Primary tabs

Assign is the act of transferring rights , property , or other benefits to another party (the assignee ) from the party who holds such benefits under contract (the assignor). This concept is used in both  contract  and property law . 

Contract Law  

Under contract law, when one party assigns a  contract , the assignment represents both: (1) an assignment of rights; and (2) a delegation of  duties . 

  • For example, if A contracts with B to teach B guitar for $50, A can assign this contract to C. 
  • Here, A has both: (1) assigned A’s rights under the contract to the $50; and (2) delegated A’s  duty  to teach guitar, to C. 
  • In this example, A is both the “assignor” and the “delegee” who delegates  the duties to another (C), C is known as the “ obligor ” who must perform the  obligations  to the  assignee , and B is the assignee who is owed duties and is liable to the obligor.

Assigning of Rights/Duties Under Contract Law

There are a few notable rules regarding assignments under contract law. 

First, if an individual has not yet secured the contract to perform duties to another, they cannot assign their future right to an assignee. 

  • That is, if A has not yet contracted with B to teach B guitar, A cannot assign their rights to C. 

Second, rights cannot be assigned when they  materially change the obligor’s duty and rights. 

Third, the obligor can sue the assignee directly if the assignee does not pay them. 

  • Following the previous example, this means that C ( obligor ) can sue B ( assignee ) if C teaches guitar to B, but B does not pay C $50 in return.

Delegation of Duties

If the promised performance requires a rare genius or skill, then the delegee cannot delegate it to the obligor. It can only be delegated if the promised  performance  is more commonplace. Further, an obligee can sue if the  assignee  does not perform.  However, the delegee is  secondarily liable  unless there has been an  express   release  of the delegee. 

  • Meaning if B does want C to teach guitar but C refuses to, then B can sue C. If C still refuses to perform, then B can compel A to fulfill the duties under secondary liability.

Lastly, a related concept is  novation , which is when a new obligor substitutes and releases an old obligor.  If novation occurs, then the original obligor’s duties are wiped out. Novation requires an original obligee’s  consent . 

Property Law

Under  property law , assignment typically arises in landlord-tenant situations.

  • For example, A might be renting from landlord B but wants another party (C) to take over the property. 
  • In this scenario, A might choose between  assigning  and  subleasing  the property to C. 
  • If  assigning , A would give C the entire balance of the term , with no reversion to anyone; whereas if  subleasing , A would give C the property for a limited period of the remaining term.
  • Under assignment, C would have  privity  of  estate  with the landlord while under a sublease, C would not. 

[Last updated in June of 2022 by the Wex Definitions Team ]

  • business law
  • property & real estate law
  • business sectors
  • commercial transactions
  • property law
  • wex articles
  • wex definitions

logo

  • assignments basic law

Assignments: The Basic Law

The assignment of a right or obligation is a common contractual event under the law and the right to assign (or prohibition against assignments) is found in the majority of agreements, leases and business structural documents created in the United States.

As with many terms commonly used, people are familiar with the term but often are not aware or fully aware of what the terms entail. The concept of assignment of rights and obligations is one of those simple concepts with wide ranging ramifications in the contractual and business context and the law imposes severe restrictions on the validity and effect of assignment in many instances. Clear contractual provisions concerning assignments and rights should be in every document and structure created and this article will outline why such drafting is essential for the creation of appropriate and effective contracts and structures.

The reader should first read the article on Limited Liability Entities in the United States and Contracts since the information in those articles will be assumed in this article.

Basic Definitions and Concepts:

An assignment is the transfer of rights held by one party called the “assignor” to another party called the “assignee.” The legal nature of the assignment and the contractual terms of the agreement between the parties determines some additional rights and liabilities that accompany the assignment. The assignment of rights under a contract usually completely transfers the rights to the assignee to receive the benefits accruing under the contract. Ordinarily, the term assignment is limited to the transfer of rights that are intangible, like contractual rights and rights connected with property. Merchants Service Co. v. Small Claims Court , 35 Cal. 2d 109, 113-114 (Cal. 1950).

An assignment will generally be permitted under the law unless there is an express prohibition against assignment in the underlying contract or lease. Where assignments are permitted, the assignor need not consult the other party to the contract but may merely assign the rights at that time. However, an assignment cannot have any adverse effect on the duties of the other party to the contract, nor can it diminish the chance of the other party receiving complete performance. The assignor normally remains liable unless there is an agreement to the contrary by the other party to the contract.

The effect of a valid assignment is to remove privity between the assignor and the obligor and create privity between the obligor and the assignee. Privity is usually defined as a direct and immediate contractual relationship. See Merchants case above.

Further, for the assignment to be effective in most jurisdictions, it must occur in the present. One does not normally assign a future right; the assignment vests immediate rights and obligations.

No specific language is required to create an assignment so long as the assignor makes clear his/her intent to assign identified contractual rights to the assignee. Since expensive litigation can erupt from ambiguous or vague language, obtaining the correct verbiage is vital. An agreement must manifest the intent to transfer rights and can either be oral or in writing and the rights assigned must be certain.

Note that an assignment of an interest is the transfer of some identifiable property, claim, or right from the assignor to the assignee. The assignment operates to transfer to the assignee all of the rights, title, or interest of the assignor in the thing assigned. A transfer of all rights, title, and interests conveys everything that the assignor owned in the thing assigned and the assignee stands in the shoes of the assignor. Knott v. McDonald’s Corp ., 985 F. Supp. 1222 (N.D. Cal. 1997)

The parties must intend to effectuate an assignment at the time of the transfer, although no particular language or procedure is necessary. As long ago as the case of National Reserve Co. v. Metropolitan Trust Co ., 17 Cal. 2d 827 (Cal. 1941), the court held that in determining what rights or interests pass under an assignment, the intention of the parties as manifested in the instrument is controlling.

The intent of the parties to an assignment is a question of fact to be derived not only from the instrument executed by the parties but also from the surrounding circumstances. When there is no writing to evidence the intention to transfer some identifiable property, claim, or right, it is necessary to scrutinize the surrounding circumstances and parties’ acts to ascertain their intentions. Strosberg v. Brauvin Realty Servs., 295 Ill. App. 3d 17 (Ill. App. Ct. 1st Dist. 1998)

The general rule applicable to assignments of choses in action is that an assignment, unless there is a contract to the contrary, carries with it all securities held by the assignor as collateral to the claim and all rights incidental thereto and vests in the assignee the equitable title to such collateral securities and incidental rights. An unqualified assignment of a contract or chose in action, however, with no indication of the intent of the parties, vests in the assignee the assigned contract or chose and all rights and remedies incidental thereto.

More examples: In Strosberg v. Brauvin Realty Servs ., 295 Ill. App. 3d 17 (Ill. App. Ct. 1st Dist. 1998), the court held that the assignee of a party to a subordination agreement is entitled to the benefits and is subject to the burdens of the agreement. In Florida E. C. R. Co. v. Eno , 99 Fla. 887 (Fla. 1930), the court held that the mere assignment of all sums due in and of itself creates no different or other liability of the owner to the assignee than that which existed from the owner to the assignor.

And note that even though an assignment vests in the assignee all rights, remedies, and contingent benefits which are incidental to the thing assigned, those which are personal to the assignor and for his sole benefit are not assigned. Rasp v. Hidden Valley Lake, Inc ., 519 N.E.2d 153, 158 (Ind. Ct. App. 1988). Thus, if the underlying agreement provides that a service can only be provided to X, X cannot assign that right to Y.

Novation Compared to Assignment:

Although the difference between a novation and an assignment may appear narrow, it is an essential one. “Novation is a act whereby one party transfers all its obligations and benefits under a contract to a third party.” In a novation, a third party successfully substitutes the original party as a party to the contract. “When a contract is novated, the other contracting party must be left in the same position he was in prior to the novation being made.”

A sublease is the transfer when a tenant retains some right of reentry onto the leased premises. However, if the tenant transfers the entire leasehold estate, retaining no right of reentry or other reversionary interest, then the transfer is an assignment. The assignor is normally also removed from liability to the landlord only if the landlord consents or allowed that right in the lease. In a sublease, the original tenant is not released from the obligations of the original lease.

Equitable Assignments:

An equitable assignment is one in which one has a future interest and is not valid at law but valid in a court of equity. In National Bank of Republic v. United Sec. Life Ins. & Trust Co. , 17 App. D.C. 112 (D.C. Cir. 1900), the court held that to constitute an equitable assignment of a chose in action, the following has to occur generally: anything said written or done, in pursuance of an agreement and for valuable consideration, or in consideration of an antecedent debt, to place a chose in action or fund out of the control of the owner, and appropriate it to or in favor of another person, amounts to an equitable assignment. Thus, an agreement, between a debtor and a creditor, that the debt shall be paid out of a specific fund going to the debtor may operate as an equitable assignment.

In Egyptian Navigation Co. v. Baker Invs. Corp. , 2008 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 30804 (S.D.N.Y. Apr. 14, 2008), the court stated that an equitable assignment occurs under English law when an assignor, with an intent to transfer his/her right to a chose in action, informs the assignee about the right so transferred.

An executory agreement or a declaration of trust are also equitable assignments if unenforceable as assignments by a court of law but enforceable by a court of equity exercising sound discretion according to the circumstances of the case. Since California combines courts of equity and courts of law, the same court would hear arguments as to whether an equitable assignment had occurred. Quite often, such relief is granted to avoid fraud or unjust enrichment.

Note that obtaining an assignment through fraudulent means invalidates the assignment. Fraud destroys the validity of everything into which it enters. It vitiates the most solemn contracts, documents, and even judgments. Walker v. Rich , 79 Cal. App. 139 (Cal. App. 1926). If an assignment is made with the fraudulent intent to delay, hinder, and defraud creditors, then it is void as fraudulent in fact. See our article on Transfers to Defraud Creditors .

But note that the motives that prompted an assignor to make the transfer will be considered as immaterial and will constitute no defense to an action by the assignee, if an assignment is considered as valid in all other respects.

Enforceability of Assignments:

Whether a right under a contract is capable of being transferred is determined by the law of the place where the contract was entered into. The validity and effect of an assignment is determined by the law of the place of assignment. The validity of an assignment of a contractual right is governed by the law of the state with the most significant relationship to the assignment and the parties.

In some jurisdictions, the traditional conflict of laws rules governing assignments has been rejected and the law of the place having the most significant contacts with the assignment applies. In Downs v. American Mut. Liability Ins. Co ., 14 N.Y.2d 266 (N.Y. 1964), a wife and her husband separated and the wife obtained a judgment of separation from the husband in New York. The judgment required the husband to pay a certain yearly sum to the wife. The husband assigned 50 percent of his future salary, wages, and earnings to the wife. The agreement authorized the employer to make such payments to the wife.

After the husband moved from New York, the wife learned that he was employed by an employer in Massachusetts. She sent the proper notice and demanded payment under the agreement. The employer refused and the wife brought an action for enforcement. The court observed that Massachusetts did not prohibit assignment of the husband’s wages. Moreover, Massachusetts law was not controlling because New York had the most significant relationship with the assignment. Therefore, the court ruled in favor of the wife.

Therefore, the validity of an assignment is determined by looking to the law of the forum with the most significant relationship to the assignment itself. To determine the applicable law of assignments, the court must look to the law of the state which is most significantly related to the principal issue before it.

Assignment of Contractual Rights:

Generally, the law allows the assignment of a contractual right unless the substitution of rights would materially change the duty of the obligor, materially increase the burden or risk imposed on the obligor by the contract, materially impair the chance of obtaining return performance, or materially reduce the value of the performance to the obligor. Restat 2d of Contracts, § 317(2)(a). This presumes that the underlying agreement is silent on the right to assign.

If the contract specifically precludes assignment, the contractual right is not assignable. Whether a contract is assignable is a matter of contractual intent and one must look to the language used by the parties to discern that intent.

