Farming South Africa

abattoir business plan south africa

How to Start an Abattoir in South Africa

Table of Contents

Standard Approval for an Abattoir in South Africa

A abattoir or slaughter facility has to be certified by an Provincial Executive Office of the province it is located. All abattoirs should be monitored by an Veterinarian Public Health Officer. Lets take a look on How to Start an Abattoir on your Farm.

How to apply to build an Abattoir

  • Plan your building layout for your Abattoir.
  • Plan how you are going to get rid of carcasses and spills.
  • Visit the Department of Agriculture on provincial level.

Contact the Department of Agriculture Forestry and Fisheries

  • Changing Room, Health and Safety

Plan your Layout of your new Abattoir

Planning Your building layout is Crucial to your abattoir plan. You need to take your layout plan with when you go an visit the Provincial Executive Officer (PEO)

Including in your Abattoir layout you need to have a processing area, refrigerated store, dressing table, cleaning basin and bleeding cones.

You need to make sure that you will have clean water and depending if you are starting a livestock or poultry slaughterhouse you will need electricity.

Visiting the Department of Agriculture on Provincial level

  • You need to go and see your Department of Agriculture on provincial level. If you are not sure how to contact them you can get information from your local State Veterinary Service Office.
  • They are there to help, so don’t be afraid to explain to them what your plans are and how you are going to dispose of carcasses and blood. If you are not sure, they will advise you and show you the correct methods of disposing of carcasses, feathers and other spills.
  • The Provincial Executive Officer will have to evaluate and approve your building plan. It is highly recommended to visit the PEO first and discuss your plans so that he or she can assist you in the planning of your abattoir

Abattoirs are governed by the Department of Agriculture Forestry and Fisheries and they will have to come and visit your farm or smallholding to discuss water and disposable of carcasses.

Make sure that you have studied your water rights, have approval from neighbours and that you have your protocol in order when they start asking about your planning around fires and natural disasters. Once again, they are there to advise you if you are not 100% sure.

Changing Rooms and Health and Safety

Depending on the size of your abattoir, you might need to employ staff. Staff need changing rooms, toilets and possibly a shower if you are going for a 2000 plus per week slaughter house.

Your staff will need face masks, gloves, safety boots and overalls. Make sure that you include that on your business plan when visiting an PEO

Meat Safety Act

Safe meat refers to inspected meat by a health inspector and approved for human consumption. Only qualified meat inspectors are allowed to approve safe meat. Approved meat will have a purple stamp on each quarter of the carcass.

Chickens do not get stamped but need an inspector to approve the meat. In most cases, by South African law you are allowed to train your own inspector that has a minimum qualification of Grade 12. After 6 months, the trainee can do a trade test and become an qualified poultry meat inspector. An owner or manager of a chicken abattoir are never allowed to be an meat inspector.

People to contact for information on how to build a new Abattoir

How to Start an Abattoir on your Farm

Veterinary Public Health Contacts in your Province

How to Start an Abattoir on your Farm

Question: I would really like to start an Abattoir in my Township but I do not have enough space on my property.

Answer: You can follow the same protocol to apply for an Mobile Abattoir as a normal abattoir.

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25 Replies to “How to Start an Abattoir in South Africa”

I would like to start a small or mobile chicken abattoir

I would like to start chicken abattoir at my community

I would like to start chicken abattoir at my community at a promised lease land from my couzine which is idlealing in Magalies- Mogale City. The place has no structure but vast. One also need funding.

I would like to start an Abbattoir on my community for slaughtering small livestock

Tau that would be great. Start planning and then go and see your Local PEO

I would like to start slaughter house in my community

I would like to start a pig abattoir in Radium Limpopo. I have a 23 hectares of land and currently started with pig farming. How much would it cost and how big should it be to eventually slaughter 100 pigs per day.

Can you be able to start Abattoir while you starting to have chicken business or you need a operational business to start the abattoir

You can start a abattoir without farming with chickens. It could be a separate business and also a service to other chicken farmers

I want to start an abattoir at my area

I wanna start our own abbatoir on the farm, i live in a rural area. I’ve been reading this.

Point of correction, you do not train your own meat inspector. I meat inspector is someone with Bio-science qualification with a minimum of 3 years of studying. In accordance to the meat safety act of 2000, a meat inspector must be a holder of at least Diploma in Animal Health and Production or Environmental Health from an approved institution

Yappy I understand your point regarding becoming a meat inspector, however when it comes to poultry, you can train your own. As you probably know meat inspectors has to be present at the day of slaughter to inspect and certify the meat and in some cases charge per carcass. Small scale chicken abattoirs slaughtering 250 birds per week can not afford an inspector nor is it feasible for an inspector to travel to rural areas and inspect only 250 chickens. So in rural areas, you are allowed to train poultry meat inspector as long as they have grade 12 and are not an owner operator. My information is directly from the Provincial Executive Office in Bredasdorp Western Cape. Thanks for your input – Regards

I’m interested in building an abourtour but can’t get componies that can supply me with equipment and proper planning.

I would like to start a small chicken abattoir in my community

I worked at Pick n Pay as a butchery manager for 15 years. Then five years ago I started my own small butchery business in Mtubaba Northern Kwazulu Natal. Now we want to start a small abattoir with a small community of this area. We do have registered Coperative. We wanted to know how we can get a grant from Agriculture in order to start our business.

I would like to start an livestock and a abattoir inmy area is this possible to have two major business at once

Yes absolutely. Not only will you lower your business operation cost, but you can make extra income with serving farmers around you

Do I need a PEO when buying a mobile abattoir?

I would like to start a certified mobile abbottoir for rabbits. What can I do and how much I need and where to go.

whoah this blog is great i love studying your posts. Keep up the good paintings! You realize, lots of persons are searching around for this information, you can help them greatly.

I wanth to start a poultry abattoir,I have business plan, abattoir an structure , letters of intent from local retails and p Big supermarkets. Where can I get funds from department of agriculture

I’m a fresh meat processor student, I’m doing an NQF level 3, which is the highest qualification of the meat teachnician. I want to open my own abattoir and butchery but I don’t know where to start. So would you please advise on what should I have and what should not do.

I am very sure that it will be covered in your NQ Level 3 course….

Hi, thank you FarmingSA for an informative article on the matter,, I would like to know, for rural areas where it’s only accessible via dirt roads is there any regulation about how far from the road would the abattoir have to be, to prevent dust contamination. Also, for rural and low throughput it does not seem feasible to keep a meat inspector.

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As mentioned in our previous quarter’s newsletter, the risks that are associated with the illegal/informal slaughtering of livestock are endless and dangerous to consumers and the environment, as no inspection is performed on the carcasses and there is no adherence to the regulations that govern the slaughtering industry. Farmers are also faced with the risk of selling their livestock to the agents at lower prices.


Financial Analysis

The abattoir business model allows the owner to decide between two methods of operating the business, namely carcass ownership and fee based slaughtering. Both methods have risks associated with them. However, years of experience and training will enable the owner to mitigate the risks, for example that of buying poor quality livestock. The owner must be able to know the quality of the meat he will get from the animals by visual inspection only. Table 1 provides a summary of the financial requirements and the financial projections for the abattoir.

The capital requirement for an abattoir with the capacity to slaughter 10 units is estimated at R4 743 000 excluding VAT. Adding a poultry slaughtering facility at the same premises, but not in the same building, will increase the capital cost to R5 793 600.00. As indicated in Table 1, the estimated profit for the fee based slaughtering is R986 354.00 while the carcass ownership method has the potential to generate a profit of R1 776 561. The carcass ownership method requires a lot of operating capital, as livestock needs to be bought in cash. The advantage with this model is that the abattoir can charge premium prices when selling to the end consumer unlike the fee based slaughtering where no sales to the direct consumer is possible. However, the fee based model returns are also attractive given the fact that no stocking risk is carried and no marketing of the meat occurs. A return on equity of R0.21 for fee based slaughtering and R0.37 for carcass ownership for every R1 is achieved.

To maximize the profits, the owner can introduce poultry slaughtering, which will increase the capital to R5 793 600 and importantly the profit to R2 247 645 for the carcass ownership scenario. On this scenario, the return of equity will increase to R0.39 for every R1 invested.

Due to the risks that are associated with animal slaughtering, the abattoirs are regulated. There are rules and regulations that the abattoir must adhere to to ensure that people and the environment are protected. Compliance to the regulations and laws of the slaughtering industry is the key to the success of the abattoir business. The abattoir should be compliant with the following Acts:

  • Animal Health Act, 2002 (Act No. 07 of 2002)
  • Health Act, 1977 ( Act No. 63 of 1977)
  • Animal Protection, 1962 (Act No. 71 of 1962)
  • Fertilizers, farm feeds, Agricultural Remedies and Stock Remedies Act, 1947 (Act No. 36 of 1947)
  • Occupational Health and Safety Act , 1983 (Act No. 3 of 1983)
  • Atmosphere Pollution Prevention Act, 1965 (Act No.45 of 1965
  • Agricultural Products Standards Act, 1990 (Act No. 119 of 1990)
  • Stock Theft Act, 1959 (Act No. 57 of 1959)
  • Meat and Safety Act, 2000 (Act No. 40 of 2000)
  • National Environmental Management Act, 1998 (Act No. 107 of 1998)
  • General Hygiene Requirements for Food Premises and the Transport of Food
  • R918 of 1999.
  • National Water Act 1998 (Act No. 36 of 1998)

Other compliance for abattoir include:

  • All the buildings should be approved by the municipality
  • The plans and layout must be approved by the Department of Agriculture
  • Necessary stamps and roller mark to be obtained to identify species
  • Registration with the Department of Agriculture for unique identity number

An environmental impact assessment authorization is a requirement as well as a waste license.

