common, making typing or gaming in low lighting environments more convenient.

Perhaps most importantly, consider a design that puts the least stress on your hands, wrists, or shoulders. There are split-style keyboards that separate groups of keys into right- and left-hand portions, angling these sections to minimize stress on the wrist. You may have to try several versions to find the one that is right for you. Finally, consider a wrist pad to help keep the wrists from resting on a desk edge, which can result in soreness and possibly carpal tunnel syndrome (7 Tips To Choosing The Perfect Computer Keyboard For You, n.d).

learn by doing

What type of input device is most commonly associated with smartphones and tablet PCs?

A gamepad A stylus A joystick A scanner

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Qwerty Keyboard

Output devices.

Once the data has been entered into the computer and has been processed into information, it must be stored for later use or output, either in soft copy format (computer display) or hard copy format (printed).

Here we will look at two output devices: the monitor and the printer.

How to decide which monitor is best for you

The original computer monitors utilized cathode-ray tube (CRT) technology. These monitors are still found, but primarily on older computers. CRT monitors were heavy and required considerable desktop space. It is possible to purchase a CRT monitor today, but you will find them primarily on resale or older overstock sites. Purchase of a new desktop now comes only with the newer technology—either liquid crystal display (LCD) or light-emitting diode (LED) and Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED). We will not focus on the differences in the technology here. Rather, we will focus on the options you have when purchasing a monitor and some of the performance issues involved.

If you are purchasing a laptop PC, your choice of monitor is restricted primarily to size of the unit because the monitor is part of the system case. If you are purchasing a desktop PC or even a monitor that you will link to your laptop, there are some choices beyond size that are available to you. The size of a monitor display is the diagonal measurement from one corner to its opposite. The actual screen display might be a bit less than that, however. Here are some things to consider:

LCD vs. LED monitors. Both types of monitors use backlight to produce the image. LCD monitors use fluorescent light. LED and OLED monitors, which use light-emitting diodes, are considered an advancement over LCD technology.

LED monitors have better picture sharpness and brightness, and the colors are more realistic. LED monitors light-emitting similar to small light bulbs. OLED are light-emitting dioxides across surfaces when supplied by a current. (LED LCD vs. OLED: TV Display Technologies Compared

LED monitors are capable of being sleeker and lighter.

LED monitors consume 40% less power than LCD monitors.

LED and OLED monitors have higher price points than LCD.

How much desktop space do you have? Monitors standard sizes range from 17 to 19 inches. Computer users who multi task often utilize dual monitors in use at the same time. Larger monitors are available for purchase.

Consider screen resolution. Higher resolutions display sharper images.

Smaller monitors typically have lower prices than a larger monitors.

Mia is equipping her first home office area. She would use a computer for communicating with friends and doing some online research. She has visited the local technology store and looked at monitors and thinks that a standard-sized monitor would be sufficient for her work. Her budget is limited, so she needs to be attentive to the cost of the system. Which type of monitor would you recommend for Mia?

30” LED Dual 24” LED monitors 24” LCD monitor 19” LCD monitor

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Deciding on the best type of printer

In addition to screen display, the most common form of output is that generated by a printer. The printer may be connected to the computer via a printer cable (in most newer printers, a USB cable) or connected wirelessly. Some printers also may directly accept a memory card from a camera. Multifunction or all-in-one printers can perform nonprinting tasks such as faxing, scanning, or copying.

There are some factors you should consider when purchasing a printer.

Source: 11 Factors to Consider Before Buying Your Next Printer, 2009.

Which of the following statements best describes output?

Output is a collection of unprocessed text, numbers, or images. Output is data that has been processed into a meaningful or usable format. Output is data and instructions. Output is programs, commands, and user responses

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Beyond the typical

  • 7 Tips To Choosing The Perfect Computer Keyboard For You. (n.d). Retrieved January May 11, 2019, from Life123: http://www.lifehack.org/463809/7-tips-to-choosing -the-perfect-computer-keyboard-for-you.

CS101: Introduction to Computer Science I

assignment for input and output devices of computer

Introduction to Computer Systems

Review these notes. For maximum benefit, go through these notes interactively, thinking about and answering the questions at the bottom of each page. These notes are an experiment in applying the "programmed learning" method to web-based computer aided instruction. The subject is Java Programming for beginning programmers. The content is intended to start beginning programmers out on the track to professional-level programming and reinforce learning by providing abundant feedback. Java is a programming language that is used often in professional practice.