In the absence of an express provision to the contrary, the rights and duties under a bilateral executory contract that does not involve personal skill, trust, or confidence may be assigned without the consent of the other party. But note that an assignment is invalid if it would materially alter the other party’s duties and responsibilities. Once an assignment is effective, the assignee stands in the shoes of the assignor and assumes all of assignor’s rights. Hence, after a valid assignment, the assignor’s right to performance is extinguished, transferred to assignee, and the assignee possesses the same rights, benefits, and remedies assignor once possessed. Robert Lamb Hart Planners & Architects v. Evergreen, Ltd. , 787 F. Supp. 753 (S.D. Ohio 1992).

On the other hand, an assignee’s right against the obligor is subject to “all of the limitations of the assignor’s right, all defenses thereto, and all set-offs and counterclaims which would have been available against the assignor had there been no assignment, provided that these defenses and set-offs are based on facts existing at the time of the assignment.” See Robert Lamb , case, above.

The power of the contract to restrict assignment is broad. Usually, contractual provisions that restrict assignment of the contract without the consent of the obligor are valid and enforceable, even when there is statutory authorization for the assignment. The restriction of the power to assign is often ineffective unless the restriction is expressly and precisely stated. Anti-assignment clauses are effective only if they contain clear, unambiguous language of prohibition. Anti-assignment clauses protect only the obligor and do not affect the transaction between the assignee and assignor.

Usually, a prohibition against the assignment of a contract does not prevent an assignment of the right to receive payments due, unless circumstances indicate the contrary. Moreover, the contracting parties cannot, by a mere non-assignment provision, prevent the effectual alienation of the right to money which becomes due under the contract.

A contract provision prohibiting or restricting an assignment may be waived, or a party may so act as to be estopped from objecting to the assignment, such as by effectively ratifying the assignment. The power to void an assignment made in violation of an anti-assignment clause may be waived either before or after the assignment. See our article on Contracts.

Noncompete Clauses and Assignments:

Of critical import to most buyers of businesses is the ability to ensure that key employees of the business being purchased cannot start a competing company. Some states strictly limit such clauses, some do allow them. California does restrict noncompete clauses, only allowing them under certain circumstances. A common question in those states that do allow them is whether such rights can be assigned to a new party, such as the buyer of the buyer.

A covenant not to compete, also called a non-competitive clause, is a formal agreement prohibiting one party from performing similar work or business within a designated area for a specified amount of time. This type of clause is generally included in contracts between employer and employee and contracts between buyer and seller of a business.

Many workers sign a covenant not to compete as part of the paperwork required for employment. It may be a separate document similar to a non-disclosure agreement, or buried within a number of other clauses in a contract. A covenant not to compete is generally legal and enforceable, although there are some exceptions and restrictions.

Whenever a company recruits skilled employees, it invests a significant amount of time and training. For example, it often takes years before a research chemist or a design engineer develops a workable knowledge of a company’s product line, including trade secrets and highly sensitive information. Once an employee gains this knowledge and experience, however, all sorts of things can happen. The employee could work for the company until retirement, accept a better offer from a competing company or start up his or her own business.

A covenant not to compete may cover a number of potential issues between employers and former employees. Many companies spend years developing a local base of customers or clients. It is important that this customer base not fall into the hands of local competitors. When an employee signs a covenant not to compete, he or she usually agrees not to use insider knowledge of the company’s customer base to disadvantage the company. The covenant not to compete often defines a broad geographical area considered off-limits to former employees, possibly tens or hundreds of miles.

Another area of concern covered by a covenant not to compete is a potential ‘brain drain’. Some high-level former employees may seek to recruit others from the same company to create new competition. Retention of employees, especially those with unique skills or proprietary knowledge, is vital for most companies, so a covenant not to compete may spell out definite restrictions on the hiring or recruiting of employees.

A covenant not to compete may also define a specific amount of time before a former employee can seek employment in a similar field. Many companies offer a substantial severance package to make sure former employees are financially solvent until the terms of the covenant not to compete have been met.

Because the use of a covenant not to compete can be controversial, a handful of states, including California, have largely banned this type of contractual language. The legal enforcement of these agreements falls on individual states, and many have sided with the employee during arbitration or litigation. A covenant not to compete must be reasonable and specific, with defined time periods and coverage areas. If the agreement gives the company too much power over former employees or is ambiguous, state courts may declare it to be overbroad and therefore unenforceable. In such case, the employee would be free to pursue any employment opportunity, including working for a direct competitor or starting up a new company of his or her own.

It has been held that an employee’s covenant not to compete is assignable where one business is transferred to another, that a merger does not constitute an assignment of a covenant not to compete, and that a covenant not to compete is enforceable by a successor to the employer where the assignment does not create an added burden of employment or other disadvantage to the employee. However, in some states such as Hawaii, it has also been held that a covenant not to compete is not assignable and under various statutes for various reasons that such covenants are not enforceable against an employee by a successor to the employer. Hawaii v. Gannett Pac. Corp. , 99 F. Supp. 2d 1241 (D. Haw. 1999)

It is vital to obtain the relevant law of the applicable state before drafting or attempting to enforce assignment rights in this particular area.

Conclusion:

In the current business world of fast changing structures, agreements, employees and projects, the ability to assign rights and obligations is essential to allow flexibility and adjustment to new situations. Conversely, the ability to hold a contracting party into the deal may be essential for the future of a party. Thus, the law of assignments and the restriction on same is a critical aspect of every agreement and every structure. This basic provision is often glanced at by the contracting parties, or scribbled into the deal at the last minute but can easily become the most vital part of the transaction.

As an example, one client of ours came into the office outraged that his co venturer on a sizable exporting agreement, who had excellent connections in Brazil, had elected to pursue another venture instead and assigned the agreement to a party unknown to our client and without the business contacts our client considered vital. When we examined the handwritten agreement our client had drafted in a restaurant in Sao Paolo, we discovered there was no restriction on assignment whatsoever…our client had not even considered that right when drafting the agreement after a full day of work.

One choses who one does business with carefully…to ensure that one’s choice remains the party on the other side of the contract, one must master the ability to negotiate proper assignment provisions.

Founded in 1939, our law firm combines the ability to represent clients in domestic or international matters with the personal interaction with clients that is traditional to a long established law firm.

Read more about our firm

© 2024, Stimmel, Stimmel & Roeser, All rights reserved  | Terms of Use | Site by Bay Design

Assessing Assignability: Transferring Contractual Rights or Obligations | Practical Law

assignable rights

Assessing Assignability: Transferring Contractual Rights or Obligations

Practical law legal update 5-546-6326  (approx. 7 pages).

  • An intended transfer is of the type that is prohibited by law or public policy (see Practice Note, Assignability of Commercial Contracts: Statutory and Public Policy Exceptions ).
  • The parties expressly agree to restrict transferability (see Practice Note, Assignability of Commercial Contracts: Contractual Anti-assignment and Anti-delegation Clauses ).
  • Breaching the contract.
  • Making an ineffective and invalid transfer.

Distinguishing Between Assignment and Delegation

  • The assignment of rights to receive performance.
  • The delegation of duties to perform.

Characteristics of Assignments

  • The right to receive performance from the assignor.
  • Its remedies against the assignor for any failure to perform.

Characteristics of Delegation

The general rule governing assignment and delegation.

  • Most assignments of contractual rights.
  • Many delegations of contractual performance.
  • Assignments and delegations that violate public policy or law.
  • Assignments of rights or delegations of performance that are personal in nature.
  • Contracts with anti-assignment or anti-delegation clauses.

Contracts That Present the Greatest Challenges

  • Personal services contracts (see Personal Services Contracts ).
  • Non-exclusive intellectual property licenses (see Intellectual Property Licenses ).
  • Contracts with anti-assignment and anti-delegation clauses (see Contracts With Anti-assignment and Anti-delegation Contract Clauses ).

Personal Services Contracts

Intellectual property licenses, contracts with anti-assignment and anti-delegation clauses, is a change of control an assignment.

  • Contains an anti-assignment and anti-delegation clause expressly restricting a change of control.
  • States that a change in management or equity ownership of the contracting party is deemed to be an assignment.

When Does an Involuntary Transfer Trigger a Restricted Transfer?

  • A contractual anti-assignment and anti delegation clause applies to a specific type or transfer.
  • The transfer is permissible, with or without a contractual anti-assignment and anti-delegation provision.

Drafting and Negotiating Anti-assignment and Anti-delegation Clauses

  • Directly addressing assignment of rights and delegation of performance.
  • Clarifying the universe of restricted transfers.
  • Designating the non-transferring party's consent rights.
  • Specifying any exceptions to non-transferability.
  • Requiring notification of a permitted transfer.
  • Including a declaration that impermissible transfers are void.
  • Adding a novation to the anti-assignment and anti-delegation provision.
  • Search Search Please fill out this field.

What Is an Assignable Contract?

Understanding assignable contracts, assignment of a futures contract, factors in the futures market, unwinding futures contracts, real estate assignment, example of an assignable contract.

  • Futures and Commodities Trading
  • Strategy & Education

Assignable Contract: Overview, Factors, Example

Adam Hayes, Ph.D., CFA, is a financial writer with 15+ years Wall Street experience as a derivatives trader. Besides his extensive derivative trading expertise, Adam is an expert in economics and behavioral finance. Adam received his master's in economics from The New School for Social Research and his Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin-Madison in sociology. He is a CFA charterholder as well as holding FINRA Series 7, 55 & 63 licenses. He currently researches and teaches economic sociology and the social studies of finance at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem.

assignable rights

Katrina Ávila Munichiello is an experienced editor, writer, fact-checker, and proofreader with more than fourteen years of experience working with print and online publications.

assignable rights

An assignable contract is a provision allowing the holder of a contract to transfer or give away the obligations and rights of the contract to another party or person before the contract's expiration date. The assignee would be entitled to take delivery of the underlying asset and receive all of the benefits of that contract before its expiry. However, the assignee must also fulfill any obligations or requirements of the contract.

Assignability may be found in some options and futures contracts. There are also assignable contracts in the real estate market that allow the transfer of property.

Key Takeaways

  • An assignable contract has a provision allowing the holder to give away the obligations and rights of the contract to another party or person before the contract's expiration date.
  • The assignee would be entitled to take delivery of the underlying asset and receive all of the benefits of that contract before its expiry.
  • An assignment agreement can allow a bank or a mortgage company to sell or assign an outstanding mortgage loan.

Assignable contracts provide a way for current contract holders to close out their position, locking in profits or cutting losses, before the expiration date of the contract. Holders may assign their contracts if the current market price for the underlying asset allows them to realize a profit.

As mentioned earlier, not all contracts have an assignment provision, which is contained in the contract's terms. Also, an assignment doesn't always take away the assignor's risk and liability , because the original contract could require a guarantee that—whether assigned or not—the performance of all terms of the contract must be completed as required.

Owners of assignable futures contracts may opt to assign their holdings instead of selling them in the open market via an exchange. A futures contract is an obligation stating a buyer must purchase an asset, or a seller must sell an asset at a preset price and a predetermined date in the future.

Futures are standardized contracts with fixed prices, amounts, and expiration dates. Investors can use futures to speculate on the price of an asset such as crude oil. At expiration, speculators will book an offsetting trade and realize a gain or loss from the difference in the two contract amounts.

If an investor holds a futures contract and the holder finds that the security has appreciated by 1% on or before the closing of the contract, then the contract holder may decide to assign the contract to a third party for the appreciated amount. The initial holder would be paid in cash, realizing the profit from the contract before its expiration date. However, a buyer of an assigned contract can take a loss by paying an above-market price and risk overpaying for the asset.

Most futures contracts do not have an assignment provision. If you are interested in buying or selling a contract, make sure to carefully check its terms and conditions to see if it is assignable or not. Some contracts may prohibit assignment while other contracts may require the other party in the contract to consent to the assignment.