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10 Things To Consider Before Starting An Abattoir Business In South Africa

SA Farmers Magazine

Starting an abattoir business in South Africa requires careful planning and consideration of various factors. Here are 10 things you should consider:

  • Legal and Regulatory Requirements: Familiarize yourself with the legal and regulatory framework governing abattoir operations in South Africa. Obtain all necessary licenses, permits, and certifications to ensure compliance with health, safety, and environmental regulations.
  • Market Analysis: Conduct a thorough market analysis to assess the demand for meat products in your target area. Identify potential customers, competitors, and market trends to determine the viability of your abattoir business.
  • Location: Choose a suitable location for your abattoir that is accessible to livestock suppliers and has proper infrastructure for transportation, water supply, and waste management. Consider proximity to target markets and availability of skilled labor.
  • Facility and Equipment: Plan the layout and design of your abattoir facility, ensuring it meets hygiene standards and provides a safe working environment. Invest in appropriate equipment for livestock handling, slaughtering, meat processing, and packaging.
  • Livestock Supply: Establish a reliable and sustainable source of livestock supply. Build relationships with local farmers, livestock auctions, or suppliers to ensure a consistent supply of healthy animals for slaughter.
  • Staffing and Skills: Hire skilled and knowledgeable staff who have experience in abattoir operations. Provide training on food safety, animal welfare, and proper handling and slaughtering techniques to ensure compliance with industry standards.
  • Quality Control and Food Safety: Implement strict quality control measures to maintain hygiene, food safety, and traceability throughout the slaughtering and processing operations. Adhere to South Africa’s meat inspection standards to ensure the safety of the meat products.
  • Waste Management: Develop an effective waste management plan to handle and dispose of animal by-products, wastewater, and solid waste generated during the abattoir operations. Comply with environmental regulations regarding waste treatment and disposal.
  • Marketing and Distribution: Develop a marketing strategy to promote your abattoir business and build relationships with meat wholesalers, retailers, restaurants, and other potential customers. Consider distribution channels and logistics for delivering your meat products to the market.
  • Financial Planning: Conduct a comprehensive financial analysis, including startup costs, operational expenses, and revenue projections. Secure adequate funding through loans, investors, or personal investment to cover the initial investment and sustain the business until profitability is achieved.

Remember, it is essential to consult with experts in the field, such as industry professionals, business advisors, or agricultural organizations, to gather more specific and up-to-date information on starting an abattoir business in South Africa.

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Abattoirs and the meat industry


Natural progression from live animal to carcass to meat:

  • Animals are transported, offloaded and kept for slaughter in a manner that does not involve unnecessary pain.
  • Clean water is provided continuously.
  • Depending on the time they have to wait for slaughtering, food, in accordance with their needs, is provided.
  • The animals are handled in a humane way at all times.
  • Inspectors perform an  ante mortem  examination to determine if the animals are healthy and ready for slaughtering.
  • Sick animals are isolated and dead animals are disposed of by an acceptable method which may include rendering, burning or denaturation.
  • Care is taken that only meat from healthy animals reaches the consumer.
  • All animals are inspected to determine whether they have any latent diseases.
  • A routine meat inspection is done on the carcass and offal of each animal by trained meat inspectors.
  • Carcasses are now classified. Meat is classified to provide the consumer information relating to the age and fat thickness on the carcass.
  • After final approval, the carcasses are chilled immediately to stop germs/micro organisms from multiplying or causing accidental contamination. Meat is now kept cold and the temperature is kept constant until the product reaches the consumer. (It is important not to break the cold chain from after slaughtering until the meat is cooked and consumed).
  • During the entire process, hands are washed regularly, instruments are sterilised (boiled) and clean protective clothes are worn daily.
  • All surfaces coming into contact with meat are cleaned and sanitized on a routine basis.
  • The health care of the workers handling the meat is a high priority to eliminate problems with regard to germs/micro organisms or contagious diseases that can be transmitted to the meat.
  • A great effort is made to make certain that meat leaving the abattoir is clean, safe, nutritious and in a wholesome condition to ensure a relatively long shelf life.

Animal welfare

National Society Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (NSPCA)

Veterinarian: vet [at]

“How many abattoirs adhere to the clauses that animals must not experience unnecessary pain, have continuous access to clean water and be provided with food if kept for longer periods of time?” This is among the questions asked by meat inspectors and the NSPCA.

International business environment

  • Meat prices peaked in June 2022, and declined steadily since. Most prices are expected “to soften further through 2023, bottom out in 2024 and then increase modestly over the coming decade”.
  • Despite rising prices, meat production expanded globally by just 2% in 2022. Animal diseases, increasing input costs (particularly feed), and extreme weather conditions are given as limiting factors.
  • Because of rising domestic production and lower imports from China (which is recovering from a bout of ASF), the global meat trade is expected to grow at a lower rate than the previous 10 years.
  • Intensive industries (mainly poultry and pork) are expected to make the biggest contribution to meat production growth in the next decade.

Further reference :

  • The latest  Livestock and Poultry: World Markets and Trade  by the Foreign Agricultural Service arm of the  US Department of Agriculture  looks at the global supply and demand of chicken, beef and pork.
  • Visit the website of the  International Meat Secretariat (IMS)  – . The IMS brings together meat and livestock organisations throughout the world.
  • Google “ World Meat Congress ” to find details of the next annual event.
  • An international website is
  •  – website of the  International Organization for Standardization . There are ISO standards which give assurance of the quality of meat and meat products from recognised abattoirs.
  •  – website of the  American Meat Science Association
  • Included in the annual  Bureau for Food & Agricultural Policy (BFAP)  Baseline is a comparative look at the different meat sorts and the global picture of how well they are doing. Find the document at .

South Africa: imports and exports

The following are the requirements for registering to supply the meat export market:

  • Animals need to be individually and permanently identified at least 3 months before slaughter.
  • Animals must be of South African origin.
  • Farmers must supply a detailed plan of their farm, buildings and fences.
  • Don’t use hormones, steroids, growth stimulants, animal by-products or feed stimulants.
  • Only natural food may supplement veld.
  • Veld must be clearly marked, identified, rotated, and rested for one season before being used.
  • Feed must be stored in a dry area away from chemicals and fertilisers and be kept safe from vermin, mould and dust.
  • Feed and water troughs must be clean and well maintained.
  • Stock Registers must contain the following information: a) Dates of arrival at the farm. b) Origin. c) Identification numbers. d) Any treatment and vaccination dates. e) Number of deaths (with reasons). f) The dates of dispatch to the Abattoir.
  • Disease Control Measures: a) Notify State Vet in the event of the outbreak of a disease. b) Treated animals must be kept in a separate camp. c) Intra-muscular injections must only be given in the neck. d) Observe the stipulated withdrawal periods for any therapeutic remedy used. e) Send the head of any animal that dies to the nearest Vet. To check for Mad Cow Disease.
  • Dipping areas must be sealed when not in use.
  • Record all chemicals used.
  • All chemicals must be environmentally friendly.
  • Allow the export Abattoir to conduct soil, water and feed analysis for heavy metals prior to registration.
  • Transport must be well coordinated and the trucks should never be overloaded.
  • Cattle branding must be completed 3 weeks before slaughter.
  • De-horn cattle before weaning.
  • Animals must be subjected to minimum stress during the 3 week period before slaughter.

Local business environment

Just when Covid-19 had waned, better meat prices could not cover ever-increasing feed costs caused by weather conditions and the war in Ukraine. In addition load shedding, animal disease outbreaks and poor municipal service delivery taxed the sector to the extreme.

South African meat products are “well integrated” in global markets, a result of imports (poultry and pork) and exports (beef). Efforts aimed at import replacements and investing in the country’s competitiveness have been compromised by the previously mentioned factors like load shedding and poor municipal delivery.

Weak economic growth and the country’s monetary tightening to curb inflation has placed consumer incomes under pressure. Consequently, a decline in meat consumption per capita is anticipated for the next 2-3 years. In addition, customers who can’t afford backup power generation at home are less likely to buy meat in bulk, even though fresh meat is more expensive. There is projected growth over the outlook period (2023-2032) but this will mainly fall in the second half of this period “on the back of small improvements in income growth and lower real prices”.

South Africa has approximately 431 abattoirs slaughtering cattle, pigs and sheep on an annual basis [Find the DALRRD list of abattoirs (2021, November) on its website,]. Approximately 40% of all slaughterings are performed by abattoirs that may slaughter an unlimited number of animals (Class A) and approximately 60% of cattle are slaughtered by highly regulated abattoirs (Class A & B). Most of these abattoirs have linkages with feedlots. South Africa’s meat imports exceed her exports, making the country a net importer. Local markets include butcheries, supermarkets, hotels, institutions, colleges, schools and restaurants.