Input and Output Devices


After you have installed the game, where are its parts located?

  • On the hard disk

When you play the game, its various parts are copied from the hard disk into main memory as needed.

Input and output devices allow the computer system to interact with the outside world by moving data  into and  out of  the system. An  input device  is used to bring data into the system. Some input devices are:

  • Bar code reader
  • Graphics tablet

An  output device  is used to send data out of the system. Some output devices are:

A network interface acts as both input and output. Data flows from the network into the computer, and out of the computer into the network.

Question 8:

Do you think that data transfer from the network is slower or faster than from main memory?

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In order for a personal computer to be useful, it must have channels for receiving input from the user and channels for delivering output to the user. Input and output devices connect to the computer through connection ports, which are generally part of the motherboard and are accessible outside the computer case. In early personal computers, specific ports were designed for each type of output device. The configuration of these ports has evolved over the years, becoming more and more standardized over time. Today, almost all devices plug into a computer through the use of a USB port. This  has increased in its capabilities, both in its data transfer rate and power supplied.

Besides USB, some input and output devices connect to the computer via a wireless-technology standard called Bluetooth, which was invented in 1994. Bluetooth exchanges data over short distances of 10 meters up to 100 meters using radio waves. Two devices communicating with Bluetooth must both have a Bluetooth communication chip installed. Bluetooth devices include pairing your phone to your car, computer keyboards, speakers, headsets, and home security, just to name a few.

Input Devices


All personal computers need components that allow the user to input data. Early computers simply used a keyboard for entering data or selecting an item from a menu to run a program. With the advent of operating systems offering the graphical user interface, the mouse became a standard component of a computer. These two components are still the primary input devices to a personal computer, though variations of each have been introduced with varying levels of success over the years. For example, many new devices now use a touch screen as the primary way of data entry.

Other input devices include scanners which allow users to input documents into a computer either as images or as text. Microphones can be used to record audio or give voice commands. Webcams and other types of video cameras can be used to record video or participate in a video chat session.

Output Devices


Output devices are essential as well. The most obvious output device is a display or monitor, visually representing the state of the computer. In some cases, a personal computer can support multiple displays or be connected to larger-format displays such as a projector or large-screen television. Other output devices include speakers for audio output and printers for hardcopy output.

3D Printing


A 3-D printer allows you to print virtually any 3-D object based on a model of that object designed on a computer. 3-D printers work by creating layer upon layer of the model using malleable materials, such as different types of glass, metals, or even wax. 3-D printing is quite useful for prototyping the designs of products to determine their feasibility and marketability.  3-D printing has also been used to create working  prosthetic legs  and an  ear that can hear beyond the range of normal hearing . The US military now uses 3-D printed parts on aircraft such as the F-18.  [1]

  • The Economist. (2013, September 13). 3-D Printing Scales Up.

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Course: computers and the internet   >   unit 2, what are the parts of a computer.

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There are a lot of terms used to describe computers. To put it in simple words a computer can be defined as an electronic device that processes instructions and produces an output to the user. To unveil the secret behind this process, understanding of individual components is important. Starting with the case, we'll discuss the role and functionalities of the various peripherals and hardware which are integral parts of the computer. What is a Computer? A machine that can be programmed to : Receive information. Process the information according to a set of suitable instructions. Display desired result information. A computer can also be used to store information whenever required It is a device capable of performing arithmetic and logical operations Computer-The Framework Types of computers Analog-An analog computer represents data as physical quantities and operates on the data by manipulating the quantities Digital-A computer that stores data in terms of digits (numbers) and proceeds in discrete steps from one state to the next Hybrid-Hybrid computers are made by combining features of analog computers and digital computers

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Tablet digitizers and touchscreens are common devices for getting graphical data into a computer. For many applications, they are the only practical device. Because tablet digitizers have been in existence for many years, they are often regarded as "old hat" technology-nothing new can be said about them and no significant technical developments other than price decreases can be expected. This is a misconception. We have found several misunderstood performance characteristics, characteristics that can have a major effect on the user's ability to use a tablet digitizer in many interactive applications. The risk to an application designer is that he or she may base the interface design on incorrect assumptions. As a consequence, the interface may be awkward to use. This article shows what some of these characteristics are and how to evaluate their effect in different classes of applications. Specific examples are taken from a hand-printing application for character recognition.