It's important to note that an assignment may be void if the terms of the contract change substantially or violate any laws or public policy.

A futures contract might be assigned if there was an above-market offer from the third party in an illiquid market where bid and ask spreads were wide. The bid-ask spread is the difference between the buy and sell prices. The spreads can be wide meaning there's an additional cost being added to the prices because there's not enough product to satisfy the order at a reasonable price.

Liquidity exists when there are enough buyers and sellers in the market to transact business. If the market is illiquid, a holder might not be able to find a buyer for the contract, or there might be a delay in unwinding the position.

An investor looking to buy the futures contract might offer an amount higher than the current market price in an illiquid environment. As a result, the current contract holder can assign the contract and realize a profit, and both parties benefit. However, unwinding or selling the contract outright is the cleaner solution, and it also guarantees that all liabilities concerning the contract's obligations are discharged.

However, holders of futures contracts don't need to assign the contract to another investor when they can unwind or close the position through a futures exchange. The exchange, or its clearing agent, would handle the clearing and payment functions. In other words, the futures contract can be closed before its expiration. The holder would incur any gains or loss depending on the difference between the purchase and sale prices.

An investor who assigns a futures contract can realize a profit from the contract before its expiry.

An investor might receive an above-market price for assigning a contract in an illiquid market.

Most futures contracts are not assignable.

A buyer of an assigned contract can take a loss by paying an above-market price for the asset.

An assignment agreement can allow a bank or a mortgage company to sell or assign an outstanding mortgage loan. The bank may sell the mortgage loan to a third party. The borrower would receive notice from the new bank or mortgage company servicing the debt with information on payment submission.

The terms of the loan, such as interest rate and duration, will remain the same for the borrower. However, the new bank would receive all of the interest and principal payments. Aside from the name on the check, there should be little difference noticed by the borrower.

Banks will assign loans to remove them as a liability on their balance sheets and allow them to underwrite new or additional loans.

Let's say an investor entered into a futures contract that contains an assignable clause in June to speculate on the price of crude oil, hoping the price will rise by year-end. The investor buys a December crude oil futures contract at $40, and since oil is traded in increments of 1,000 barrels, the investor's position is worth $40,000.

By August, the price of crude oil has risen to $60, and the investor decides to assign the contract to another buyer because the buyer was willing to pay $65 or $5 above market. The contract is assigned to the second buyer for $65, and the original buyer earns a profit of $25,000 (($65-$40) x 1000).

The new holder assumes all responsibilities of the contract and can profit if crude oil is trading above $65 by year-end, but also can lose if the oil trades below $65 by year-end.

assignable rights

  • Terms of Service
  • Editorial Policy
  • Privacy Policy
  • Your Privacy Choices

Library homepage

  • school Campus Bookshelves
  • menu_book Bookshelves
  • perm_media Learning Objects
  • login Login
  • how_to_reg Request Instructor Account
  • hub Instructor Commons
  • Download Page (PDF)
  • Download Full Book (PDF)
  • Periodic Table
  • Physics Constants
  • Scientific Calculator
  • Reference & Cite
  • Tools expand_more
  • Readability

selected template will load here

This action is not available.

Business LibreTexts

14.1: Assignment of Contract Rights

  • Last updated
  • Save as PDF
  • Page ID 19021

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

  • Understand what an assignment is and how it is made.
  • Recognize the effect of the assignment.
  • Know when assignments are not allowed.
  • Understand the concept of assignor’s warranties.

The Concept of a Contract Assignment

Contracts create rights and duties. By an assignment , an obligee (one who has the right to receive a contract benefit) transfers a right to receive a contract benefit owed by the obligor (the one who has a duty to perform) to a third person ( assignee ); the obligee then becomes an assignor (one who makes an assignment).

The Restatement (Second) of Contracts defines an assignment of a right as “a manifestation of the assignor’s intention to transfer it by virtue of which the assignor’s right to performance by the obligor is extinguished in whole or in part and the assignee acquires the right to such performance.”Restatement (Second) of Contracts, Section 317(1). The one who makes the assignment is both an obligee and a transferor. The assignee acquires the right to receive the contractual obligations of the promisor, who is referred to as the obligor (see Figure 14.1 "Assignment of Rights" ). The assignor may assign any right unless (1) doing so would materially change the obligation of the obligor, materially burden him, increase his risk, or otherwise diminish the value to him of the original contract; (2) statute or public policy forbids the assignment; or (3) the contract itself precludes assignment. The common law of contracts and Articles 2 and 9 of the Uniform Commercial Code (UCC) govern assignments. Assignments are an important part of business financing, such as factoring. A factor is one who purchases the right to receive income from another.

Figure 14.1 Assignment of Rights

087e61e472ebcce66916b41e02ebf123.jpg

Method of Assignment

Manifesting assent.

To effect an assignment, the assignor must make known his intention to transfer the rights to the third person. The assignor’s intention must be that the assignment is effective without need of any further action or any further manifestation of intention to make the assignment. In other words, the assignor must intend and understand himself to be making the assignment then and there; he is not promising to make the assignment sometime in the future.

Under the UCC, any assignments of rights in excess of $5,000 must be in writing, but otherwise, assignments can be oral and consideration is not required: the assignor could assign the right to the assignee for nothing (not likely in commercial transactions, of course). Mrs. Franklin has the right to receive $750 a month from the sale of a house she formerly owned; she assigns the right to receive the money to her son Jason, as a gift. The assignment is good, though such a gratuitous assignment is usually revocable, which is not the case where consideration has been paid for an assignment.

Acceptance and Revocation

For the assignment to become effective, the assignee must manifest his acceptance under most circumstances. This is done automatically when, as is usually the case, the assignee has given consideration for the assignment (i.e., there is a contract between the assignor and the assignee in which the assignment is the assignor’s consideration), and then the assignment is not revocable without the assignee’s consent. Problems of acceptance normally arise only when the assignor intends the assignment as a gift. Then, for the assignment to be irrevocable, either the assignee must manifest his acceptance or the assignor must notify the assignee in writing of the assignment.

Notice to the obligor is not required, but an obligor who renders performance to the assignor without notice of the assignment (that performance of the contract is to be rendered now to the assignee) is discharged. Obviously, the assignor cannot then keep the consideration he has received; he owes it to the assignee. But if notice is given to the obligor and she performs to the assignor anyway, the assignee can recover from either the obligor or the assignee, so the obligor could have to perform twice, as in Exercise 2 at the chapter’s end, Aldana v. Colonial Palms Plaza . Of course, an obligor who receives notice of the assignment from the assignee will want to be sure the assignment has really occurred. After all, anybody could waltz up to the obligor and say, “I’m the assignee of your contract with the bank. From now on, pay me the $500 a month, not the bank.” The obligor is entitled to verification of the assignment.

Effect of Assignment

General rule.

An assignment of rights effectively makes the assignee stand in the shoes of the assignor. He gains all the rights against the obligor that the assignor had, but no more. An obligor who could avoid the assignor’s attempt to enforce the rights could avoid a similar attempt by the assignee. Likewise, under UCC Section 9-318(1), the assignee of an account is subject to all terms of the contract between the debtor and the creditor-assignor. Suppose Dealer sells a car to Buyer on a contract where Buyer is to pay $300 per month and the car is warranted for 50,000 miles. If the car goes on the fritz before then and Dealer won’t fix it, Buyer could fix it for, say, $250 and deduct that $250 from the amount owed Dealer on the next installment (called a setoff). Now, if Dealer assigns the contract to Assignee, Assignee stands in Dealer’s shoes, and Buyer could likewise deduct the $250 from payment to Assignee.

The “shoe rule” does not apply to two types of assignments. First, it is inapplicable to the sale of a negotiable instrument to a holder in due course. Second, the rule may be waived: under the UCC and at common law, the obligor may agree in the original contract not to raise defenses against the assignee that could have been raised against the assignor.Uniform Commercial Code, Section 9-206. While a waiver of defenses makes the assignment more marketable from the assignee’s point of view, it is a situation fraught with peril to an obligor, who may sign a contract without understanding the full import of the waiver. Under the waiver rule, for example, a farmer who buys a tractor on credit and discovers later that it does not work would still be required to pay a credit company that purchased the contract; his defense that the merchandise was shoddy would be unavailing (he would, as used to be said, be “having to pay on a dead horse”).

For that reason, there are various rules that limit both the holder in due course and the waiver rule. Certain defenses, the so-called real defenses (infancy, duress, and fraud in the execution, among others), may always be asserted. Also, the waiver clause in the contract must have been presented in good faith, and if the assignee has actual notice of a defense that the buyer or lessee could raise, then the waiver is ineffective. Moreover, in consumer transactions, the UCC’s rule is subject to state laws that protect consumers (people buying things used primarily for personal, family, or household purposes), and many states, by statute or court decision, have made waivers of defenses ineffective in such consumer transactions . Federal Trade Commission regulations also affect the ability of many sellers to pass on rights to assignees free of defenses that buyers could raise against them. Because of these various limitations on the holder in due course and on waivers, the “shoe rule” will not govern in consumer transactions and, if there are real defenses or the assignee does not act in good faith, in business transactions as well.

When Assignments Are Not Allowed

The general rule—as previously noted—is that most contract rights are assignable. But there are exceptions. Five of them are noted here.

Material Change in Duties of the Obligor

When an assignment has the effect of materially changing the duties that the obligor must perform, it is ineffective. Changing the party to whom the obligor must make a payment is not a material change of duty that will defeat an assignment, since that, of course, is the purpose behind most assignments. Nor will a minor change in the duties the obligor must perform defeat the assignment.

Several residents in the town of Centerville sign up on an annual basis with the Centerville Times to receive their morning paper. A customer who is moving out of town may assign his right to receive the paper to someone else within the delivery route. As long as the assignee pays for the paper, the assignment is effective; the only relationship the obligor has to the assignee is a routine delivery in exchange for payment. Obligors can consent in the original contract, however, to a subsequent assignment of duties. Here is a clause from the World Team Tennis League contract: “It is mutually agreed that the Club shall have the right to sell, assign, trade and transfer this contract to another Club in the League, and the Player agrees to accept and be bound by such sale, exchange, assignment or transfer and to faithfully perform and carry out his or her obligations under this contract as if it had been entered into by the Player and such other Club.” Consent is not necessary when the contract does not involve a personal relationship.

Assignment of Personal Rights

When it matters to the obligor who receives the benefit of his duty to perform under the contract, then the receipt of the benefit is a personal right that cannot be assigned. For example, a student seeking to earn pocket money during the school year signs up to do research work for a professor she admires and with whom she is friendly. The professor assigns the contract to one of his colleagues with whom the student does not get along. The assignment is ineffective because it matters to the student (the obligor) who the person of the assignee is. An insurance company provides auto insurance covering Mohammed Kareem, a sixty-five-year-old man who drives very carefully. Kareem cannot assign the contract to his seventeen-year-old grandson because it matters to the insurance company who the person of its insured is. Tenants usually cannot assign (sublet) their tenancies without the landlord’s permission because it matters to the landlord who the person of their tenant is. Section 14.4.1 "Nonassignable Rights" , Nassau Hotel Co. v. Barnett & Barse Corp. , is an example of the nonassignability of a personal right.

Assignment Forbidden by Statute or Public Policy

Various federal and state laws prohibit or regulate some contract assignment. The assignment of future wages is regulated by state and federal law to protect people from improvidently denying themselves future income because of immediate present financial difficulties. And even in the absence of statute, public policy might prohibit some assignments.