  • Slaughter statistics can be found at , website of the Agricultural Levy Services .
  • Keep your eye on websites like  and .
  • The latest Abstract of Agricultural Statistics includes categories like “Cattle numbers, numbers slaughtered and average prices of beef”, “Production and consumption of veal”, “Sheep, lambs and goats – numbers slaughtered at abattoirs, average prices of mutton, production and consumption”. Find it on .
  • The annual  Bureau for Food and Agricultural Policy (BFAP)  Baseline includes an overview of meat under “Outlook for animal products”. Find the document at .
  • Market outlooks can also be found in the agricultural weeklies –  Landbouweekblad  and  Farmer’s Weekly  – or visit their websites:  and .

For the newcomer

  • Find the pamphlet “Information on how to build a new abattoir” at .

One strategic objective of  National Emergent Red Meat Producers Organisation (NERPO)  is to pursue business opportunities in the livestock and meat production chain for the advantage and benefit of the emerging producers. Visit

Photo used courtesy of the Department of Agriculture, Land Reform and Rural Development (DALRRD)

National strategy and government contacts

The  Agriculture and Agro-processing Master Plan (AAMP)  is expected to follow on from the  Agricultural Policy Action Plan (APAP)  and the  National Development Plan (NDP) , in encouraging the country to tap into the huge potential in the meat value chain, particularly the informal livestock market. Strategically placed abattoirs and training in production standards, meat quality and value added products could assist smallholder farmers and rural development.

The pre-condition of an effective animal health system that receives the overall buy-in and support from all social partners, with government accepting its responsibility in driving the health system, will create opportunities for inclusive growth and the creation of jobs in the meat value chain (BFAP, 2021).

Department of Agriculture, Land Reform and Rural Development (DALRRD)  Find the Abattoir lists, Veterinary Public Health Manuals and other information at . Application forms, Guidelines and contacts at DALRRD are all available.

Legislation governing the prevention of cruelty to animals specifically pertaining to transport, stunning and sticking of animals at abattoirs include:

  • The Animal Protection Act
  • Meat Safety Act (Act 40 of 2000)

Regulation 73 under the Meat Safety Act, 2000 (Act no. 40 of 2000) prescribes the following regarding stunning pistols: (i) The abattoir owner must ensure that the captive bolt pistol is silenced, in a good state of repair and that it is used according to the methods approved by the national executive officer; and (ii) The correct grade of cartridge for the type of animal must be used to ensure maximum bolt speed and penetration of the skull.

The meat inspectors are responsible for the welfare of animals at abattoirs. When stunning devices and operators are not proficient or adequate, animals suffer whilst being slaughtered. For a simple outline of these Acts refer to

Other relevant legislation:

  • Agricultural Product Standards Act (Act 119 of 1990)
  • Animal Diseases Act (Act 35 of 1984)
  • Animal Identification Act (Act 6 of 2002)
  • Fertilisers, Farm Feeds, Agricultural Remedies and Stock Remedies Act (Act 36 of 1984)
  • Foodstuffs, Cosmetics and Disinfectants Act, 1972 (Act 54 of 1972)
  • The Health Act
  • The Water Act
  • Local Authority Health Regulations
  • The Livestock Theft Act
  • Veterinary and Para-Veterinary Professions Act (Act 19 of 1982)

Directorate: Food Safety & Quality Assurance  This directorate is responsible for setting national standards, including those for abattoirs.

Department of Health  The food control section within the department is responsible for ensuring the safety of food in South Africa.

National Agricultural Marketing Council (NAMC)  Relevant Statutory Measures, registration forms, abattoir levy forms etc can be obtained from the Red Meat Levy Admin company (details under “Associations involved” heading).

Guidelines for the processed meat industry as laid out in SANS 885 specify the handling, preparation, processing, packaging, refrigeration, freezing, chilling and storage of processed meat products.

South African Bureau of Standards (SABS)

Further SABS Standards applicable to this industry: (i) (SABS 0331) Translocation of certain species of wild herbivore (ii) (SANS 10391:2004) The welfare of wild animals transported by sea (iii) (SANS 1884-1:2004) Holding Pens for temporary housing of animals – Part 1 (iv) (SANS 1884-2:2007) Holding Pens for temporary housing of animals – Part 2 (v) (SANS 1884-3:2008) Holding Pens for temporary housing of animals – Part 3 (vi) Food Safety Certification programmes as well as Product Certification: Eurepgap, BRC, HACCP, ISO 22000 (vii) Microbiological examination of foods

  • For more legislation, codes and standards see .

Associations involved

Find details of the  Red Meat Abattoir Association (RMAA) , the  Red Meat Industry Services (RMIS) and other associations and industry bodies under the Role players heading further down this page.

Training and research

Learnerships and apprenticeships are a combination of on-the-job learning along with some theoretical training. The major part of the training can be offered on the farm. Find information on learnerships in the “ Agricultural education & training ” chapter, or at  (under “Skills delivery” option). Find the links, also on the  AgriSETA  website, to the following qualifications: (i)  National Certificate: Abattoir Slaughtering Processes  (ii)  National Certificate: Abattoir Supervision  (iii)  National Certificate: General Abattoir Processes  (iv)  Further Education and Training Certificate: Meat Classification  (v)  Further Education and Training Certificate: Meat Examination .

Training provided by the  Red Meat Abattoir Association (RMAA)  and its  Abattoir Skills Training  company includes: 1. Animal handling 2. Auditors Course 3. Basic introduction to the Abattoir Industry 4. Beef slaughter 5. Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) 6. HACCP Awareness 7. HMS & HACCP 8. Hygiene Awareness 9. Introductory Abattoir Hygiene Course 10. Meat Inspection (Refresher Course) 11. Pork Slaughter 12. Small Stock Slaughter. Learnerships include FETC Meat Examination and NC General Abattoir Processes. Bursaries for the training of health officers are also available. The RMAA also assists members apply for Discretionary Grant funding from AgriSETA. For more information visit the RMAA website,

Agricultural Colleges  like  Grootfontein Agricultural Development Institute  do abattoir training. Find the list of these colleges in the “ Agricultural education and training ” page.

Find details of other training providers and researchers under the Role players heading further down this page.

Role players

Note: Click to expand the headings below. To get a free listing on our website like the ones below, visit  here  for more information or place your order  here .  Disclaimer: The role player listings are not vetted by this website.

  • For cold storage, see the “ Packaging and handling systems”  page.
  •  lists numerous abattoirs, meat suppliers and butcheries across the country.

Websites and publications

Visit the websites of the associations mentioned earlier on this page e.g.  and
  • Consult the  National Agricultural Marketing Council ’s  Trade Probe  reports at . Frequently you will find aspects of the meat sector covered.
  • Refer to the latest annual  A Profile of the South African Beef Market Value Chain  and other livestock value chain publications on the  DALRRD  website at .
  • Also on the  DALRRD  website are the following: “Import requirements for fresh meat”, “Procedures for the export of fresh meat”, “Buy with confidence … Buy approved meat”, “Our meat is safe”, “Safe meat” and “Slaughterings and consumer confidence”.
  • is “Your News and Information portal to the Abattoir, Butchery, Meat Processing and Deli Industries”.
  • Publications like the following are available at the  RMAA  (see ): (i)  Manual for the Abattoir Industry  – a manual which describes all aspects of the abattoir industry and is an ideal source of reference for any person involved in the abattoir industry; (ii)  Meat Inspectors Manual: Red Meat  – this manual contains the minimum norm of required knowledge for all persons involved with hygiene control and meat inspection at abattoirs. It also serves as a valuable reference with regard to diseases and condemnations; (iii)  FOA [United Nation’s Food and Agricultural Organisation] Manual on Meat Inspection for Developing Countries  is strongly recommended for training and reference purposes. Industry relevant articles, news and events will be available and updated on a regular basis in the “articles” section of the RMAA website.
  • Call 012 842 4017 or email iaeinfo [at] for the following publications, available from  ARC-Agricultural Engineering : (i) Mishanteringshandleiding vir intensiewe diereproduksie-eenhede in SA (ii) Processing of Meat Products (Russians, tongue, hamburger patties, polony, frankfurters, bacon, ham, sausages).
  • Siebert, T. 2018. Red meat processing.  Farmlink . Available at
  • A number of booklets are available from  SAMIC : (i) Info for new meat traders (2nd one in Afrikaans) (ii) Duties and Functions of Abattoir managers regarding the welfare of animals. (iii) Duties and Functions of Abattoir managers regarding the welfare of pigs. (iv) A guideline for the use of prodders and stunning devices in abattoirs. The above booklets are also available from the NSPCA. Tel: 011 907 3590/1/2
  • Download the latest edition of  Rooivleis/Red Meat  at
  • Current legislation allows for cultural, traditional or religious slaughter. The role of the SPCA is to ensure the humane treatment of the animals and that the process is checked from the loading of the animals through to their arrival at the venue and the actual slaughter. Relevant websites are ,  and . For a list of Halaal abattoirs visit  and
  • Lymbery, P & Oakeshott, I. 2014.  Farmaggedon: The True Cost of Cheap Meat.  London: Bloomsbury. Find the Dagbreek: Landbousake interview with Lymberry  here  along with RPO rejoinders.
  •  for recipes, articles and information on the Cleaver Awards for butcheries.
  • Mzansi Meat  Growing meat from cells instead of taking it from animals
  • Read about the Meat Free Monday campaign at . See what you think of the rebuttal at .