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A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out arbitrary sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. The ability of computers to follow generalized sets of operations, called programs, enables them to perform an extremely wide range of tasks. Such computers are used as control systems for a very wide variety of industrial and consumer devices. This includes simple special purpose devices like microwave ovens and remote controls , factory devices such as industrial robots and computer assisted design, but also in general purpose devices like personal computers and mobile devices such as smartphones. The Internet is run on computers and it connects millions of other computers. Since ancient times, simple manual devices like the abacus aided people in doing calculations. Early in the Industrial Revolution, some mechanical devices were built to automate long tedious tasks, such as guiding patterns for looms. More sophisticated electrical machines did specialized analog calculations in the early 20th century. The first digital electronic calculating machines were developed during World War II. The speed, power, and versatility of computers has increased continuously and dramatically since then. Conventionally, a modern computer consists of at least one processing element, typically a central processing unit (CPU), and some form of memory. The processing element carries out arithmetic and logical operations, and a sequencing and control unit can change the order of operations in response to stored information. Peripheral devices include input devices (keyboards, mice, joystick, etc.), output devices (monitor screens, printers, etc.), and input/output devices that perform both functions (e.g., the 2000s-era touchscreen). Peripheral devices allow information to be retrieved from an external source and they enable the result of operations to be saved and retrieved.- source = Wekipeda

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Computer hardware includes the physical parts of a computer, such as a case, central processing unit (CPU), random access memory (RAM), monitor, and mouse which processes the input according to the set of instructions provided to it by the user and gives the desired output.

The computer has mainly has two major components:

In this article, we only discuss computer hardware.

assignment for input and output devices of computer

What is Computer Hardware?

Computer hardware is a physical device of computers that we can see and touch. For e.g. Monitor , Central Processing Unit , Mouse, Joystick , etc. Using these devices, we can control computer operations like input and output .

Computer Hardware Parts

These hardware components are further divided into the following categories, which are:

  • Input Devices
  • Output Devices
  • Storage Devices
  • Internal Components

1. Input Devices

Input devices are those devices with the help of which the user interacts with the computer. Or, In other words, with the help of input devices, the user enters the data or information into the computer. This information or data is accepted by the input devices and converted into a computer-acceptable format, which is further sent to the computer system for processing.

Now we discuss some input devices:

  • Keyboard: It is the most common and main input device for computers. The data is inputted by typing on the keyboard. It consists of 104 keys in total. It contains numeric keys, alphabet keys, and different function keys as well. Earlier, it was connected to the computer via cable, now as technology has advanced, you can connect a keyboard using Bluetooth.
  • Mouse: A mouse is a kind of pointing device which is rolled over to control the cursor on the screen and it has functional keys like left, middle, and right buttons. Using these functional keys, on by the click of which an object is selected or to open a file by just a click of a mouse. It also consists of a sensor inside which notifies its speed to the computer and according to which the cursor is moved on the screen.
  • Scanner: As the name suggests, it scans images, documents, etc., and converts them into digital form and that can be further edited and used. It works just like a Xerox machine. 
  • Track Ball: It is a device much like an upside-down mouse. It does not use much space for movement like a mouse. As the trackball remains stationary and the user moves the ball in various directions, it affects the screen movements directly.
  • Light Pen: It is a light-sensitive device and it is touched to the CRT screen where it can detect, a raster on the screen as it passes by and, with the help of this user can draw anything like lines, figures, or any objects. 
  • Microphone: It is a kind of voice input system that can be attached to a computer system to record sounds. It converts human speech or voice into electrical signals . This electrical signal is processed by the computer and the word is recognized.  
  • Optical Character Reader: It is used to detect alphanumeric characters that are written or printed on paper using a low-frequency light source. This light is absorbed by the dark areas and reflected by the light areas, now this reflected light is received by the photocells. It is like a scanner.
  • Bar Code Reader: It is used to read bar codes and convert them into electric pulse which will further processed by the computer. Here, the barcode is data that is coded into white and black lines(or light and dark lines).