Contracts That Prohibit Assignment

Assignability of contract rights is useful, and prohibitions against it are not generally favored. Many contracts contain general language that prohibits assignment of rights or of “the contract.” Both the Restatement and UCC Section 2-210(3) declare that in the absence of any contrary circumstances, a provision in the agreement that prohibits assigning “the contract” bars “only the delegation to the assignee of the assignor’s performance.”Restatement (Second) of Contracts, Section 322. In other words, unless the contract specifically prohibits assignment of any of its terms, a party is free to assign anything except his or her own duties.

Even if a contractual provision explicitly prohibits it, a right to damages for breach of the whole contract is assignable under UCC Section 2-210(2) in contracts for goods. Likewise, UCC Section 9-318(4) invalidates any contract provision that prohibits assigning sums already due or to become due. Indeed, in some states, at common law, a clause specifically prohibiting assignment will fail. For example, the buyer and the seller agree to the sale of land and to a provision barring assignment of the rights under the contract. The buyer pays the full price, but the seller refuses to convey. The buyer then assigns to her friend the right to obtain title to the land from the seller. The latter’s objection that the contract precludes such an assignment will fall on deaf ears in some states; the assignment is effective, and the friend may sue for the title.

Future Contracts

The law distinguishes between assigning future rights under an existing contract and assigning rights that will arise from a future contract. Rights contingent on a future event can be assigned in exactly the same manner as existing rights, as long as the contingent rights are already incorporated in a contract. Ben has a long-standing deal with his neighbor, Mrs. Robinson, to keep the latter’s walk clear of snow at twenty dollars a snowfall. Ben is saving his money for a new printer, but when he is eighty dollars shy of the purchase price, he becomes impatient and cajoles a friend into loaning him the balance. In return, Ben assigns his friend the earnings from the next four snowfalls. The assignment is effective. However, a right that will arise from a future contract cannot be the subject of a present assignment.

Partial Assignments

An assignor may assign part of a contractual right, but only if the obligor can perform that part of his contractual obligation separately from the remainder of his obligation. Assignment of part of a payment due is always enforceable. However, if the obligor objects, neither the assignor nor the assignee may sue him unless both are party to the suit. Mrs. Robinson owes Ben one hundred dollars. Ben assigns fifty dollars of that sum to his friend. Mrs. Robinson is perplexed by this assignment and refuses to pay until the situation is explained to her satisfaction. The friend brings suit against Mrs. Robinson. The court cannot hear the case unless Ben is also a party to the suit. This ensures all parties to the dispute are present at once and avoids multiple lawsuits.

Successive Assignments

It may happen that an assignor assigns the same interest twice (see Figure 14.2 "Successive Assignments" ). With certain exceptions, the first assignee takes precedence over any subsequent assignee. One obvious exception is when the first assignment is ineffective or revocable. A subsequent assignment has the effect of revoking a prior assignment that is ineffective or revocable. Another exception: if in good faith the subsequent assignee gives consideration for the assignment and has no knowledge of the prior assignment, he takes precedence whenever he obtains payment from, performance from, or a judgment against the obligor, or whenever he receives some tangible evidence from the assignor that the right has been assigned (e.g., a bank deposit book or an insurance policy).

Some states follow the different English rule: the first assignee to give notice to the obligor has priority, regardless of the order in which the assignments were made. Furthermore, if the assignment falls within the filing requirements of UCC Article 9 (see Chapter 22 "Secured Transactions and Suretyship" ), the first assignee to file will prevail.

Figure 14.2 Successive Assignments

d6c9b0906302c9a6b82a5d7687a4ef37.jpg

Assignor’s Warranties

An assignor has legal responsibilities in making assignments. He cannot blithely assign the same interests pell-mell and escape liability. Unless the contract explicitly states to the contrary, a person who assigns a right for value makes certain assignor’s warranties to the assignee: that he will not upset the assignment, that he has the right to make it, and that there are no defenses that will defeat it. However, the assignor does not guarantee payment; assignment does not by itself amount to a warranty that the obligor is solvent or will perform as agreed in the original contract. Mrs. Robinson owes Ben fifty dollars. Ben assigns this sum to his friend. Before the friend collects, Ben releases Mrs. Robinson from her obligation. The friend may sue Ben for the fifty dollars. Or again, if Ben represents to his friend that Mrs. Robinson owes him (Ben) fifty dollars and assigns his friend that amount, but in fact Mrs. Robinson does not owe Ben that much, then Ben has breached his assignor’s warranty. The assignor’s warranties may be express or implied.

KEY TAKEAWAY

Generally, it is OK for an obligee to assign the right to receive contractual performance from the obligor to a third party. The effect of the assignment is to make the assignee stand in the shoes of the assignor, taking all the latter’s rights and all the defenses against nonperformance that the obligor might raise against the assignor. But the obligor may agree in advance to waive defenses against the assignee, unless such waiver is prohibited by law.

There are some exceptions to the rule that contract rights are assignable. Some, such as personal rights, are not circumstances where the obligor’s duties would materially change, cases where assignability is forbidden by statute or public policy, or, with some limits, cases where the contract itself prohibits assignment. Partial assignments and successive assignments can happen, and rules govern the resolution of problems arising from them.

When the assignor makes the assignment, that person makes certain warranties, express or implied, to the assignee, basically to the effect that the assignment is good and the assignor knows of no reason why the assignee will not get performance from the obligor.

  • If Able makes a valid assignment to Baker of his contract to receive monthly rental payments from Tenant, how is Baker’s right different from what Able’s was?
  • Able made a valid assignment to Baker of his contract to receive monthly purchase payments from Carr, who bought an automobile from Able. The car had a 180-day warranty, but the car malfunctioned within that time. Able had quit the auto business entirely. May Carr withhold payments from Baker to offset the cost of needed repairs?
  • Assume in the case in Exercise 2 that Baker knew Able was selling defective cars just before his (Able’s) withdrawal from the auto business. How, if at all, does that change Baker’s rights?
  • Why are leases generally not assignable? Why are insurance contracts not assignable?

Assignment Of Rights Agreement

Jump to section, what is an assignment of rights agreement.

​​An assignment of rights agreement is a written document in which one party, the assignor, assigns to another party all or part of their rights under an existing contract. The most common example of this would be when someone wants to sell their shares of stock in a company.

When you buy shares from someone else (the seller), they agree to transfer them over and give up any control they had on that share. This way, another party can take ownership without going through the trouble of trying to buy the whole company themselves.

Common Sections in Assignment Of Rights Agreements

Below is a list of common sections included in Assignment Of Rights Agreements. These sections are linked to the below sample agreement for you to explore.

Assignment Of Rights Agreement Sample

Reference : Security Exchange Commission - Edgar Database, EX-99.(H)(7) 5 dex99h7.htm FORM OF ASSIGNMENT AGREEMENT , Viewed December 20, 2021, View Source on SEC .

Who Helps With Assignment Of Rights Agreements?

Lawyers with backgrounds working on assignment of rights agreements work with clients to help. Do you need help with an assignment of rights agreement?

Post a project  in ContractsCounsel's marketplace to get free bids from lawyers to draft, review, or negotiate assignment of rights agreements. All lawyers are vetted by our team and peer reviewed by our customers for you to explore before hiring.

Meet some of our Assignment Of Rights Agreement Lawyers

Briana C. on ContractsCounsel

Legal services cost too much, and are often of low quality. I have devoted my law practice to providing the best work at the most affordable price—in everything from defending small businesses against patent trolls to advising multinational corporations on regulatory compliance to steering couples through a divorce.

Jo Ann J. on ContractsCounsel

Jo Ann has been practicing for over 20 years, working primarily with high growth companies from inception through exit and all points in between. She is skilled in Mergers & Acquisitions, Contractual Agreements (including founders agreements, voting agreements, licensing agreements, terms of service, privacy policies, stockholder agreements, operating agreements, equity incentive plans, employment agreements, vendor agreements and other commercial agreements), Corporate Governance and Due Diligence.

Don G. on ContractsCounsel

Texas licensed attorney specializing for 22 years in Business and Contract law with a focus on construction law and business operations. My services include General Business Law Advisement; Contract Review and Drafting; Legal Research and Writing; Business Formation; Articles or Instructive Writing; and more. I am able to draft and review contracts, and have experience with, contract law and business formation in any state. For more insight into my skills and experience, please feel free to visit my LinkedIn profile or contact me with any questions.

Jeremiah C. on ContractsCounsel

Jeremiah C.

Creative, results driven business & technology executive with 24 years of experience (15+ as a business/corporate lawyer). A problem solver with a passion for business, technology, and law. I bring a thorough understanding of the intersection of the law and business needs to any endeavor, having founded multiple startups myself with successful exits. I provide professional business and legal consulting. Throughout my career I've represented a number large corporations (including some of the top Fortune 500 companies) but the vast majority of my clients these days are startups and small businesses. Having represented hundreds of successful crowdfunded startups, I'm one of the most well known attorneys for startups seeking CF funds. I hold a Juris Doctor degree with a focus on Business/Corporate Law, a Master of Business Administration degree in Entrepreneurship, A Master of Education degree and dual Bachelor of Science degrees. I look forward to working with any parties that have a need for my skill sets.

Meghan P. on ContractsCounsel

I am a licensed attorney and a member of the California Bar. I graduated from the University of Dayton School of Law's Program in Law and Technology. I love IP, tech transfers, licensing, and how the internet and developing technology is changing the legal landscape. I've interned at both corporations and boutique firms, and I've taken extensive specialized classes in intellectual property and technology law.

Charlotte L. on ContractsCounsel

Charlotte L.

I hold a B.S. in Accounting and a B.A. in Philosophy from Virginia Tech (2009). I received my J.D. from the University of Virginia School of Law in 2012. I am an associate member of the Virginia Bar and an active member of the DC bar. Currently, I am working as a self-employed legal consultant and attorney. Primarily my clients are start-up companies for which I perform various types of legal work, including negotiating and drafting settlement, preparing operating agreements and partnership agreements, assisting in moving companies to incorporate in new states and setting up companies to become registered in a state, assisting with employment matters, drafting non-disclosure agreements, assisting with private placement offerings, and researching issues on intellectual property, local regulations, privacy laws, corporate governance, and many other facets of the law, as the need arises. I have previously practiced as an attorney at a small DC securities law firm and worked at Deloitte Financial Advisory Services LLC. My work experience is dynamic and includes many short-term and long term experience that span across areas such as maintaining my own blog, freelance writing, and dog walking. My diverse background has provided me with a stong skill set that can be easily adapted for new areas of work and indicates my ability to quickly learn for a wide array of clients.

Adam B. on ContractsCounsel

Seasoned technology lawyer with 22+ years of experience working with the hottest start-ups through IPO and Fortune 50. My focus is primarily technology transactions with an emphasis on SaaS and Privacy, but I also provide GC services for more active clients.

Find the best lawyer for your project

How it works.

Post Your Project

Get Free Bids to Compare

Hire Your Lawyer

Business lawyers by top cities

  • Austin Business Lawyers
  • Boston Business Lawyers
  • Chicago Business Lawyers
  • Dallas Business Lawyers
  • Denver Business Lawyers
  • Houston Business Lawyers
  • Los Angeles Business Lawyers
  • New York Business Lawyers
  • Phoenix Business Lawyers
  • San Diego Business Lawyers
  • Tampa Business Lawyers

Assignment Of Rights Agreement lawyers by city

  • Austin Assignment Of Rights Agreement Lawyers
  • Boston Assignment Of Rights Agreement Lawyers
  • Chicago Assignment Of Rights Agreement Lawyers
  • Dallas Assignment Of Rights Agreement Lawyers
  • Denver Assignment Of Rights Agreement Lawyers
  • Houston Assignment Of Rights Agreement Lawyers
  • Los Angeles Assignment Of Rights Agreement Lawyers
  • New York Assignment Of Rights Agreement Lawyers
  • Phoenix Assignment Of Rights Agreement Lawyers
  • San Diego Assignment Of Rights Agreement Lawyers
  • Tampa Assignment Of Rights Agreement Lawyers

related contracts

  • 93a Demand Letter
  • Accounting Services Agreement
  • Accounts Receivable Purchase Agreement
  • Ad Agency Contract
  • Adhesion Contract
  • Advertising Services Agreement
  • Agency Agreement
  • Agency Contract

other helpful articles

  • How much does it cost to draft a contract?
  • Do Contract Lawyers Use Templates?
  • How do Contract Lawyers charge?
  • Business Contract Lawyers: How Can They Help?
  • What to look for when hiring a lawyer

assignable rights

Quick, user friendly and one of the better ways I've come across to get ahold of lawyers willing to take new clients.