Some articles

  • Read blogs like “ Outsourced energy solutions crucial to helping food manufacturers navigate a tough and uncertain economy ” and “ Outsourcing builds a resilient operation ” at
  • Dube N. 2023, November 30. “SA’s meat industry re-emerges from cold storage”. Business Day. Available at
  • Reporter. 2023, May 11. “SA’s top butcheries honoured at 18th annual Cleaver Awards”. Bizcommunity. Available at
  • Staff Writer. 2022, September 4. “South Africa’s strict rules for boerewors and burgers must be enforced”. My Broadband. Available at
  • Maqhina M. 2022, August 14. “Traditional Affairs Minister says there is no national legislation yet on animal slaughtering”.  Cape Times . Available at
  • Reporter. 2021, July 21. “NW completes poultry abattoir for emerging farmers”. SA News. Available at
  • Reuters Staff. 2020, November 9. “McDonald’s to make its own ‘McPlant’ items, hits faux meat maker Beyond Meat”. Reuters. Available at
  • Reuters. 2020, June 30. “Coming soon to a 3D printer near you: Plant-based steaks”. Eye Witness News. Available at
  • Dean S. 2020, April 5. “Inside a family-run abattoir that slaughters 800 cattle a day”.  Farmer’s Weekly . Available at

Table of Contents

Digitising water services can gain back millions for municipalities, us-africa trade deal turns 25 next year: agoa’s winners, losers and what should come next, stock theft under the spotlight, diesel vs electric – which is better for pump systems, political parties, elections and agriculture, promising sa-first solution to convert paper sludge, food and textile waste into bioethanol.

  • From The Field

From the Field

Managing a poultry abattoir in south africa.

This story is one in a series from Frances Chisholm highlighting stories of lives impacted by World Poultry Foundation programs and workshops both in the U.S. and abroad. We encourage you to learn more about Ms. Chisholm  and our poultry projects in South Africa.

“I learned to cut handling time from 2-3 minutes to as little as 45 seconds per bird,” exclaimed broiler farmer Bheki Matshenja about the best part of the five-day Managing a Poultry Abattoir course that he attended at the KwaZulu-Natal Poultry Institute, supported by the World Poultry Foundation. “As a result of those practical demonstrations of handling, we’ve been able to increase throughput at my abattoir from 500 to nearly 1000 birds a day,” he beamed.

Bheki knew what standard to expect from the Abattoir Management course, as he had attended a broiler production course at KZNPI in 2017. “I didn’t mind the 4-hour drive,” said the young broiler farmer, “I knew the quality of the training would be excellent.”

With an eye on moving into poultry processing, the entrepreneurial farmer had built his first abattoir several years ago, “winging it,” as he put it, and visiting other abattoirs to learn the ropes. “I started out slaughtering fewer than 50 birds a day, then eventually got certified for 2,000,” he explained. “The KZNPI course taught me the finer details, especially about hygiene. Dissections were another highpoint,” he enthused. And in regard to the meals, “those ladies can cook,” he exclaimed!

Course classmate Ntokozo Makhanya farms on a smaller scale near Msinga in KwaZulu-Natal. Armed with a Diploma in Farm Management, he started with cycles of 50 birds during COVID lockdown then grew production to two 400-bird cycles. Ntokozo delivers his birds to re-sellers at the live market. His main challenge is a clean water supply, leaving him sometimes to fetch water on his pickup truck from the next municipality. Power outages also threaten business, “Running a brooder on gas is expensive.” But Ntokozo is undaunted.

“I know the Abattoir Management course will help my business because of the quality of the trainers and the eye-opening visit to a commercial abattoir,” he said. Since completing the course, which he described as “so lovely, so open,” he has bought the equipment for a small setup; the next step is to build the structure to house it. He is hoping for financial support from his municipality. Ntokozo plans to sell frozen chicken parts to food stands at the markets that he knows so well, but he’ll also keep selling to the live market, “I have to keep on supplying best quality chickens to my customers.”

Two ambitious South African farmers, two visions, both emboldened by KZN PI training and World Poultry Foundation support!

Ms. Frances Chisholm Friend & Supporter of the WPF Learn More About Frances

  • United States
  • WPF Board Members
  • South Africa
  • Media Mentions
  • African Poultry Multiplication Initiative
  • From The Road
  • Training Programs
  • Future Farmer Internships
  • The People In Poultry
  • Press Releases


How to Write a Butchery Business Plan [Sample Template]

By: Author Tony Martins Ajaero

In South Africa just like in some countries in Africa, it can be truly challenging starting any business, but one business that you can start with little challenges and wide market coverage is a butchery business or better still slaughterhouse business.

If you are considering starting a butchery business in South Africa, the good news is that you can’t get it wrong because various types of animals are consumed by a large number of South Africans. Please note that starting a butchery business in South Africa requires that you secure the necessary permits from regulatory bodies, although some entrepreneurs run this type of business in SA without the required permits.

So, if you have decided to start your own butchery business, then you should ensure that you carry out thorough feasibility studies and market survey, and secure the needed public health and hygiene certificates and permits. This will enable you to properly locate the business in a good location and then hit the ground running.

Business plan is yet another very important business document that you should not take for granted when launching your butchery business. Below is a sample butchery business plan template that can help you to successfully write your own with little or no difficulty.

A Sample Butchery Business Plan Template

1. industry overview.

Butchery business falls under the Meat, Beef & Poultry Processing industry and businesses in this industry basically engage in the slaughtering of livestock to produce red meat. The butchery business also produces fresh or frozen meat as carcasses and cuts, in addition to by-products like rendered lard, tallow, pulled wool, bone, preserve and pack meat. It is important to state businesses that primarily cut and pack meats from purchased carcasses are also part of this industry.

In South Africa, to become a professional butcher, training is essential and short training courses for a minimum of two weeks are available in South Africa. The training of butchery staff is addressed in the R918 ‘Regulations Governing General Hygiene Requirements for Food Premises and the Transport of Food’ of the Health Act, 1977, as well as in the Occupational Health and Safety Act.

Even though meat consumption based on per capita income is expected to remain stagnant in the next half a decade, economic woes before this period aggravated consumption drops.

Because of recovering consumer sentiment, population growth and strong export demand, meat-processing revenue is projected to increase going forward. In spite of the stability of consumer demand for meat-based products, unpredictable weather conditions and disease outbreaks can cause instability in the revenue generated by industry players.

The butchery business in South Africa will continue to blossom because people will always want to purchase fresh meat. Despite the fact that the industry seems over – saturated, there is still room big enough to accommodate aspiring entrepreneurs who intend opening their own butchery business in any part of South Africa.

In South Africa and of course, in all countries of the world, butchers are required to adhere to stringent hygiene regulations and to undertake general cleaning tasks in the meat preparation and serving areas. Professional butchers may require particular skills and knowledge.

If you are looking towards leveraging on the beef, meat and poultry processing industry to generate huge income, then one of your best bet is to start a butchery business. One thing is certain about starting your butchery business, if you are able to conduct your market research and feasibility studies, you are more likely not going to struggle to sell your meat because there are loads of businesses (hotels, caterers and restaurants) and consumers out there who are ready to buy from you.

2. Executive Summary

Durban City® Butchery House, LLC is a registered butchery business that will be involved in the slaughtering and retailing of fresh meat. Our slaughterhouse will be located close to one of the largest residential communities in Durban – KwaZulu-Natal Province. We have been able to lease a warehouse cum storage facility that is big enough to fit into the kind of butchery business that we intend launching and the facility is centrally located in the heart of town with easy delivery network.

Durban City® Butchery House, LLC will be involved in butchering of animals, producing cuts of beef, lamb, pork, other red meats and selling by-products from the slaughtering process to a wide range of customers.

We are aware that there are several butchery businesses all around Durban that are also into meat and beef retailing, which is why we spent time and resources to conduct our feasibility studies and market survey so as to offer much more than our competitors will be offering. We have a robust distribution network, strong online presence and modern storage facilities and we are armed with the various payments options available in South Africa.

Much more than retailing meats, our customer care is going to be second to none in the whole of Durban – KwaZulu-Natal Province and our deliveries will be timely and highly reliable. We know that our customers are the reason why we are in business which is why we will go the extra mile to get them satisfied when they patronize us.

Durban City® Butchery House, LLC will ensure that all our customers are given first class treatment whenever they visit our butchery facility. We have a CRM software that will enable us manage a one on one relationship with our customers no matter how large they may grow to. We will ensure that we get our customers involved in the selection of the types of animal to be butchered and also when making some business decisions that will directly affect them.

Durban City® Butchery House, LLC will at all times demonstrate her commitment to sustainability, both individually and as a firm, by actively participating in our communities and integrating sustainable business practices wherever possible. We will ensure that we hold ourselves accountable to the highest standards by meeting our client’s needs precisely and completely.

Durban City® Butchery House, LLC is a family business that is owned by Eric Zulu and his immediate family members. Eric Zulu is a professional butcher with over 10 years’ experience.