2. Output Devices

These are the devices that are used to display the output of any task given to the computer in human-readable form. 

Now we discuss some output devices:

  • Monitor: The monitor is the main output device. It is also called VDU(visual display unit) and it looks like a TV screen. The Monitor displays the information from the computer. It is used to display text, video, images, etc.
  • Printer: A printer is an output device that transfers data from the computer in a printed format by using text or images on paper. There are both colored and black & white printers. Further, there are also different types of printers, like Laser Printer, Dot-matrix printers, and Inkjet printers.
  • Plotter: It is similar to a printer but potters are large in size. A plotter is used to generate large drawings, architectural blueprints, etc. on paper and these are high-quality images and drawings and large in size.
  • Speakers: It is a very common output device and it gives sound as an output. Speaker is generally used to play music or anything having sound.

3. Storage Devices

There are some devices that are used for storage purposes and are known as secondary storage devices. Some of them were discussed below:

1. CD (Compact disc): A CD is circular in shape and made up of thin platted glass and plastic polycarbonate material. It has a storage capacity of 600 MB to 700 MB of data. It has a standard size of 12 cm with a hole in the center of about 1.5 cm and 1.2 mm in thickness. There are basically 3 types of CDs, which are:

  • CD-ROM (CD – Read Only Memory): Contents of this type of CD cannot be erased by the user. Only the publisher is allowed to access the data imprinted on this CD. CD-ROM is basically used for commercial purposes like for a music album or any application package by a software company.
  • CD-R (CD-Recordable): In this, content or data can be stored once. After that, they can be read many times but the data or content cannot be rewritten or erased. (Kind of one-time use)
  • CD-RW(CD-Rewritable): As the name suggests, this type of CD is used to rewrite the content or erase previous content and again write new content many times.

2. DVD (Digital Video/Versatile Disc): A DVD is the same as a CD but with some more features. A DVD comes in single and dual-layer formats. It has much greater storage capacity in comparison to CD. The storage capacity of a DVD with one-sided single layer is – 4.7 GB, one-sided double layer – 8.5 GB, double-sided single layer – 9.4 GB, and double-sided double layer – 17 GB. There are also some types in DVDs, which are :

  • DVD-ROM: In this type, the contents of the DVD cannot be written on or erased by the user. DVD ROM is used for applications and database for distributing them in large amounts.
  • DVD-R / DVD+R: DVD-R (DVD minus R) and DVD+R (DVD plus R) are two different kinds of discs and they are once recordable format. Also, they have no difference virtually.
  • DVD-RW / DVD+RW: This is a kind of rewritable disc and it allows up to 1,000 rewrites.
  • DVD-RAM: DVD RAM is accessed like a hard disk. It provides high data security and storage capacity. This is a kind of rewritable disc and it allows up to 1,00,000 rewrites.

3. Hard Disk: An hard disk is a non-volatile storage device that uses its read/write heads to store digital data on a magnetic surface of a rigid plate. It is generally 3.5 inches in size for desktops and 2.5 inches in size for laptops. A hard disk can be classified further into 3 types, which are:

  • Internal Hard Disk: It has a common storage capacity stated as GB or TB. A system case or cabinet is the place where it is located. It can perform faster operations and its storage is fixed. It is mainly used to store large data files and programs .
  • Internal Cartridges: The Internal hard disk can’t be removed from the system cabinet easily. To resolve this problem Internal Cartridges are introduced. So, Internal cartridges are easy to remove CDs. It has a storage capacity of 2 GB to 160 GB. It is used as an alternative to an internal hard disk.
  • Hard Disk Packs: It is used by organizations such as banks, and government sector organizations to store large amounts of data. It has a storage capacity of a range of PB( Peta Bytes).

Hardware Components

Some important hardware devices known as the internal components are discussed below: 

1. CPU (Central Processing Unit)

The CPU is also known as the heart of the computer. It consists of three units, generally known as the control unit, Arithmetic Logical Unit (ALU) , and the memory unit . Below is the block diagram of the CPU is given:

assignment for input and output devices of computer

As shown in the diagram input is given to the CPU through input devices. This input goes to memory and the control unit gets instructions from memory. The control unit now decides what to do with the input or instructions and transfers it to ALU. Now, ALU performs various operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, logical operations, etc. After that, the final result gets stored in memory and finally passed to output devices to give the output. So, this is how the CPU works.