Contracts Counsel was incredibly helpful and easy to use. I submitted a project for a lawyer's help within a day I had received over 6 proposals from qualified lawyers. I submitted a bid that works best for my business and we went forward with the project.

I never knew how difficult it was to obtain representation or a lawyer, and ContractsCounsel was EXACTLY the type of service I was hoping for when I was in a pinch. Working with their service was efficient, effective and made me feel in control. Thank you so much and should I ever need attorney services down the road, I'll certainly be a repeat customer.

I got 5 bids within 24h of posting my project. I choose the person who provided the most detailed and relevant intro letter, highlighting their experience relevant to my project. I am very satisfied with the outcome and quality of the two agreements that were produced, they actually far exceed my expectations.

Want to speak to someone?

Get in touch below and we will schedule a time to connect!

Find lawyers and attorneys by city

  • Find a Lawyer
  • Ask a Lawyer
  • Research the Law
  • Law Schools
  • Laws & Regs
  • Newsletters
  • Justia Connect
  • Pro Membership
  • Basic Membership
  • Justia Lawyer Directory
  • Platinum Placements
  • Gold Placements
  • Justia Elevate
  • Justia Amplify
  • PPC Management
  • Google Business Profile
  • Social Media
  • Justia Onward Blog

Assignment of Rights Contract Clauses (121)

Grouped into 3 collections of similar clauses from business contracts.

  • Bankruptcy Lawyers
  • Business Lawyers
  • Criminal Lawyers
  • Employment Lawyers
  • Estate Planning Lawyers
  • Family Lawyers
  • Personal Injury Lawyers
  • Estate Planning
  • Personal Injury
  • Business Formation
  • Business Operations
  • Intellectual Property
  • International Trade
  • Real Estate
  • Financial Aid
  • Course Outlines
  • Law Journals
  • US Constitution
  • Regulations
  • Supreme Court
  • Circuit Courts
  • District Courts
  • Dockets & Filings
  • State Constitutions
  • State Codes
  • State Case Law
  • COVID-19 Resources
  • Legal Blogs
  • Business Forms
  • Product Recalls
  • Justia Connect Membership
  • Justia Premium Placements
  • Justia Elevate (SEO, Websites)
  • Justia Amplify (PPC, GBP)
  • Testimonials

Assignability

Assignability clause samples

10.3 Assignability .This Agreement may not be assigned by either Party, without the written consent of the other Party, such consent not to be unreasonably withheld.

02/13/2020 (Baudax Bio, Inc.)

SUCCESSION AND ASSIGNABILITY . This Note shall be binding upon and inure to the benefit of the parties hereto and their respective successors and permitted assigns. The Holder may not assign any of his or its rights, interests, or obligations hereunder on his or its own discretion without further approval from the Company.

06/06/2016 (Wrapmail, Inc.)

Section8.13 Non- Assignability . This Agreement and the rights and obligations of the parties under this Agreement may not be assigned or delegated by either party without the prior written consent of the other party, and any purported assignment without such consent shall be void.

02/02/2018 (2017 MANDATORY EXCHANGEABLE TRUST)

4. Non- Assignability . The Restricted Stock Unit shall not be transferable by the Grantee, except as the Plan or this Agreement may otherwise provide.

03/19/2021 (CuriosityStream Inc.)

Assignability . This Note shall be binding upon the Borrower and its successors and assigns, and shall inure to be the benefit of the Holder and its successors and assigns.

03/15/2021 (MMEX Resources Corp)

17. Assignability . During Employee’s employment, this Agreement may not be assigned by either party without the written consent of the other. However, Employer may assign its rights and obligations under this Agreement without Employee’s consent to a successor by sale, merger or liquidation, if such successor carries on the Business substantially in the form in which it is being conducted at the time of the sale, merger or liquidation. This Agreement is binding upon Employee, Employee’s heirs, personal representatives and permitted assigns and on Employer, its successors and assigns.

03/11/2019 (Trillium Therapeutics Inc.)

10.7. Assignability . This Agreement shall be binding upon, and shall be enforceable by and inure solely to the benefit of, the Parties and their respective successors and permitted assigns; provided, however, that neither this Agreement nor any of a Party’s rights or obligations hereunder may be assigned or delegated by such Party without the prior written consent of the other Party, and any attempted assignment or delegation of this Agreement or any of such rights or obligations by such Party without the other Party’s prior written consent shall be void and of no effect.

01/25/2019 (Edge Therapeutics, Inc.)

6.3 Assignability . Note shall be binding upon the Borrower and its successors and assigns, and shall inure to the benefit of the Holder and its successors and assigns. Subject to the prior written consent of the Company, the Holder may assign or transfer this Note to any transferee or have the shares that it converts under this Note sent to any third party. If this Note is to be transferred, the Holder shall surrender this Note to the Company, whereupon the Company will forthwith issue and deliver upon the order of the Holder a new Note registered as the Holder may request and the Company may accept, representing the outstanding Principal being transferred by the Holder and, if less than the entire outstanding Principal is being transferred, a new Note to the Holder representing the outstanding Principal not being transferred. The Holder and any assignee, by acceptance of this Nate, acknowledge and agree that, following conversion or redemption of any portion of this Note, the outstanding Principal represented by this Note may be less than the Principal stated on the face of this Note.

05/26/2016 (NewLead Holdings Ltd.)

5. Assignability . This Amendment shall be binding upon, and shall be enforceable by and inure solely to the benefit of, the Parties and their respective successors and assigns.

12/14/2018 (APRICUS BIOSCIENCES, INC.)

C. Assignability . Neither party to this Agreement may assign all or any part of the party’s rights and obligations under the terms of this Agreement without the prior written consent of the other party. No assignment that is approved by the other party is to relieve the assignor of the assignor’s obligations under the terms of this Agreement if the assignee fails to perform those obligations.

12/12/2017 (Luther Burbank Corp)

6.4 Non- Assignability . This Agreement and the rights and obligations hereunder, shall be fully assignable by the Manager to an affiliate thereof. This Agreement and the rights and obligations hereunder shall not be assignable by any other party hereto without the written consent of all of the other parties hereto. Provided, however, that the foregoing shall not extend to assignments required by any insurance carrier in any matter relating to subrogation and shall not extend to an assignment by any Insured Entity in connection with a sale or financing of a Project or a portion thereof.

05/04/2018 (Spirit MTA REIT)

6. Assignability . This Amendment shall be binding upon and inure to the benefit of the parties and their respective successors and assigns, including any purchasers of the Common Shares or the Warrants.

07/03/2019 (HISTOGENICS CORP)

11. ASSIGNABILITY . This Agreement is not transferable or assignable by the undersigned except as may be provided herein.

09/02/2016 (GEX MANAGEMENT, INC.)

3.4. Assignability . This Note shall be binding upon the Borrower and its successors and assigns, and shall inure to the benefit of the Holder and its successors and assigns, and may not be assigned by the Holder without the prior written consent of the Borrower, which consent may not be unreasonably withheld.

09/02/2016 (Full Spectrum Inc.)

7. Assignability . Assignee shall not assign the Contract or this Assignment or any of its rights, interests, or obligations thereunder or hereunder without the prior written approval of Assignor. Any purported assignment in violation of this paragraph shall be void and ineffectual and shall not operate to transfer or assign any interest or title to the purported assignee.

03/15/2021 (Aspirational Consumer Lifestyle Corp.)

2. Non- Assignability . This Agreement shall not be assignable without the prior written consent of the non-assigning party.

08/10/2016 (Affinity Gaming)

a. Captions and Headings. The Article and Section headings throughout this Agreement are for convenience of reference only and shall in no way be deemed to define, limit or add to any provision of this Agreement. b. Notification of Changes. Subscriber agrees and covenants to notify the Company immediately upon the occurrence of any event prior to the consummation of this Offering that would cause any representation, warranty, covenant or other statement contained in this Agreement to be false or incorrect or of any change in any statement made herein occurring prior to the consummation of this Offering. c. Assignability . This Agreement is not assignable by Subscriber, and may not be modified, waived or terminated except by an instrument in writing signed by the party against whom enforcement of such modification, waiver or termination is sought. d. Binding Effect. Except as otherwise provided herein, this Agreement shall be binding upon and inure to the benefit of the parties and their heirs, executors, administrators, successors, legal representatives and assigns, and the agreements, representations, warranties and acknowledgments contained herein shall be deemed to be made by and be binding upon such heirs, executors, administrators, successors, legal representatives and assigns. e. Obligations Irrevocable. The obligations of Subscriber shall be irrevocable, except with the consent of the Company, until the consummation or termination of the Offering. f. Entire Agreement; Amendment. This Agreement states the entire agreement and understanding of the parties relating to the matters contained herein, superseding all prior contracts or agreements, whether oral or written. No amendment of the Agreement shall be made without the express written consent of the parties. g. Severability. The invalidity or unenforceability of any particular provision of this Agreement shall not affect any other provision hereof, which shall be construed in all respects as if such invalid or unenforceable provision were omitted.

01/12/2021 (Masterworks Collection 001, LLC)

assignable rights

Cut contract prep time in half for free

Build document automations that allow you, your staff, and your clients to auto-populate contract templates.

“ I've found it very easy to use. It allows me to work quickly, get something straight from my head and out into the public.”

assignable rights

Partner, Siskind Susser PC

2500 Executive Parkway Suite 300 Lehi, Utah 84043 (866) 638-3627

Level 11, 1 Margaret Street Sydney NSW 2000 Australia +61 2 8310 4319

8th Floor South Reading Bridge House George Street Reading RG1 8LS +44 20 3129 9324

Latin America

Mexico +52 55 5985 3005

Brazil +55 21 4040 4623

  • How to Successfully Switch Your DMS
  • DocuSign + NetDocuments
  • How Ice Miller Adopted the Cloud Completely Remote
  • Case Studies
  • Resource Library
  • Partner Integrations
  • App Directory
  • Locate a Partner
  • Partner Portal
  • Become a Partner

© NetDocuments Software, Inc.

  • Terms of Use
  • Privacy policy
  • Cookie policy
  • Privacy policy for california residents

Assignability Of Contracts: Everything You Need to Know

The assignability of contracts is when one side of a contract agreement transfers the contract to another entity, so that the new entity fulfills the terms of the contract. 3 min read updated on February 01, 2023

The assignability of contracts is when one side of a contract agreement transfers the contract to another entity, so that the new entity fulfills the terms of the contract. Being able to assign contracts depends on a variety of factors, mainly the language contained in the contract. 

How Contract Assignments Work

Some contracts prohibit assignment altogether, while others may allow it with the other party's consent. An example of a basic contract assignment may look like this: 

  • Bob contracts with a dairy to deliver a gallon of cream to his house every day. 
  • The dairy assigns Bob's contract to another dairy. 
  • As long as Bob is notified of the change in provider and gets his gallon of cream every day, his contract is with the new dairy.

Because the law has a preference for the free alienation of property, parties are free to assign contract rights and delegate contractual obligations. 

Assigning a contract to another doesn't always take away the assigning party's liability. Some contracts include a clause that at least one of the original parties guarantees performance — or fulfills the contract terms — no matter what the assignment.