3. Our Products and Services

Durban City® Butchery House, LLC is in the butchery line of business to retail fresh meats and we will ensure that we are involved in butchering a wide range of animals that are consumed in South Africa. Our products and services offerings are listed below;

  • Butchering animals
  • Producing cuts of beef
  • Producing cuts of lamb
  • Producing cuts of pork
  • Producing cuts of other red meats
  • Selling by-products from the slaughtering process.

4. Our Mission and Vision Statement

  • Our vision is to become one of the leading brands in the butchery line of business in the whole of Durban – KwaZulu-Natal.
  • Our mission is to establish a butchery business that will slaughter and sell a wide range of animals at affordable prices to wholesalers and retailers in and around Durban.

Our Business Structure

Durban City® Butchery House, LLC has no plans to start an unregistered butchery business; our intention of starting a butchery business is to build a standard butchery in Durban – KwaZulu-Natal. We will ensure that we put the right structures in place that will support the kind of growth that we have in mind while setting up the business.

We will make sure that we hire people that are qualified, honest, customer centric and are ready to work to help us build a prosperous business that will benefit all our stake holders. As a matter of fact, profit-sharing arrangement will be made available to all our old staff and it will be based on their performance for a period of ten years or more.

In view of that, we have decided to hire competent hands to occupy the following positions that will be made available at Durban City® Butchery House, LLC;

  • Manager (Owner)
  • Warehouse/Storage Facility Manager

Merchandize Manager

Sales and Marketing Manager

  • Drivers/Distributors

5. Job Roles and Responsibilities


  • Increases management’s effectiveness by recruiting, selecting, orienting, training, coaching, counseling, and disciplining managers; communicating values, strategies, and objectives; assigning accountabilities; planning, monitoring, and appraising job results; developing incentives; developing a climate for offering information and opinions
  • Creates, communicates, and implements the organization’s vision, mission, and overall direction – i.e. leading the development and implementation of the overall organization’s strategy.
  • Accountable for fixing prices and signing business deals
  • Responsible for providing direction for the business
  • Accountable for signing checks and documents on behalf of the company
  • Evaluates the success of the organization

Warehouse cum Storage Facility Manager

  • Responsible for organizing the safe and efficient receipt, storage and dispatch of slaughtered animals and byproducts
  • In charge of planning, coordinating and monitoring the receipt, order assembly and dispatch of slaughtered animals and byproducts
  • Responsible for using space and mechanical handling equipment efficiently and making sure quality, budgetary targets and environmental objectives are met
  • Responsible for keeping stock control systems up to date and making sure inventories are accurate;
  • Ensures that proper records of goods are kept and warehouse does not run out of products
  • Ensures that the slaughterhouse facility is in tip top shape and meets the health and safety requirements
  • Controls meat, beef and poultry meat distribution and supply inventory
  • Supervises the workforce in the butchery floor.
  • Manages vendor relations, farm cum market visits, and the ongoing education and development of the organizations’ buying teams
  • Responsible for the purchase of cows, goats, pigs, turkeys and chickens et al directly from farmers for the organization
  • Responsible for planning sales, monitoring inventory, selecting the merchandise, and writing orders for vendors
  • Ensures that the organization operates within stipulated budget.
  • Responsible for butchering animals
  • Responsible for cleaning the slaughterhouse before and after butchering of animals
  • Handle any other duty as assigned by the manager (owner)
  • Manages external research and coordinate all the internal sources of information to retain the organizations’ best customers and attract new ones
  • Models demographic information and analyze the volumes of transactional data generated by customer purchases
  • Identifies, prioritizes, and reaches out to new partners, and business opportunities et al
  • Identifies development opportunities; follows up on development leads and contacts; participates in the structuring and financing of projects; assures the completion of development projects.
  • Responsible for supervising implementation, advocate for the customer’s needs, and communicate with clients
  • Develops, executes and evaluates new plans for expanding sales
  • Documents all customer contact and information
  • Represents the company in strategic meetings
  • Helps increase sales and growth for the company


  • Responsible for preparing financial reports, budgets, and financial statements for the organization
  • Provides managements with financial analyses, development budgets, and accounting reports; analyzes financial feasibility for the most complex proposed projects; conducts market research to forecast trends and business conditions.
  • Responsible for financial forecasting and risks analysis.
  • Performs cash management, general ledger accounting, and financial reporting
  • Responsible for developing and managing financial systems and policies
  • Responsible for administering payrolls
  • Ensuring compliance with taxation legislation
  • Handles all financial transactions for the organization
  • Serves as internal auditor for the organization

Distribution Truck Drivers

  • Assists in loading and unloading live cows, goats, pigs and birds et al and also slaughtered animals
  • Maintains a logbook of their driving activities to ensure compliance with federal regulations governing the rest and work periods for operators.
  • Keeps a record of vehicle inspections and make sure the truck is equipped with safety equipment
  • Assists the transport and logistics manager in planning their route according to a distribution schedule.
  • Local-delivery drivers may be required to sell meat, beef and poultry et al or services to stores and businesses on their route, obtain signatures from recipients and collect cash.
  • Inspects vehicles for mechanical items and safety issues and perform preventative maintenance
  • Complies with truck driving rules and regulations (size, weight, route designations, parking, break periods etc.) as well as with company policies and procedures
  • Collects and verifies delivery instructions
  • Report defects, accidents or violations

6. SWOT Analysis

Our plan of starting our butchery business in Durban – KwaZulu-Natal is to test run the business for a period of 6 years to know if we will invest more money, expand the business and then open our slaughterhouse in major cities in South Africa.

We are quite aware that there are several butchery businesses all over Durban and even in the same location where we intend locating ours, which is why we are following the due process of establishing a business. We know that if a proper SWOT analysis is conducted for our business, we will be able to position our business to maximize our strength, leverage on the opportunities that will be available to us, mitigate our risks and be equipped to confront our threats.

Durban City® Butchery House, LLC employed the services of an expert HR and Business Analyst with bias in the meat, beef, and poultry processing industry to help us conduct a thorough SWOT analysis and to help us create a Business model that will help us achieve our business goals and objectives.

This is the summary of the SWOT analysis that was conducted for Durban City® Butchery House, LLC;

Our location, the business model we will be operating on, varieties of payment options, healthy environment, latest butchery equipment and our excellent customer service culture will definitely count as a strong strength for Durban City® Butchery House, LLC. So, also our management team are people who have what it takes to grow a business from startup to profitability with a record time.

One major weakness that may count against us is the fact that we don’t have our cattle ranch and we don’t have the financial capacity to compete with leaders in the industry for now.

  • Opportunities:

The fact that we are going to be operating our butchery business in Durban – KwaZulu-Natal which happens to be one of the provinces with high purchasing power provides us with unlimited opportunities to sell our fresh meats to a large number of wholesale distributors and retailers.

We have been able to conduct thorough feasibility studies and market survey and we know what our potential clients will be looking for when they visit our butchery house; we are well positioned to take on the opportunities that will come our way.

Some of the threats and challenges that we are likely going to face when we start our own butchery business are global economic downturn that can impact negatively on household spending, bad weather cum natural disasters, unfavorable government policies and the arrival of a competitor within the same location where we have our butchery house.


  • Market Trends

In recent time, consumers are become conscious or what they eat especially as it relates to meat. Those advocating for healthy eating are against the consumption of meat especially red meat. With that, it takes extra effort for those in the butchery business to canvass such people to patronize them especially those who are under a nutritionist.

The truth is that slaughtering of animals for food has been in existence for as long as humans started trading goods, but one thing is certain, the meat, beef and poultry processing industry is still evolving. The introduction of technology has indeed helped in reshaping the industry.

It is now a common phenomenon for butchery houses to leverage on technology to effectively predict consumer demand patterns and to strategically position their business to meet their needs; in essence, the use of technology helps businesses like slaughterhouses to maximize supply chain efficiencies.

8. Our Target Market

The meat, beef and poultry processing industry has a wide range of customers; a large chunk of people on planet earth consume different types of meat or poultry products and it is difficult to find people around who don’t.

In view of that, we have positioned our butchery business to serve consumers in and around Durban and every other location we will cover all over KwaZulu-Natal Province. We have conducted our market research and we have ideas of what our target market would be expecting from us. We are in business to engage in the sale of freshly butchered meats to the following businesses;

  • Restaurants
  • Retailers of meat
  • Grocery Stores
  • Super Markets
  • Wholesale Distributors of meats

Our competitive advantage

Durban City® Butchery House, LLC is launching a standard butchery business that will indeed become the preferred choice of consumers, retailers, wholesale distributors, grocery stores and supermarkets et al in Durban – KwaZulu-Natal.

One thing is certain; we will ensure that we have a wide range of freshly butchered meat available in our warehouse facility at all times. One of our business goals is to make Durban City® Butchery House, LLC a one stop butchery. The fact that our output is sold to incorporate long-term sales contracts, and that we enjoy upstream vertical integration (ownership links) and economies of scale gives us an edge over our competitors.

So also, our excellent customer service culture, neat and healthy environment, timely and reliable delivery services, online presence, and various payment options will serve as a competitive advantage for us.

Lastly, our employees will be well taken care of, and their welfare package will be among the best within our category in the industry meaning that they will be more than willing to build the business with us and help deliver our set goals and achieve all our objectives. We will also give good working conditions and commissions to freelance sales agents that we will recruit from time to time.