2. Motherboard

It is the main circuit board inside a computer and it contains most of the electronic components together. All the components of the computer are directly or indirectly connected to the motherboard . It includes RAM slots, controllers, system chipsets, etc. 

3. RAM (Random Access Memory)

It is also known as temporary or volatile memory. It holds the program and data, which are currently in process or processing. All the data is erased as soon as the computer is turned off or in case of a power failure. Data stored in this memory can be changed. There are two types of RAM:-

  • SRAM (Static RAM): SRAM basically consists of a flip-flop using a transistor or Mosfet (MOS). It is fast and has less access time. In this refreshing circuits are not required. But it is costly and requires more space. For e.g. cache memory.
  • DRAM (Dynamic RAM): DRAM consists of capacitors and the data is stored in the form of capacitors. Capacitors charge when data is 1 and don’t charge if data is 0. It requires refreshing circuits, as leakage of current in the capacitor can occur, so they need to be refreshed to the data. It is slower and has a higher access time. It is cheaper in comparison with SRAM . For e.g. Main memory.

4. Video Graphics Array Port

A video input commonly used on computer monitors is called a video graphics array (VGA) port. Verifying that there isn’t a loose connection, a damaged cable, or a broken display is one step in troubleshooting a VGA port. Compressed air can also be sprayed inside the VGA port by a computer expert to make sure it’s dust-free.

5. Power Supply

All of a computer system’s parts are powered by a power source. Typically, a power cord is used to connect a computer tower to an electrical outlet. By turning off the computer, unplugging and separating the power supply cord, or trying a different cord or socket, a technician can diagnose the power supply.

6. Cooling Fan

A computer’s system to prevent overheating uses cooling fans. To aid customers who use their computers intensively, such as when streaming video or playing games, many computers contain more than one cooling fan. If a user detects their computer overheating, a computer expert might need to repair the cooling fan. The blades may be examined for any damage and cleared of any foreign objects. A technician’s standard method of troubleshooting may involve replacing computer fans.

7. Hard Drive

On a computer system, files, programs, and other types of information are stored on hard drives, which are data storage devices. They utilise hard drives, which are magnetically coated discs used to store digital versions of information. A computer technician can suspect a corrupt hard disk when a hard drive dies.

Relationship Between Computer Hardware and Software

  • Both the Hardware and software are mutually dependent on each other. Each should function properly so that the computer produces an output.
  • Software utilization can not be done without supporting of the hardware.
  • Relevant software should be loaded into the hardware to get the latest software.
  • Hardware is a one-time expense while software is not.
  • Software development is very expensive while hardware cant be developed if in use once.
  • Many software applications and their sub-applications can be loaded on hardware to run different jobs.
  • The software acts as an interface between the user and the hardware.

FAQs on Computer hardware

Q.1 why is computer hardware important.

The term hardware for a computer system refers to the actual, physical tools and components that support crucial operations including input, processing (internal storage, computation, and control), output, secondary storage (for data and programs), and communication.

Q.2 How does SCCM handle hardware inventory?

SCCM’s hardware inventory gathers data on hardware components utilized throughout your IT infrastructure. You must enable a few parameters before you can begin collecting hardware inventory data. Once the hardware inventory settings have been enabled, it is simple to store inventory data in the SCCM database.

Q.3 What is the basic use of hardware?

Hardware describes the physical parts of the computer or its delivery systems for the software’s written instructions to be stored and executed.

Q.4 How do you make a computer run faster?

Consider giving your computer extra RAM if you’ve previously removed debris from the interior and uninstalled any superfluous files or apps. Your CPU will normally operate more efficiently with extra memory, which could improve performance.

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Input and Output Devices in Year 10

Input and Output Devices in Year 10

Students had valuable ‘input’ on ‘output’ devices..

In a hands-on session in the technology lab, Year 10 Computer Science students had the opportunity to dive deep into the intriguing world of input and output devices. This lesson was not just about understanding the theory behind how devices interact with computers, but also about experiencing some unique devices first-hand.