The performance, however, can't be changed in contract assignment. There's a limit to substitution, so the new party has no power to change the performance per the rights stated in the contract. For example, if the obliging party has pledged to perform only if some event happens (with no certainty that it will happen), no assignment should increase the risk to the obliging party if the event doesn't happen through no fault of the obligor.

The nature of a contract's obligations determines its assignability.

When Assignments Won't Be Enforced

In certain cases, contracts can't be assigned.

  • A clause in the contract prohibits assignment. This is usually called an anti-assignment clause.
  • Assignments can't take place if they materially alter what's expected under the contract. If the assignment affects the expected performance as outlined in the contract, lowers the value of returns (including anticipated returns), or increases risks for the other contract party (the one who's not assigning contractual rights), it's unlikely that any court will enforce the arrangement.
  • If an assignment violates public policy or the law, it won't be enforced. For instance, the federal government prohibits certain claim assignments against the government, and many states prohibit an employee from assigning future wages.

Other assignments may not be illegal, but they could still violate public policy. As an example, personal injury claims can't be assigned because doing so might encourage litigation.

When looking into whether one party can transfer a contract or some rights and obligations in the contract, the transferring party has to check into applicable laws and statutes. That party must also check the contract's express language to determine whether or not it can transfer the assignment without obtaining consent from the non-transferring party.

If the contract requires that consent is given and the transferring party doesn't get that consent, it risks a contract breach as well as an invalid, ineffective transfer.

How to Assign a Contract

Follow these steps to assign contracts, when it's allowed for you to do so.

  • Carefully study the contract for prohibitions or limitations, such as anti-assignment clauses. In some cases, there isn't a separate anti-assignment clause, but it may be stated in another way, such as language that says, "This contract may not be assigned."
  • Execute the assignment. As long as you're free to assign the contract, prepare and enter into the assignment, which is basically an agreement transferring your rights and obligations.
  • Notify the obligor, or the non-transferring party. After you assign contract rights to the assignee, notify the other party that was the original contractor, also known as the obligor. This notice relieves you of any liability as stated in the contract, as long as the contract doesn't say differently — for instance, the contract states that you, as the assignor, guarantee performance under the contract. 

Before trying to assign a contract to a third party, it's very important to understand if you're allowed to do so. You'll have to research legal statutes as well as the language in the contract to ensure you follow rules and regulations. Otherwise, you risk a breach of contract .

If you need help with contract assignments, you can post your legal need on UpCounsel's marketplace. UpCounsel accepts only the top 5 percent of lawyers to its site. Lawyers on UpCounsel come from law schools such as Harvard Law and Yale Law and average 14 years of legal experience, including work with or on behalf of companies like Google, Menlo Ventures, and Airbnb.

Hire the top business lawyers and save up to 60% on legal fees

Content Approved by UpCounsel

  • Consent to Assignment
  • Assignment Contract Law
  • Assignment of Contract Rights
  • Assignment of Rights and Obligations Under a Contract
  • Assignment Of Contracts
  • Legal Assignment
  • Assignment Law
  • Assignment of Rights Example
  • Third Party Contracts
  • What Is the Definition of Assigns

  • Today's news
  • Reviews and Deals
  • Climate change
  • 2024 Election
  • My portfolio
  • My watchlist
  • Stock market
  • Biden economy
  • Personal finance
  • Stocks: most actives
  • Stocks: gainers
  • Stocks: losers
  • Trending tickers
  • World indices
  • US Treasury bonds
  • Top mutual funds
  • Highest open interest
  • Highest implied volatility
  • Currency converter
  • Basic materials
  • Communication services
  • Consumer cyclical
  • Consumer defensive
  • Financial services
  • Industrials
  • Real estate
  • Mutual funds
  • Credit card rates
  • Balance transfer credit cards
  • Business credit cards
  • Cash back credit cards
  • Rewards credit cards
  • Travel credit cards
  • Checking accounts
  • Online checking accounts
  • High-yield savings accounts
  • Money market accounts
  • Personal loans
  • Student loans
  • Car insurance
  • Home buying
  • Options pit
  • Investment ideas
  • Research reports
  • Fantasy football
  • Pro Pick 'Em
  • College Pick 'Em
  • Fantasy baseball
  • Fantasy hockey
  • Fantasy basketball
  • Download the app
  • Daily Fantasy
  • Scores and schedules
  • GameChannel
  • World Baseball Classic
  • Premier League
  • CONCACAF League
  • Champions League
  • College football
  • Horse racing
  • Newsletters

Entertainment

  • How To Watch
  • Fall allergies
  • Health news
  • Mental health
  • Sexual health
  • Family health
  • So mini ways
  • Style and beauty
  • Unapologetically
  • Buying guides

New on Yahoo

  • Privacy Dashboard

15 men brought to military enlistment office after mass brawl in Moscow Oblast

Local security forces brought 15 men to a military enlistment office after a mass brawl at a warehouse of the Russian Wildberries company in Elektrostal, Moscow Oblast on Feb. 8, Russian Telegram channel Shot reported .

29 people were also taken to police stations. Among the arrested were citizens of Kyrgyzstan.

A mass brawl involving over 100 employees and security personnel broke out at the Wildberries warehouse in Elektrostal on Dec. 8.

Read also: Moscow recruits ‘construction brigades’ from Russian students, Ukraine says

We’re bringing the voice of Ukraine to the world. Support us with a one-time donation, or become a Patron !

Read the original article on The New Voice of Ukraine

Recommended Stories

Fubotv accuses disney, fox and warner bros. of antitrust practices over joint streaming service.

FuboTV has filed filed an antitrust lawsuit against Disney, Fox and Warner Bros. Discovery after they announced launching a joint sports streaming service.

Uber Eats is launching a delivery service with Cartken's sidewalk robots in Japan

Uber, along with partners Mitsubishi Electric and autonomous robotics startup Cartken, are launching a service in Japan that will use self-driving sidewalk robots to deliver food to customers. Uber and Cartken, a startup founded in 2019 by former Google engineers behind the short-lived Bookbot, already operate a delivery service together in Fairfax, Virginia and Miami. It also brings in Mitsubishi Electric, a company that will supervise operations in Tokyo.

Amazon to launch 'special store' for value fashion in India

Amazon is preparing to make another attempt to break into India’s fast-growing fashion and lifestyle e-commerce sector, setting up a battle with rival Flipkart, owned by Walmart, Reliance's Ajio and SoftBank-backed upstart Meesho. The e-commerce giant plans to launch a "special store," called Bazaar, where it will not levy any "extra charges" to sellers offering unbranded and "trendy" fashion and lifestyle products, according to a communication the firm has sent to its partners.

Heat F Haywood Highsmith sued by victim of crash that led to partial amputation

Highsmith was driving home at night when he struck a man and a car on the road.

2024 NFL offseason: Draft, free agency and other key dates and events

Here's everything you need to know as we enter the offseason.

No. 15 Creighton stuns top-ranked UConn to grab dominant 19-point win

No. 1 UConn just lost its first game in two months.

NFL combine primer: Position-by-position summaries, players to watch ahead of big week in Indianapolis

Who can help their stock most? Who might test through the roof? Nate Tice has your guide right here.

Do you pay taxes on Social Security?

Part of your Social Security benefits are taxable if your income exceeds certain limits. Learn how to minimize taxes on your Social Security check.

Bridgit Mendler was a Disney Channel fixture on 'Good Luck Charlie' and 'Wizards of Waverly Place.' Her newest roles are mom and CEO.

From Disney to space, the former child star is breaking into the cosmos.

FuboTV sues to block ESPN-Fox-WBD sports streaming venture

Sports streamer FuboTV filed an antitrust lawsuit it against the media giants behind an upcoming "joint venture" sports streaming service.

House punts on AI with directionless new task force

The House of Representatives has founded a Task Force on artificial intelligence that will "ensure America continues leading in this strategic area," as Speaker Mike Johnson put it. In a way this task force — chaired by California Reps Ted Lieu and Jay Obernolte — is a welcome sign of Congress doing something, anything, on an important topic that has become the darling of tech investment.

The CDC may roll back its 5-day COVID isolation guidelines. Here’s why.

With the proposed update, people would no longer be expected to isolate themselves for five days.

Coaching carousel catchup: Which new head coaches + OCs unlock their offenses?

It's the pod that was promised. Matt Harmon and The Ringer's Benjamin Solak team up to go through every single new head coach and offensive coordinator hire this coaching cycle and ask one simple question: Is this an offensive ecosystem worth investing in next season?

Zola wants to bring the wedding industry into the 21st century

This week Becca and Dom are joined by Shan-Lyn Ma, the co-founder and CEO of Zola, an online platform for wedding planning and gift registries. Ma talked about why she decided to launch the business after trying to buy a gift for a friend and realizing that wedding registries were still living in the past. How Zola navigated through the pandemic, which completely disrupted the wedding industry.

Southern California 'under the gun' for more flash flooding, National Weather Service says

A third atmospheric river this month is bringing flooding and mudslides to parts of waterlogged California. Here’s the latest on the storm.

Apple says the iPhone 15’s battery has double the promised lifespan

Apple has updated the iPhone 15’s battery lifespan. The company said on Tuesday its latest iPhones can retain 80 percent of their original charging capacity after 1,000 cycles — double the company’s previous estimate.

2024 Toyota Land Cruiser 2024 pricing announced

2024 Toyota Land Cruiser pricing starts at $57,345 including destination, a whopping price drop of nearly $30,000 when compared to the previous model.

The 7 best vegan meal delivery services of 2024, according to a nutritionist and expert testers

Our team has reviewed plans from Purple Carrot, Hungryroot, Daily Harvest and more to help you find a convenient option for staying healthy.

'Bachelor' Colton Underwood says his 'ego took a hit' when he learned he had a low sperm count. Here's what that means — and what men can do about it.

The reality star's plans to have a baby took a turn when he learned of his low sperm count. Here's what experts say — and how Underwood's numbers bounced back.

7 Trump losses in a row, and counting

Trump's latest loss in court extends a remarkable losing streak.

assignable rights

14.1 Assignment of Contract Rights

Learning objectives.

  • Understand what an assignment is and how it is made.
  • Recognize the effect of the assignment.
  • Know when assignments are not allowed.
  • Understand the concept of assignor’s warranties.

The Concept of a Contract Assignment

Contracts create rights and duties. By an assignment The passing or delivering by one person to another of the right to a contract benefit. , an obligee One to whom an obligation is owed. (one who has the right to receive a contract benefit) transfers a right to receive a contract benefit owed by the obligor One who owes an obligation. (the one who has a duty to perform) to a third person ( assignee One to whom the right to receive benefit of a contract is passed or delivered. ); the obligee then becomes an assignor One who agrees to allow another to receive the benefit of a contract. (one who makes an assignment).

The Restatement (Second) of Contracts defines an assignment of a right as “a manifestation of the assignor’s intention to transfer it by virtue of which the assignor’s right to performance by the obligor is extinguished in whole or in part and the assignee acquires the right to such performance.” Restatement (Second) of Contracts, Section 317(1). The one who makes the assignment is both an obligee and a transferor. The assignee acquires the right to receive the contractual obligations of the promisor, who is referred to as the obligor (see Figure 14.1 "Assignment of Rights" ). The assignor may assign any right unless (1) doing so would materially change the obligation of the obligor, materially burden him, increase his risk, or otherwise diminish the value to him of the original contract; (2) statute or public policy forbids the assignment; or (3) the contract itself precludes assignment. The common law of contracts and Articles 2 and 9 of the Uniform Commercial Code (UCC) govern assignments. Assignments are an important part of business financing, such as factoring. A factor A person who pays money to receive another’s executory contractual benefits. is one who purchases the right to receive income from another.

Figure 14.1 Assignment of Rights

assignable rights

Method of Assignment

Manifesting assent.