  • Sources of Income

Durban City® Butchery House, LLC is in business to engage in slaughtering animals and retailing fresh meats and byproducts. We are in the business to maximize profits and we are going to go all the way out to ensure that we achieve or business goals and objectives. In essence, our source of income will be;

  • Selling by-products from the slaughtering process

10. Sales Forecast

The truth is that when it comes to butchery business, if your business is centrally positioned coupled with a reliable supply of healthy animals and good distribution network, you will always attract customers cum sales and that will sure translate to increase in revenue for the business.

We are positioned to take on the available market in Durban – KwaZulu-Natal and we are quite optimistic that we will meet our set target of generating enough income from the first six months of operation and grow the business and our clientele base.

We have been able to critically examine the meat, beef and poultry processing industry, we have analyzed our chances in the industry and we have been able to come up with the following sales forecast. The sales projections are based on information gathered on the field and some assumptions that are peculiar to startups in Durban – KwaZulu-Natal.

  • First Fiscal Year : R300,000
  • Second Fiscal Yea r: R650,000
  • Third Fiscal Year : R900,000

N.B : This projection was done based on what is obtainable in the industry and with the assumption that there won’t be any major economic meltdown and there won’t be any major competitor offering same products and home delivery services as we do within the same location. Please note that the above projection might be lower and at the same time it might be higher.

  • Marketing Strategy and Sales Strategy

Prior to settling for a location to launch Durban City® Butchery House, LLC, we conducted a thorough market survey and feasibility studies in order for us to penetrate the available market and become the preferred choice for households, wholesale distributors, retailers, grocery stores and supermarkets in and around Durban – KwaZulu-Natal.

We have detailed information and data that we were able to utilize to structure our business to attract the number of customers we want to attract per time.

We hired experts who have good understanding of the industry to help us develop marketing strategies that will help us achieve our business goal of winning a larger percentage of the available market in and around Durban – KwaZulu-Natal.

In summary, Durban City® Butchery House, LLC will adopt the following sales and marketing approach to win customers over;

  • Open our business in a grand style with a party for all
  • Introduce our business by sending introductory letters alongside our brochure to households, restaurants, hotels, caterers, BBQ joints, wholesale distributors, retailers, grocery stores, supermarkets and other key stake holders in and around Durban – KwaZulu-Natal
  • Ensure that we have a wide range of meat in our butchery business at all times
  • Make use of attractive hand bills to create awareness of our business
  • Position our signage / flexi banners at strategic places around Durban – KwaZulu-Natal
  • Create a loyalty plan that will enable us reward our regular customers

11. Publicity and Advertising Strategy

In spite of the fact that our butchery business is well structured and well located, we will still go ahead to intensify publicity for the business. We are going to explore all available means to promote the business.

Durban City® Butchery House, LLC has a long-term plan of opening distribution channels all around KwaZulu-Natal Province and key cities throughout South Africa which is why we will deliberately build our brand to be well accepted in Durban before venturing out.

As a matter of fact, our publicity and advertising strategy is not solely for winning customers over but to effectively communicate our brand. Here are the platforms we intend leveraging on to promote and advertise Durban City® Butchery House, LLC;

  • Place adverts on community based newspapers, radio and TV stations
  • Encourage the use of word of mouth publicity from our loyal customers
  • Leverage on the internet and social media platforms like YouTube, Instagram, Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Google+ and other platforms to promote our business.
  • Ensure that our we position our banners and billboards in strategic positions all around Durban
  • Distribute our fliers and handbills in target areas in and around our neighborhood
  • Advertise our butchery business in our official website and employ strategies that will help us pull traffic to the site
  • Brand all our distribution vans/trucks and ensure that all our staff members wear our branded shirt or cap at regular intervals.

12. Our Pricing Strategy

Meats are sold in Kilograms in South Africa. Our pricing system is going to be based on what is obtainable in the butchery line of business, we don’t intend to charge more and we don’t intend to charge less than our competitors are charging in South Africa.

Be that as it may, we have put plans in place to offer discounts once in a while and also to reward our loyal customers especially when they refer clients to us or when they purchase over R5000 worth of meat per time. The prices of our meat will be same as what is obtainable in the open market and it will be based on miles covered and time.

  • Payment Options

The payment policy adopted by Durban City® Butchery House, LLC is all inclusive because we are quite aware that different customers prefer different payment options as it suits them but at the same time, we will ensure that we abide by the financial rules and regulation of the government of South Africa

Here are the payment options that Durban City® Butchery House, LLC will make available to her clients;

  • Payment with cash
  • Payment via credit cards / Point of Sale Machines (POS Machines)
  • Payment via POS machines
  • Payment via online bank transfer
  • Payment via check

In view of the above, we have chosen banking platforms that will enable our clients make payment for meat, beef and poultry purchase without any stress on their part. Our bank account numbers will be made available on our website and promotional materials.

13. Startup Expenditure (Budget)

From our market survey and feasibility studies, we have been able to come up with a detailed budget of how to achieve our aim of establishing a standard butchery business in Durban – KwaZulu-Natal. We know that no matter where we intend starting our butchery business, we would be required to fulfill most of the items listed below;

  • The total fee for incorporating the business in South Africa – Name reservation application costs R50 and company registration R125
  • Legal expenses for obtaining licenses and permits as well as the accounting services (software, P.O.S machines and other software) – R3,300.
  • Marketing promotion expenses for the grand opening of Durban City® Butchery House, LLC the amount of R3,000 and as well as flyer printing (2,000 flyers at R0.04 per copy) for the total amount of R3,580.
  • The cost for hiring business consultant – R2,500.
  • The cost for insurance (general liability, workers’ compensation and property casualty) coverage at a total premium – R2,400.
  • The cost for payment of rent for 12 months at R1.76 per square feet warehouse facility in the total amount of R120,000
  • The total cost for facility remodeling (construction of drainages et al) – R20,000.
  • Other start-up expenses including stationery ( R500 ) and phone and utility deposits ( R2,500 ).
  • Operational cost for the first 3 months (salaries of employees, payments of bills et al) – R60,000
  • The cost for Start-up inventory – R100,000
  • Storage hardware (bins, rack, shelves, food case) – R3,720
  • The cost for store equipment (cash register, security, ventilation, signage) – R13,750
  • The cost of purchase and installation of CCTVs – R5,000
  • The cost for the purchase of furniture and gadgets (Computers, Printers, Telephone, TVs, Sound System, tables and chairs et al) – R4,000.
  • The cost for the purchase of distribution vans / trucks – R25,000
  • The cost of launching a website – R600
  • Miscellaneous – R10,000

We would need an estimate of Three hundred and fifty thousand Rand ( R350,000 ) to successfully set up our butchery business in Durban – KwaZulu-Natal.

Generating Startup Capital for Durban City® Butchery House, LLC

Durban City® Butchery House, LLC is a family business that is owned and financed by Eric Zulu and his immediate family members. They do not intend to welcome any external business partners which is why he has decided to restrict the sourcing of the startup capital to 3 major sources.

These are the areas we intend generating our startup capital;

  • Generate part of the startup capital from personal savings
  • Source for soft loans from family members and friends
  • Apply for loan from my bank

N.B : We have been able to generate about R100,000 ( Personal savings R80,000 and soft loan from family members R20,000 ) and we are at the final stages of obtaining a loan facility of R150,000 from our bank. All the papers and documents have been signed and submitted, the loan has been approved and any moment from now our account will be credited with the amount.

14. Sustainability and Expansion Strategy

The future of a business lies in the number of loyal customers that they have, the capacity and competence of their employees, their investment strategy and business structure. If all of these factors are missing from a business, then it won’t be too long before the business closes shop.

One of our major goals of starting Durban City® Butchery House, LLC is to build a business that will survive off its own cash flow without injecting finance from external sources once the business is officially running. We know that one of the ways of gaining approval and winning customers over is to retail/distribute our meat, beef and poultry a little bit cheaper than what is obtainable in the market and we are prepared to survive on lower profit margin for a while.

Durban City® Butchery House, LLC will make sure that the right foundations, structures and processes are put in place to ensure that our staff welfare are well taken of. Our company’s corporate culture is designed to drive our business to greater heights and training and retraining of our workforce is at the top burner.

We know that if that is put in place, we will be able to successfully hire and retain the best hands we can get in the industry; they will be more committed to help us build the business of our dreams.