Among the devices explored was the dot matrix printer, an early example of impact printing technology that is still widely used today in factories and retail. Students also worked with a flatbed scanner, learning how it captures high-resolution images from photographs and documents, transforming them into digital files. Some less-commonly used input devices were explored too. The trackball, which is an alternative to the conventional mouse, provided a different method of controlling a pointer and interacting with software. The barcode scanner demonstrated the transfer of data into a computer, a technology pivotal in retail and inventory management. Lastly, the VR headset was the student’s favourite, offering a glimpse into the immersive possibilities of virtual reality technology and gaming.

This session was not only educational but also sparked curiosity among students about the vast potentials of technology in both past and future applications.

assignment for input and output devices of computer

Congratulations to the Class of 2024!

What a Splash!

What a Splash!

Patana Pathways – Tarini

Patana Pathways – Tarini

Bangkok Patana School

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GPT-4o: The Comprehensive Guide and Explanation

assignment for input and output devices of computer

GPT-4o is OpenAI’s third major iteration of their popular large multimodal model , GPT-4, which expands on the capabilities of GPT-4 with Vision . The newly released model is able to talk, see, and interact with the user in an integrated and seamless way, more so than previous versions when using the ChatGPT interface.

In the GPT-4o announcement , OpenAI focused the model’s ability for "much more natural human-computer interaction". In this article, we will discuss what GPT-4o is, how it differs from previous models, evaluate its performance, and use cases for GPT-4o.

What is GPT-4o?

OpenAI’s GPT-4o, the “o” stands for omni (meaning ‘all’ or ‘universally’), was released during a live-streamed announcement and demo on May 13, 2024. It is a multimodal model with text, visual and audio input and output capabilities, building on the previous iteration of OpenAI’s GPT-4 with Vision model , GPT-4 Turbo. The power and speed of GPT-4o comes from being a single model handling multiple modalities. Previous GPT-4 versions used multiple single purpose models (voice to text, text to voice, text to image) and created a fragmented experience of switching between models for different tasks.

Compared to GPT-4T, OpenAI claims it is twice as fast, 50% cheaper across both input tokens ($5 per million) and output tokens ($15 per million), and has five times the rate limit (up to 10 million tokens per minute). GPT-4o has a 128K context window and has a knowledge cut-off date of October 2023. Some of the new abilities are currently available online through ChatGPT, through the ChatGPT app on desktop and mobile devices, through the OpenAI API ( see API release notes ), and through Microsoft Azure . 

What’s New in GPT-4o?

While the release demo only showed GPT-4o’s visual and audio capabilities, the release blog contains examples that extend far beyond the previous capabilities of GPT-4 releases. Like its predecessors, it has text and vision capabilities, but GPT-4o also has native understanding and generation capabilities across all its supported modalities, including video.

As Sam Altman points out in his personal blog , the most exciting advancement is the speed of the model, especially when the model is communicating with voice. This is the first time there is nearly zero delay in response and you can engage with GPT-4o similarly to how you interact in daily conversations with people.

Less than a year after releasing GPT-4 with Vision (see our analysis of GPT-4 from September 2023), OpenAI has made meaningful advances in performance and speed which you don’t want to miss.

Let’s get started!

Text Evaluation of GPT-4o

For text, GPT-4o features slightly improved or similar scores compared to other LMMs like previous GPT-4 iterations, Anthropic's Claude 3 Opus, Google's Gemini and Meta's Llama3, according to self-released benchmark results by OpenAI. 

Note that in the text evaluation benchmark results provided, OpenAI compares the 400b variant of Meta’s Llama3. At the time of publication of the results, Meta has not finished training its 400b variant model.

assignment for input and output devices of computer

Video Capabilities of GPT-4o

Important note from the API release notes regarding use with video: “GPT-4o in the API supports understanding video (without audio) via vision capabilities. Specifically, videos need to be converted to frames (2-4 frames per second, either sampled uniformly or via a keyframe selection algorithm) to input into the model.” Use the OpenAI cookbook for vision to better understand how to use video as an input and the limitations of the release.

GPT-4o is demonstrated having both the ability to view and understand video and audio from an uploaded video file, as well as the ability to generate short videos. 