To effect an assignment, the assignor must make known his intention to transfer the rights to the third person. The assignor’s intention must be that the assignment is effective without need of any further action or any further manifestation of intention to make the assignment. In other words, the assignor must intend and understand himself to be making the assignment then and there; he is not promising to make the assignment sometime in the future.

Under the UCC, any assignments of rights in excess of $5,000 must be in writing, but otherwise, assignments can be oral and consideration is not required: the assignor could assign the right to the assignee for nothing (not likely in commercial transactions, of course). Mrs. Franklin has the right to receive $750 a month from the sale of a house she formerly owned; she assigns the right to receive the money to her son Jason, as a gift. The assignment is good, though such a gratuitous assignment is usually revocable, which is not the case where consideration has been paid for an assignment.

Acceptance and Revocation

For the assignment to become effective, the assignee must manifest his acceptance under most circumstances. This is done automatically when, as is usually the case, the assignee has given consideration for the assignment (i.e., there is a contract between the assignor and the assignee in which the assignment is the assignor’s consideration), and then the assignment is not revocable without the assignee’s consent. Problems of acceptance normally arise only when the assignor intends the assignment as a gift. Then, for the assignment to be irrevocable, either the assignee must manifest his acceptance or the assignor must notify the assignee in writing of the assignment.

Notice to the obligor is not required, but an obligor who renders performance to the assignor without notice of the assignment (that performance of the contract is to be rendered now to the assignee) is discharged. Obviously, the assignor cannot then keep the consideration he has received; he owes it to the assignee. But if notice is given to the obligor and she performs to the assignor anyway, the assignee can recover from either the obligor or the assignee, so the obligor could have to perform twice, as in Exercise 2 at the chapter’s end, Aldana v. Colonial Palms Plaza . Of course, an obligor who receives notice of the assignment from the assignee will want to be sure the assignment has really occurred. After all, anybody could waltz up to the obligor and say, “I’m the assignee of your contract with the bank. From now on, pay me the $500 a month, not the bank.” The obligor is entitled to verification of the assignment.

Effect of Assignment

General rule.

An assignment of rights effectively makes the assignee stand in the shoes of An assignee takes no greater rights than his assignor had. the assignor. He gains all the rights against the obligor that the assignor had, but no more. An obligor who could avoid the assignor’s attempt to enforce the rights could avoid a similar attempt by the assignee. Likewise, under UCC Section 9-318(1), the assignee of an account is subject to all terms of the contract between the debtor and the creditor-assignor. Suppose Dealer sells a car to Buyer on a contract where Buyer is to pay $300 per month and the car is warranted for 50,000 miles. If the car goes on the fritz before then and Dealer won’t fix it, Buyer could fix it for, say, $250 and deduct that $250 from the amount owed Dealer on the next installment (called a setoff). Now, if Dealer assigns the contract to Assignee, Assignee stands in Dealer’s shoes, and Buyer could likewise deduct the $250 from payment to Assignee.

The “shoe rule” does not apply to two types of assignments. First, it is inapplicable to the sale of a negotiable instrument to a holder in due course (covered in detail Chapter 23 "Negotiation of Commercial Paper" ). Second, the rule may be waived: under the UCC and at common law, the obligor may agree in the original contract not to raise defenses against the assignee that could have been raised against the assignor. Uniform Commercial Code, Section 9-206. While a waiver of defenses Surrender by a party of legal rights otherwise available to him or her. makes the assignment more marketable from the assignee’s point of view, it is a situation fraught with peril to an obligor, who may sign a contract without understanding the full import of the waiver. Under the waiver rule, for example, a farmer who buys a tractor on credit and discovers later that it does not work would still be required to pay a credit company that purchased the contract; his defense that the merchandise was shoddy would be unavailing (he would, as used to be said, be “having to pay on a dead horse”).

For that reason, there are various rules that limit both the holder in due course and the waiver rule. Certain defenses, the so-called real defenses (infancy, duress, and fraud in the execution, among others), may always be asserted. Also, the waiver clause in the contract must have been presented in good faith, and if the assignee has actual notice of a defense that the buyer or lessee could raise, then the waiver is ineffective. Moreover, in consumer transactions, the UCC’s rule is subject to state laws that protect consumers (people buying things used primarily for personal, family, or household purposes), and many states, by statute or court decision, have made waivers of defenses ineffective in such consumer transactions A contract for household or domestic purposes, not commercial purposes. . Federal Trade Commission regulations also affect the ability of many sellers to pass on rights to assignees free of defenses that buyers could raise against them. Because of these various limitations on the holder in due course and on waivers, the “shoe rule” will not govern in consumer transactions and, if there are real defenses or the assignee does not act in good faith, in business transactions as well.

When Assignments Are Not Allowed

The general rule—as previously noted—is that most contract rights are assignable. But there are exceptions. Five of them are noted here.

Material Change in Duties of the Obligor

When an assignment has the effect of materially changing the duties that the obligor must perform, it is ineffective. Changing the party to whom the obligor must make a payment is not a material change of duty that will defeat an assignment, since that, of course, is the purpose behind most assignments. Nor will a minor change in the duties the obligor must perform defeat the assignment.

Several residents in the town of Centerville sign up on an annual basis with the Centerville Times to receive their morning paper. A customer who is moving out of town may assign his right to receive the paper to someone else within the delivery route. As long as the assignee pays for the paper, the assignment is effective; the only relationship the obligor has to the assignee is a routine delivery in exchange for payment. Obligors can consent in the original contract, however, to a subsequent assignment of duties. Here is a clause from the World Team Tennis League contract: “It is mutually agreed that the Club shall have the right to sell, assign, trade and transfer this contract to another Club in the League, and the Player agrees to accept and be bound by such sale, exchange, assignment or transfer and to faithfully perform and carry out his or her obligations under this contract as if it had been entered into by the Player and such other Club.” Consent is not necessary when the contract does not involve a personal relationship.

Assignment of Personal Rights

When it matters to the obligor who receives the benefit of his duty to perform under the contract, then the receipt of the benefit is a personal right The right or duty of a particular person to perform or receive contract duties or benefits; cannot be assigned. that cannot be assigned. For example, a student seeking to earn pocket money during the school year signs up to do research work for a professor she admires and with whom she is friendly. The professor assigns the contract to one of his colleagues with whom the student does not get along. The assignment is ineffective because it matters to the student (the obligor) who the person of the assignee is. An insurance company provides auto insurance covering Mohammed Kareem, a sixty-five-year-old man who drives very carefully. Kareem cannot assign the contract to his seventeen-year-old grandson because it matters to the insurance company who the person of its insured is. Tenants usually cannot assign (sublet) their tenancies without the landlord’s permission because it matters to the landlord who the person of their tenant is. Section 14.4.1 "Nonassignable Rights" , Nassau Hotel Co. v. Barnett & Barse Corp. , is an example of the nonassignability of a personal right.

Assignment Forbidden by Statute or Public Policy

Various federal and state laws prohibit or regulate some contract assignment. The assignment of future wages is regulated by state and federal law to protect people from improvidently denying themselves future income because of immediate present financial difficulties. And even in the absence of statute, public policy might prohibit some assignments.

Contracts That Prohibit Assignment

Assignability of contract rights is useful, and prohibitions against it are not generally favored. Many contracts contain general language that prohibits assignment of rights or of “the contract.” Both the Restatement and UCC Section 2-210(3) declare that in the absence of any contrary circumstances, a provision in the agreement that prohibits assigning “the contract” bars “only the delegation to the assignee of the assignor’s performance.” Restatement (Second) of Contracts, Section 322. In other words, unless the contract specifically prohibits assignment of any of its terms, a party is free to assign anything except his or her own duties.

Even if a contractual provision explicitly prohibits it, a right to damages for breach of the whole contract is assignable under UCC Section 2-210(2) in contracts for goods. Likewise, UCC Section 9-318(4) invalidates any contract provision that prohibits assigning sums already due or to become due. Indeed, in some states, at common law, a clause specifically prohibiting assignment will fail. For example, the buyer and the seller agree to the sale of land and to a provision barring assignment of the rights under the contract. The buyer pays the full price, but the seller refuses to convey. The buyer then assigns to her friend the right to obtain title to the land from the seller. The latter’s objection that the contract precludes such an assignment will fall on deaf ears in some states; the assignment is effective, and the friend may sue for the title.

Future Contracts

The law distinguishes between assigning future rights under an existing contract and assigning rights that will arise from a future contract. Rights contingent on a future event can be assigned in exactly the same manner as existing rights, as long as the contingent rights are already incorporated in a contract. Ben has a long-standing deal with his neighbor, Mrs. Robinson, to keep the latter’s walk clear of snow at twenty dollars a snowfall. Ben is saving his money for a new printer, but when he is eighty dollars shy of the purchase price, he becomes impatient and cajoles a friend into loaning him the balance. In return, Ben assigns his friend the earnings from the next four snowfalls. The assignment is effective. However, a right that will arise from a future contract cannot be the subject of a present assignment.

Partial Assignments

An assignor may assign part of a contractual right, but only if the obligor can perform that part of his contractual obligation separately from the remainder of his obligation. Assignment of part of a payment due is always enforceable. However, if the obligor objects, neither the assignor nor the assignee may sue him unless both are party to the suit. Mrs. Robinson owes Ben one hundred dollars. Ben assigns fifty dollars of that sum to his friend. Mrs. Robinson is perplexed by this assignment and refuses to pay until the situation is explained to her satisfaction. The friend brings suit against Mrs. Robinson. The court cannot hear the case unless Ben is also a party to the suit. This ensures all parties to the dispute are present at once and avoids multiple lawsuits.

Successive Assignments

It may happen that an assignor assigns the same interest twice (see Figure 14.2 "Successive Assignments" ). With certain exceptions, the first assignee takes precedence over any subsequent assignee. One obvious exception is when the first assignment is ineffective or revocable. A subsequent assignment has the effect of revoking a prior assignment that is ineffective or revocable. Another exception: if in good faith the subsequent assignee gives consideration for the assignment and has no knowledge of the prior assignment, he takes precedence whenever he obtains payment from, performance from, or a judgment against the obligor, or whenever he receives some tangible evidence from the assignor that the right has been assigned (e.g., a bank deposit book or an insurance policy).

Some states follow the different English rule: the first assignee to give notice to the obligor has priority, regardless of the order in which the assignments were made. Furthermore, if the assignment falls within the filing requirements of UCC Article 9 (see Chapter 28 "Secured Transactions and Suretyship" ), the first assignee to file will prevail.

Figure 14.2 Successive Assignments

assignable rights

Assignor’s Warranties

An assignor has legal responsibilities in making assignments. He cannot blithely assign the same interests pell-mell and escape liability. Unless the contract explicitly states to the contrary, a person who assigns a right for value makes certain assignor’s warranties Promises, express or implied, made by an assignor to the assignee about the merits of the assignment. to the assignee: that he will not upset the assignment, that he has the right to make it, and that there are no defenses that will defeat it. However, the assignor does not guarantee payment; assignment does not by itself amount to a warranty that the obligor is solvent or will perform as agreed in the original contract. Mrs. Robinson owes Ben fifty dollars. Ben assigns this sum to his friend. Before the friend collects, Ben releases Mrs. Robinson from her obligation. The friend may sue Ben for the fifty dollars. Or again, if Ben represents to his friend that Mrs. Robinson owes him (Ben) fifty dollars and assigns his friend that amount, but in fact Mrs. Robinson does not owe Ben that much, then Ben has breached his assignor’s warranty. The assignor’s warranties may be express or implied.

Key Takeaway

Generally, it is OK for an obligee to assign the right to receive contractual performance from the obligor to a third party. The effect of the assignment is to make the assignee stand in the shoes of the assignor, taking all the latter’s rights and all the defenses against nonperformance that the obligor might raise against the assignor. But the obligor may agree in advance to waive defenses against the assignee, unless such waiver is prohibited by law.