Check List/Milestone

  • Business Name Availability Check: Completed
  • Business Registration: Completed
  • Opening of Corporate Bank Accounts: Completed
  • Securing Point of Sales (POS) Machines: Completed
  • Opening Mobile Money Accounts: Completed
  • Opening Online Payment Platforms: Completed
  • Application and Obtaining Tax Payer’s ID: In Progress
  • Application for business license and permit : Completed
  • Purchase of Insurance for the Business: Completed
  • Leasing of butchery facility and remodeling the facility: In Progress
  • Conducting Feasibility Studies: Completed
  • Generating capital from family members: Completed
  • Applications for Loan from the bank: In Progress
  • Writing of Business Plan: Completed
  • Drafting of Employee’s Handbook: Completed
  • Drafting of Contract Documents and other relevant Legal Documents: In Progress
  • Design of The Company’s Logo: Completed
  • Printing of Packaging Marketing/Promotional Materials: In Progress
  • Recruitment of employees: In Progress

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StartupBiz Global

How To Start An Abattoir Business

Abattoir Business Plan

An abattoir is a facility where livestock is slaughtered for the processes of meat preparation along with the production of other meat products. The meat and meat products produced are predominantly meant for the human food consumption market though other products and by-products are earmarked for other uses. With the incessant rise in the number of people starting livestock businesses it comes as no surprise why starting an abattoir is a strategic venture. Most livestock farmers still heavily rely on commercial abattoirs most of which are usually run poorly or are distant from them. Some of these abattoirs are in a deplorable state of filth thus posing health hazards for the subsequent consumers of products produced. This article shall take you along explaining how you can start an abattoir business and some abattoir business plan tips.

There is a deliberate reason as to why we mentioned how some abattoirs are not hygienic. This is meant to show you a loop hole or gap that you as an aspiring entrepreneur can capitalize on. The most prudent approach will be to establish a small scale abattoir that offers service to a particular geographical location (i.e. communities or localities). This is akin to opening private abattoirs which is a strategy that neutralizes the effect of a somewhat saturated commercial market (referring to the big players here). The small scale aspect will help ease financial burden and also makes it easier to uphold high quality control standards.

Another benefit will be that you would have created convenience to most livestock farmers who cannot easily access abattoir services usually far from them. This is not to say that you cannot start on a large scale – if you have the funds then you can do it. Some of the most commonly slaughtered livestock are cattle, pigs, goats and sheep . Thus your core focus can be on any of these or all of them and even more. Some abattoirs also incorporate the slaughtering of birds which is a broad domain that includes birds like poultry. Though meat is the major focus for most abattoirs you can diversify into making meat products or by-products.

There is a whole load of by-products that can be produced by an abattoir. We believe that if aspiring abattoir business owners seriously look into this they can make a whole lot more money. One common by-product is offal which is a hit amongst many customers in several parts of the world. Not forgetting leather which is a high-value by-product made from cattle hides. Bones and rendered meat can be used in stock feeds and fertilizers. By-products such as gelatin ( mainly from pigs ) can be used in making medications. Animal fat can be used in the making of detergents whilst other by-products such as lanolin can be used in the making of beauty products . By-products must be taken very seriously in an abattoir business – do not just dispose certain things as waste. Your abattoir business plan should clearly specify which products your abattoir will deal with.

Market Research

This is a precursor to commencing business operations because there are things you must ascertain beforehand. You have to find out the availability of a market, its segmentation, its needs and its characteristic demographics such as location, scale of operations and the like. You must also study current players on how they are conducting business. We are looking at things like services offered, business processes, strategies, marketing approaches, pricing and so on. In your market research you must take time to find out about pertinent regulations that you are required to adhere to when operating an abattoir business. There are certain health and environmental certifications that one must acquire from relevant authorities. So you must research on that or better still you can find out from established players. This will help you come up with a well detailed abattoir business plan.

Make Sure You Have A Comprehensive Abattoir Business Plan

The failure to plan is the beginning of business failure. The abattoir business plan must be clear and succinct enough to give your potential partners, clients and investors an overview of what your objectives are. At the same time, it must be detailed enough to explain the operations of the business that you propose. At the very minimum you need to have the following included in your abattoir business plan:

  • The mission, vision and operational strategy
  • Market Analysis And Customer Segmentation
  • A business case showing that the business is financial viable and sustainable
  • A marketing and customer care plan
  • An organizational chart and human resource policy
  • A three-year expansion outlook
  • A risk and rewards Analysis

Location And Premises

It is wise to establish the business close to livestock farming locations. This can actually give you a competitive edge over other abattoirs that might be situated quite far from livestock farmers. Be somewhere where there is an excellent road network for ease of accessibility. The actual place where the abattoir will be must have a reliable water source. For smooth disposal of effluent or other waste the terrain must be a gentle slope to avoid water logging or settling of waste in one place. The premises must be sufficiently large, well-lit, well-aerated and easily cleanable. The costs of purchasing or leasing the premises should be included in your abattoir business plan.

There is a range of equipment required for the smooth running of this business. An abattoir business is technical and that is why specialized equipment is needed. Slaughtering machines and slaughtering tools are required – manual and automatic. Other handling equipment such as bins, knives, sinks; counter tops, trays, tables, weighing scales and so on are needed. Some of the specialized equipment necessary is scalding and de-hairing machines, conveyor belts, hoists, splitting saw, shears and scalding tanks. Trolleys, stunners, de-hiders, de-horners, rail systems, stunners, gambrels and protective clothing are also needed. As you can see there is a broad range of equipment needed which will depend on your funds, scale of operations or types of services you will be offering. The abattoir business plan should include the costs of acquiring the equipment.

Staff And Management

It is highly advised that you hire or outsource people with qualified expertise who know what they are supposed to do. As usual the management needs can be effectively run by you and family members where applicable. Generally the staff and management requirements are informed by your scale of operations. When looking for people to work with look out for people with qualifications in abattoir processes, abattoir supervision, slaughtering processes, meat examination and classification amongst other related skill sets. The salaries and wages of all your staff should be included in the abattoir business plan.

This must be enough information to equip you with the necessary traction to kick-start your abattoir business. Ensure you stick to high standards of hygiene and adhere to all regulatory requirements. The abattoirs industry is growing and as long as you keep in mind the details discussed herein you will definitely make it.

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Conclusions, data availability statement, conflict of interest, the challenges and treatment of abattoir effluents: a south african perspective.

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Mabatho Moreroa , Moses Basitere; The challenges and treatment of abattoir effluents: a South African perspective. Water Practice and Technology 1 December 2022; 17 (12): 2598–2613. doi:

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South Africa's (SA's) water resources have been severely affected by the demand for meat products. The growing population has resulted in an increase in food production, increasing the number of abattoirs from 25 in 1988 to 420 in 2021. Organic matter is abundant in abattoir effluent, with chemical oxygen demand levels reaching 9,000 mg/L. To reach permissible discharge limits, various methods such as sequential bed reactor, granular sludge bed, membrane bioreactor, and membrane filtration have been adopted. However, some abattoirs do not meet municipal regulatory requirements. As a result, practical and cost-effective approaches such as biofilm reactors were developed to encourage abattoirs to employ water treatment technology. Bioreactor-based technologies have proven to be successful, with more than 90% efficiency. Fat, oil, and grease (FOG) are problematic in abattoir effluents as they emit odours, attract insects, and impair the biodegradability of wastewater. For this reason, hydrolysis using a novel agent (Eco-flush ™ ) has shown to be an effective technique for decreasing FOG. During treatment, biogas produced by anaerobic degradation may be utilized as an energy source to alleviate SA's energy problem. This review aims to outline the challenges related to abattoir wastewater in SA and highlight the gaps associated with abattoir wastewater treatment.

The study considers hydrolysis of solids arising from abattoir effluent.

Production of biogas from anaerobic digestion of abattoir effluent is studied.

Bioremediation of abattoir effluents using a biofilm reactor is studied.

The South African abattoir industry is analysed critically.

Integrated treatment systems for the bioremediation of abattoir effluents are suggested.

Graphical Abstract

Graphical Abstract

A slaughterhouse, sometimes known as an abattoir, is a business that butchers animals for meat processing and other commercial goods. Dung for manure production, skin/hide for the leather industry, bones for poultry food, medications, cutlery, fats for tallow manufacture, and blood for blood meal production are some of the commercial items ( GDARD (Gauteng Department of Agriculture and Rural Development) 2009 ; Tolera & Alemu 2020 ). The recovered fat may be used as a low-cost raw material in the production of animal feed, biodiesel, soap, grease, and candles, which is a significant raw ingredient in the steel rolling industry, providing the necessary lubrication for compressing steel sheets ( Franke-Whittle & Insam 2013 ). Abattoir waste is described as waste or wastewater from an abattoir that may contain animal excrement, blood, fat, animal trimmings, urine, and paunch content. In numerous studies, abattoir waste has been highlighted as one of the most challenging types of food waste to handle globally and specifically in South Africa (SA) ( Western Cape Government 2016 ). Essentially, the waste is toxic in nature (containing high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and pathogens ( Tolera & Alemu 2020 ; Gufe et al. 2021 )) and is likely to have negative implications for the environment and human health ( Jabari et al. 2016 ; Western Cape Government 2016 ). Similarly, if not properly disposed of, the wastewater is a significant pollutant of water ( Gufe et al. , 2021 ; Konneh et al. 2021 ). On a global scale, red meat abattoirs are well known for their excessive water use. Due to water shortage, SA concentrates its efforts on high-volume industrial customers to aid in water conservation ( Müller 2017 ).

Although SA is a minor meat producer globally in comparison to Brazil, Europe, and the USA, the country is severely afflicted by slaughterhouse water pollution due to the country's water scarcity. The country's climate, with an average annual rainfall of 464 mm/year, varies from desert to semi-arid in the west to sub-humid along the eastern coastal plain ( Oyebande 2010 ; Alexander 2021 ). For a country with high evaporation rates when compared with the rest of the world, the average rainfall of 464 mm/year is very low when compared to the global average of 860 mm/year and not enough to meet the water demands ( Gray 2004 ). Thus, SA's limited water resources combined with its rapidly growing population have put unduly great stress on the water distribution system; a cause for concern ( Alex & Pouris 2016 ).