Within the initial demo, there were many occurrences of GPT-4o being asked to comment on or respond to visual elements. Similar to our initial observations of Gemini , the demo didn’t make it clear if the model was receiving video or triggering an image capture whenever it needed to “see” real-time information. There was a moment in the initial demo where GPT-4o may have not triggered an image capture and therefore saw the previously captured image. 

In this demo video on YouTube , GPT-4o “notices” a person coming up behind Greg Brockman to make bunny ears. On the visible phone screen, a “blink” animation occurs in addition to a sound effect. This means GPT-4o might use a similar approach to video as Gemini, where audio is processed alongside extracted image frames of a video. 

assignment for input and output devices of computer

The only demonstrated example of video generation is a 3D model video reconstruction, though it is speculated to possibly have the ability to generate more complex videos.

assignment for input and output devices of computer

An exchange between GPT-4o where a user requests and receives a 3D video reconstruction of a spinning logo based on several reference images

Audio Capabilities of GPT-4o

Similar to video and images, GPT-4o also possesses the ability to ingest and generate audio files. 

GPT-4o shows an impressive level of granular control over the generated voice, being able to change speed of communication, alter tones when requested, and even sing on demand. Not only could GPT-4o control its own output, it has the ability to understand the sound of input audio as additional context to any request. Demos show GPT-4o giving tone feedback to someone attempting to speak Chinese as well as feedback on the speed of someone’s breath during a breathing exercise. 

According to self-released benchmarks, GPT-4o outperforms OpenAI’s own Whisper-v3, the previous state-of-the-art in automatic speech recognition (ASR) and outperforms audio translation by other models from Meta and Google.

assignment for input and output devices of computer

Image Generation with GPT-4o

GPT-4o has powerful image generation abilities, with demonstrations of one-shot reference-based image generation and accurate text depictions.

assignment for input and output devices of computer

User/GPT-4o exchanges generating images (Image Credit: OpenAI)

The images below are especially impressive considering the request to maintain specific words and transform them into alternative visual designs. This skill is along the lines of GPT-4o’s ability to create custom fonts.

Example GPT-4o outputs from various prompts (Image Credit: OpenAI)

Visual Understanding of GPT-4o

Although state-of-the-art capability that existed in previous iterations, visual understanding is improved, achieving state of the art across several visual understanding benchmarks against GPT-4T, Gemini, and Claude. Roboflow maintains a less formal set of visual understanding evaluations, see results of real world vision use cases for open source large multimodal models .

assignment for input and output devices of computer

Although the OCR capability of GPT-4o was not published by OpenAI, we will evaluate it later in this article.

Evaluating GPT-4o for Vision Use Cases

Next, we use both the OpenAI API and the ChatGPT UI to evaluate different aspects of GPT-4o, including optical character recognition (OCR), document OCR, document understanding, visual question answering (VQA) and object detection .

assignment for input and output devices of computer

Optical Character Recognition (OCR) with GPT-4o

OCR is a common computer vision task to return the visible text from an image in text format. Here, we prompt GPT-4o to “Read the serial number.” and “Read the text from the picture”, both of which it answers correctly.

GPT-4o prompted with OCR questions

Next, we evaluated GPT-4o on the same dataset used to test other OCR models on real-world datasets. 

Here we find a 94.12% average accuracy (+10.8% more than GPT-4V), a median accuracy of 60.76% (+4.78% more than GPT-4V) and an average inference time of 1.45 seconds. 

The 58.47% speed increase over GPT-4V makes GPT-4o the leader in the category of speed efficiency (a metric of accuracy given time, calculated by accuracy divided by elapsed time).

Median speed efficiency compared against other OCR-capable models

Document Understanding with GPT4-o

Next, we evaluate GPT-4o’s ability to extract key information from an image with dense text. Prompting GPT-4o with “How much tax did I pay?” referring to a receipt, and “What is the price of Pastrami Pizza” in reference to a pizza menu, GPT-4o answers both of these questions correctly. 

assignment for input and output devices of computer

This is an improvement from GPT-4 with Vision, where it failed the tax extraction from the receipt.

Visual Question Answering with GPT-4o

Next is a series of visual question and answer prompts. First, we ask how many coins GPT-4o counts in an image with four coins.