There are some exceptions to the rule that contract rights are assignable. Some, such as personal rights, are not circumstances where the obligor’s duties would materially change, cases where assignability is forbidden by statute or public policy, or, with some limits, cases where the contract itself prohibits assignment. Partial assignments and successive assignments can happen, and rules govern the resolution of problems arising from them.

When the assignor makes the assignment, that person makes certain warranties, express or implied, to the assignee, basically to the effect that the assignment is good and the assignor knows of no reason why the assignee will not get performance from the obligor.

  • If Able makes a valid assignment to Baker of his contract to receive monthly rental payments from Tenant, how is Baker’s right different from what Able’s was?
  • Able made a valid assignment to Baker of his contract to receive monthly purchase payments from Carr, who bought an automobile from Able. The car had a 180-day warranty, but the car malfunctioned within that time. Able had quit the auto business entirely. May Carr withhold payments from Baker to offset the cost of needed repairs?
  • Assume in the case in Exercise 2 that Baker knew Able was selling defective cars just before his (Able’s) withdrawal from the auto business. How, if at all, does that change Baker’s rights?
  • Why are leases generally not assignable? Why are insurance contracts not assignable?

Things to Do in Elektrostal, Russia - Elektrostal Attractions

Things to do in elektrostal.

  • Good for Kids
  • Good for a Rainy Day
  • Good for Couples
  • Budget-friendly
  • Good for Big Groups
  • Honeymoon spot
  • Good for Adrenaline Seekers
  • Hidden Gems
  • Adventurous
  • Things to do ranked using Tripadvisor data including reviews, ratings, photos, and popularity.

assignable rights

1. Electrostal History and Art Museum

assignable rights

2. Statue of Lenin

assignable rights

3. Park of Culture and Leisure

4. museum and exhibition center.

assignable rights

5. Museum of Labor Glory

assignable rights

7. Galereya Kino

8. viki cinema, 9. smokygrove.

assignable rights

10. Gandikap

11. papa lounge bar, 12. karaoke bar.

  • Statue of Lenin
  • Electrostal History and Art Museum
  • Park of Culture and Leisure
  • Museum and Exhibition Center
  • Museum of Labor Glory

Elektrostal Attractions Information

  • Practical Law

Assessing Assignability: Transferring Contractual Rights or Obligations

Practical law legal update 5-546-6326  (approx. 7 pages).

  • An intended transfer is of the type that is prohibited by law or public policy (see Practice Note, Assignability of Commercial Contracts: Statutory and Public Policy Exceptions ).
  • The parties expressly agree to restrict transferability (see Practice Note, Assignability of Commercial Contracts: Contractual Anti-assignment and Anti-delegation Clauses ).
  • Breaching the contract.
  • Making an ineffective and invalid transfer.

Distinguishing Between Assignment and Delegation

  • The assignment of rights to receive performance.
  • The delegation of duties to perform.

Characteristics of Assignments

  • The right to receive performance from the assignor.
  • Its remedies against the assignor for any failure to perform.

Characteristics of Delegation

The general rule governing assignment and delegation.

  • Most assignments of contractual rights.
  • Many delegations of contractual performance.
  • Assignments and delegations that violate public policy or law.
  • Assignments of rights or delegations of performance that are personal in nature.
  • Contracts with anti-assignment or anti-delegation clauses.

Contracts That Present the Greatest Challenges

  • Personal services contracts (see Personal Services Contracts ).
  • Non-exclusive intellectual property licenses (see Intellectual Property Licenses ).
  • Contracts with anti-assignment and anti-delegation clauses (see Contracts With Anti-assignment and Anti-delegation Contract Clauses ).

Personal Services Contracts

Intellectual property licenses, contracts with anti-assignment and anti-delegation clauses, is a change of control an assignment.

  • Contains an anti-assignment and anti-delegation clause expressly restricting a change of control.
  • States that a change in management or equity ownership of the contracting party is deemed to be an assignment.

When Does an Involuntary Transfer Trigger a Restricted Transfer?

  • A contractual anti-assignment and anti delegation clause applies to a specific type or transfer.
  • The transfer is permissible, with or without a contractual anti-assignment and anti-delegation provision.

Drafting and Negotiating Anti-assignment and Anti-delegation Clauses

  • Directly addressing assignment of rights and delegation of performance.
  • Clarifying the universe of restricted transfers.
  • Designating the non-transferring party's consent rights.
  • Specifying any exceptions to non-transferability.
  • Requiring notification of a permitted transfer.
  • Including a declaration that impermissible transfers are void.
  • Adding a novation to the anti-assignment and anti-delegation provision.
  • General Contract and Boilerplate
  • General Commercial
  • United States

examples of literary analysis essays

examples of literary analysis essays

  • business plan
  • course work
  • research paper

IMAGES

  1. Business Law Chapter 17

    assignable rights

  2. Chapter 11

    assignable rights

  3. Assignment Of Rights Agreement Free Template

    assignable rights

  4. Bill of Rights

    assignable rights

  5. Acts, Rights, Obligation and its Classification

    assignable rights

  6. 2015 u302 b protection of rights

    assignable rights

VIDEO

  1. Protect Constitutional Rights

  2. Assignable Roles in Workday

  3. South Africa battling Morocco to lead UN rights body

  4. Constitutional rights of disable person

  5. What are the most common human rights violation in the Philippines?

  6. What Are My Rights

COMMENTS

  1. assign

    Assign is the act of transferring rights, property, or other benefits to another party (the assignee) from the party who holds such benefits under contract (the assignor). This concept is used in both contract and property law . Contract Law

  2. Assignment of Rights Agreement: Everything You Need to Know

    An assignment of rights agreement refers to a situation in which one party, known as the assignor, shifts contract rights to another party. The party taking on the rights is known as the assignee. An Assignment of Rights Agreement The following is an example of an assignment of rights agreement.

  3. Assignments: The Basic Law

    An assignment is the transfer of rights held by one party called the "assignor" to another party called the "assignee." The legal nature of the assignment and the contractual terms of the agreement between the parties determines some additional rights and liabilities that accompany the assignment.

  4. Assessing Assignability: Transferring Contractual Rights or ...

    An assignment involves the transfer by an obligee (assignor) of some or all of its rights to receive performance under the contract to a non-party (assignee). The assignor no longer receives any benefits of the assigned rights, which are all transferred to the assignee.

  5. Assignment of Contract Rights: Everything You Need to Know

    The purpose for the assignment of contract rights is to change the contractual relationship, or privity, between two parties by replacing one party with a new party. How Do Contract Assignments Work? Contract assignments are handled differently depending on certain aspects of the agreement and other factors.

  6. Assignment of Rights Example: Everything You Need to Know

    Assignor: The party that is the initial beneficiary of the benefits or rights. They are responsible for making the assignment. In other words, they will be handing over the rights they were initially going to receive. Assignee: The party that will be accepting the benefits and rights from the assignor. A transfer may have multiple assignees.

  7. Assignment (law)

    An assignor may assign rights, such as a mortgage note issued by a third party borrower, and this would require the latter to make repayments to the assignee. A related concept of assignment is novation wherein, by agreement with all parties, one contracting party is replaced by a new party.

  8. Assignable Contract: Overview, Factors, Example

    An assignable contract has a provision allowing the holder to give away the obligations and rights of the contract to another party or person before the contract's expiration date. The assignee...

  9. 14.1: Assignment of Contract Rights

    The one who makes the assignment is both an obligee and a transferor. The assignee acquires the right to receive the contractual obligations of the promisor, who is referred to as the obligor (see Figure 14.1 "Assignment of Rights" ). The assignor may assign any right unless (1) doing so would materially change the obligation of the obligor ...

  10. Assignment Clause: Meaning & Samples (2022)

    Assignment clauses are legally binding provisions in contracts that give a party the chance to engage in a transfer of ownership or assign their contractual obligations and rights to a different contracting party. In other words, an assignment clause can reassign contracts to another party.

  11. Assignment Of Rights Agreement: Definition & Sample

    An assignment of rights agreement is a written document in which one party, the assignor, assigns to another party all or part of their rights under an existing contract. The most common example of this would be when someone wants to sell their shares of stock in a company.

  12. Assignment of Rights Contract Clause Examples

    Assignment of Rights.The rights under this Agreement shall be automatically assignable by the Holders to any transferee of all or any portion of such Holder's Registrable Securities if: (i) the Holder agrees in writing with the transferee or assignee to assign such rights, and a copy of such agreement is furnished to the Company within a reasonable time promptly after such assignment; (ii) the ...

  13. Non-assignable Rights Contracts and Leases as Collateral Under Revised

    Security Interests in the Underlying Non-assignable Rights. Although §9-406 represents a modest expansion of the current law's free-assignability policy, the more significant expansion is found in §9-408. 5 While §9-406 makes non-assignable rights to payment available as collateral, §9-408 makes other non-assignable rights lienable.

  14. Examples of assignability clauses in contracts

    Assignability Assignability clause samples 10.3 Assignability .This Agreement may not be assigned by either Party, without the written consent of the other Party, such consent not to be unreasonably withheld. 02/13/2020 (Baudax Bio, Inc.) Source SUCCESSION AND ASSIGNABILITY.

  15. Assignability Of Contracts: Everything You Need to Know

    The assignability of contracts is when one side of a contract agreement transfers the contract to another entity, so that the new entity fulfills the terms of the contract. Being able to assign contracts depends on a variety of factors, mainly the language contained in the contract. How Contract Assignments Work

  16. Assignable Rights Sample Clauses

    Assignable Rights. The rights with respect to the Registrable Securities under this Agreement shall, in addition to being for the benefit of the parties hereto, be for the benefit of and enforceable by a transferee of the Registrable Securities.

  17. 15 men brought to military enlistment office after mass brawl in Moscow

    In Elektrostal near Moscow, after a fight, 15 employees of the Wildberries warehouse were taken to the Military Commissariat. Local security forces brought 15 men to a military enlistment office after a mass brawl at a warehouse of the Russian Wildberries company in Elektrostal, Moscow Oblast on Feb. 8, Russian Telegram channel Shot reported.

  18. Nets Fire Head Coach Jacque Vaughn

    The New York Knicks' cross-borough rivals are making a change in the head coaching spot. Jacque Vaughn was fired as the head coach of the Brooklyn Nets on Monday, removed after a season-plus of ...

  19. Assignment of Contract Rights

    The assignor may assign any right unless (1) doing so would materially change the obligation of the obligor, materially burden him, increase his risk, or otherwise diminish the value to him of the original contract; (2) statute or public policy forbids the assignment; or (3) the contract itself precludes assignment.

  20. Things to Do in Elektrostal

    1. Electrostal History and Art Museum. 2. Statue of Lenin. 3. Park of Culture and Leisure. 4. Museum and Exhibition Center. 5.

  21. Rosatom Starts Life Tests of Third-Generation VVER-440 Nuclear Fuel

    Rosatom Starts Life Tests of Third-Generation VVER-440 Nuclear Fuel. 8 139. "Introduction of RK3+ will make it possible to operate all four power units at increased thermal capacity and also to extend the fuel cycle at Dukovany NPP, which will improve economic efficiency of the power plant operation", said Alexander Ugryumov, Vice President ...

  22. Assessing Assignability: Transferring Contractual Rights or Obligations

    Characteristics of Assignments. An assignment involves the transfer by an obligee (assignor) of some or all of its rights to receive performance under the contract to a non-party (assignee). The assignor no longer receives any benefits of the assigned rights, which are all transferred to the assignee. However, even though the assignor divests ...

  23. assignment of claims regulation

    The Federal Register. The daily journal of the united states government, request access. Due to aggressive automated scraping of FederalRegister.gov and eCFR.gov, programmatic acc