GPT-4o the answer of five coins. However, when retried, it did answer correctly. This change in response is a reason a site call GPT Checkup exists – closed-source LMM performance changes overtime and it’s important to monitor how it performs so you can confidently use an LMM in your application.

assignment for input and output devices of computer

This suggests that GPT-4o suffers from the same inconsistent ability to count as we saw in GPT-4 with Vision. 

Further, GPT-4o correctly identifies an image from a scene of Home Alone. 

assignment for input and output devices of computer

Object Detection with GPT-4o

Finally, we test object detection, which has proven to be a difficult task for multimodal models. Where Gemini, GPT-4 with Vision, and Claude 3 Opus failed, GPT-4o also fails to generate an accurate bounding box.

assignment for input and output devices of computer

GPT-4o Use Cases

As OpenAI continues to expand the capabilities of GPT-4, and eventual release of GPT-5, use cases will expand exponentially. The release of GPT-4 made image classification and tagging extremely easy, although OpenAI’s open source CLIP model performs similarly for much cheaper. Adding vision capabilities made it possible to combine GPT-4 with other models in computer vision pipelines which creates the opportunity to augment open source models with GPT-4 for a more fully featured custom application using vision.

A few key elements of GPT-4o opens up another set of use cases that were previously not possible and none of these use cases have anything to do with better model performance on benchmarks. Sam Altman’s personal blog states they have a clear intention to “Create AI and then other people will use it to create all sorts of amazing things that we all benefit from“. If OpenAI’s goal is to keep driving cost down and improve performance, where does that take things?

Let’s consider a few new use cases.

Real-time Computer Vision Use Cases

The new speed improvements matched with visual and audio finally open up real-time use cases for GPT-4, which is especially exciting for computer vision use cases. Using a real-time view of the world around you and being able to speak to a GPT-4o model means you can quickly gather intelligence and make decisions. This is useful for everything from navigation to translation to guided instructions to understanding complex visual data.

Interacting with GPT-4o at the speed you’d interact with an extremely capable human means less time typing text to us AI and more time interacting with the world around you as AI augments your needs.

One-device Multimodal Use Cases

Enabling GPT-4o to run on-device for desktop and mobile (and if the trend continues, wearables like Apple VisionPro ) lets you use one interface to troubleshoot many tasks. Rather than typing in text to prompt your way into an answer, you can show your desktop screen. Instead of copying and pasting content into the ChatGPT window, you pass the visual information while simultaneously asking questions. This decreases switching between various screens and models and prompting requirements to create an integrated experience.

GPT4-o’s single multimodal model removes friction, increases speed, and streamlines connecting your device inputs to decrease the difficulty of interacting with the model.

General Enterprise Applications

With additional modalities integrating into one model and improved performance, GPT-4o is suitable for certain aspects of an enterprise application pipeline that do not require fine-tuning on custom data. Although considerably more expensive than running open source models, faster performance brings GPT-4o closer to being useful when building custom vision applications. 

You can use GPT-4o where open source models or fine-tuned models aren’t yet available, and then use your custom models for other steps in your application to augment GPT-4o’s knowledge or decrease costs. This means you can quickly start prototyping complex workflows and not be blocked by model capabilities for many use cases.

GPT-4o’s newest improvements are twice as fast, 50% cheaper, 5x rate limit, 128K context window, and a single multimodal model are exciting advancements for people building AI applications. More and more use cases are suitable to be solved with AI and the multiple inputs allow for a seamless interface.

Faster performance and image/video inputs means GPT-4o can be used in a computer vision workflow alongside custom fine-tuned models and pre-trained open-source models to create enterprise applications. 

Cite this Post

Use the following entry to cite this post in your research:

Leo Ueno , Trevor Lynn . (May 14, 2024). GPT-4o: The Comprehensive Guide and Explanation. Roboflow Blog: https://blog.roboflow.com/gpt-4o-vision-use-cases/

Discuss this Post

If you have any questions about this blog post, start a discussion on the Roboflow Forum .

ML Growth Associate @ Roboflow | Sharing the magic of computer vision | leoueno.com

Table of Contents

How to fine-tune paligemma for object detection tasks, finetuning moondream2 for computer vision tasks, paligemma: an open multimodal model by google, ultimate guide to using clip with intel gaudi2, launch: yolo-world support in roboflow, best ocr models for text recognition in images.


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