Provincial breakdown of red meat abattoirs in South Africa ( Corporation 2020 )

The rise of abattoirs in SA over 33 years.

The rise of abattoirs in SA over 33 years.

According to the Western Cape Department of Agriculture, the poultry business is the largest generator of slaughterhouse waste, followed by sheep and ostrich ( Western Cape Government 2016 ). However, red meat abattoirs, which butcher cattle, sheep, ostriches, and pigs, use the most water in the slaughterhouse industry ( Müller 2017 ).

Abattoirs require potable water for the processing of carcasses and other associated items for human consumption, yet approximately 70–85% of that water is discharged as effluents into the environment ( Muller 2005 ; GDARD 2009 ; Jabari et al. 2016 ). Statistics indicate that about 76,102.65 tonnes of abattoir waste was produced in the Western Cape province from 2015 to 2016 ( Western Cape Government 2016 ). Freshwater is utilized in abattoirs for continual cleaning during the slaughter process, cleaning stock enclosures, washing down carcasses, and transportation of solid waste ( Muller 2005 ). This effluent generally comprises blood, meat, fat, and intestines, as well as urine and faeces ( Adamu & Dahiru 2020 ). These factors result in high COD, with values up to 9,000 mg/L observed ( GDARD 2009 ), across different types of abattoirs.

The SA government has enacted legislation to restrict the discharge of slaughterhouse effluent (and other wastewaters) into water resources or municipal sewage systems. These laws specify criteria for wastewater composition, as stipulated by the South African Water Act of 1997. COD, total suspended solids (TSS), nitrogen, and pH levels are examples of such factors ( DWA 1999 ; GDARD 2009 ). The government is attempting to protect natural water resources such as lakes, ponds, and rivers from contamination and ultimate destruction. In this review, the use of a novel hydrolysis agent (Eco-flush ™ ) for the pre-treatment of abattoir wastewater is advocated in order to biologically reduce fat, oil, and grease (FOG). The usage of Eco-flush ™ is expected to minimize problematic FOG, suspended particles, and odour, and to increase the biodegradability of wastewater. Furthermore, it is envisaged that using anaerobic biodegradation technologies during the ( Basitere et al. 2017 ; Rinquest et al. 2019 ) treatment of such wastewater will aid in the generation of biogas, which is envisaged to be utilized as an alternative energy source in SA.

Water usage in abattoirs

The breakdown of water usage in abattoirs ( Kist et al . 2009 ; Müller 2017 ; Gutu et al. 2021 )

With around 420 registered abattoirs in the country, it is apparent that a significant volume of fresh water is consumed in abattoirs. Given proper water management skills, strategies may be implemented to reduce water usage and wastewater generation in abattoirs. These include reducing water usage, removing particles before they reach waste streams, reducing the amount of waste generated, minimizing spills, and implementing dry-cleaning regimes prior to wash-down.

Water management in abattoirs

Permissible levels of wastewater discharge parameters into South African water systems versus the actual abattoir wastewater ( DWA 1999 ; GDARD 2009 )

According to the Government of the Western Cape in SA, there is a paucity of statistics on abattoir waste due to the absence of record-keeping within abattoirs. In addition, the National Environmental Management Act (NEMA) was enacted with minimal engagement of the slaughterhouse industry and scant information on the volume of abattoir waste produced in SA. This has made it rather challenging to report waste generation and management statistics ( Western Cape Government 2016 ). This can be minimized by conducting physical research, in which several abattoirs are visited for quantitative waste analysis. However, there have been some reports on the general observation, revealing that large abattoirs generated wastewater with COD values of 1,217 and 5,025 mg/L have been reported for small abattoirs ( Müller 2017 ). Larger abattoirs appear to have higher water consumption and wastewater treatment procedures than smaller abattoirs. This is because larger abattoirs often have well-trained management staff and comprehensive income/expenditure records. Smaller abattoirs often employ a professional health official to operate as a ‘jack of all trades’ in plant management ( Muller 2005 ). In addition, because of their large capacity and revenue, large abattoirs can often afford to hire professional and trained personnel with the relevant skills and experience of handling different parts of the operation ( Muller 2005 ).

In addition, authorities are frequently accommodating toward abattoirs in areas where sewage infrastructure is non-existent. Often, the abattoir will discharge its effluent into an in-house septic tank, which septic collectors would visit to drain and deposit straight into the nearest municipal sewage system. As a result, abattoirs are relieved of the need to build systems for wastewater treatment. Furthermore, because of the high levels of COD in slaughterhouse wastewater, the release of raw abattoir wastewater into municipal drainage results in high organic loadings in the treatment system ( Adamu & Dahiru 2020 ). Due to this, the municipal treatment plant spends large amounts of capital in treating heavily populated water. On the other end of the spectrum, some abattoirs discharge polluted water into bodies of water such as rivers and natural wetlands ( Emmanuel et al. 2016 ). This behaviour is harmful to the ecosystem because excessively contaminated water stresses aquatic animals and plants, generates foul odours, and serves as a breeding ground for deadly viruses and infectious microorganisms ( Tuttle-raycraft et al. 2017 ).

Changes in waste management in abattoirs may have a favourable influence on the abattoirs’ operating costs, which abattoir management is frequently unaware of. The wastewater produced might be utilized to produce biogas, which could be used as an alternative energy source within the slaughterhouse. The facility may use the gas for lighting and heating, lowering its electricity bill. The treated wastewater can be utilized for non-sterile purposes such as toilet flushing. This will also help to maximize earnings because the water cost will be decreased. Following wastewater treatment, the proceeding sludge may further be used as an organic fertilizer/compost, which the abattoir may sell and generate income. Additional methods of how to manage waste from abattoirs and their potential end products are outlined by Western Cape Government (2016 ).

Environmental impacts

Often, a quick way to get rid of the heavily polluted water from abattoirs is through environmental discharge. When untreated, wastewater generated from abattoirs may have a wide variety of organic matter, including high COD values. COD is defined as the mass concentration of oxygen according to ISSO 6060, which is equal to the amount of dichromate absorbed by dissolved and suspended matter when that oxygen is treated with a sample (water or sludge) under defined conditions ( Geerdink et al. 2017 ). Wastewater generated from abattoirs contains high organic matter with COD values between 2,380 and 9,000 mg/L being reported ( GDARD 2009 ). With such high organic loads, the environment tends to be the hardest hit by the action.

The Blesbokspruit wetland in SA is one such natural water resource that suffers from the effects of industrial water pollution. The Blesbokspruit wetland, located on Johannesburg's eastern outskirts, is a recreational area that is home to a variety of aquatic creatures and birds. The catchment spans approximately 1,858 km 2 and roughly 21 km ( Mckay et al. 2018a ). The wetland receives many forms of wastewater from domestic sewage, acid mine treatment facilities, the paper and pulp industry, and surrounding urban and agricultural operations ( Mckay et al. 2018b ). Due to pollution and, more recently, an invasion of the water hyacinth, an invasive aquatic plant, the wetland is slowly degrading. The bulk of the water surface of the Blesbokspruit is now covered by invasive plant species, which has expanded rapidly ( Badenhorst 2021 ). It is thought that water hyacinth rapidly grows because it absorbs nutrients from the organic material present in the sewage discharge. Additionally, the wetland's aquatic fauna and flora are declining as a result of the high organic load (OL) from sewage waste entering the water body ( Robertson 2017 ). OL impacts the bacterial community makeup in a water treatment system and is one of the parameters that may determine the efficacy of a water treatment system. Szabó et al. (2017) reported that the organic loading rate (OLR) has an impact on sludge communities. This is because the nutritional content is among other factors, the determining factor for biodegradation and structure of the bacterial community, which are key players in the biological treatment of wastewater ( Carrero-Colón et al. 2006 ; Koshlaf & Ball 2017 ; Szabó et al. 2017 ; Wu et al. 2018 ).

In addition, high concentrations of suspended solids (SS) and turbidity can alter the chemical, physical, and biological properties of a water body. High concentrations of SS have reduced feeding in freshwater mussels, thus disturbing aquatic life ( Tuttle-raycraft et al. 2017 ). The presence of SS and high turbidity in water can restrict the amount of light that penetrates through the water, thus causing a change in temperature and affecting the aquatic life that relies on sunlight for their metabolic processes. When in high concentrations, these two parameters (SS and turbidity) affect plant growth in water, prevent proper egg and larval development, damage sensitive parts of fish (gills) and other organisms, and in turn, increase their vulnerability to disease ( Fondriest Environmental, Inc. 2014 ). The establishment of this phenomenon has led to the legislation that regulate concentrations of SS in water bodies. The issue of SS should, therefore, be addressed during wastewater treatment processes and before the water can be discharged into water bodies.


Characteristics of various abattoir wastewater as reported by other researchers

COD: chemical oxygen demand; BOD: biochemical oxygen demand; TSS: total suspended solids; TDS: total dissolved solids; TKN: total Kjeldahl nitrogen.

Treatment of abattoir wastewater

Treatment methods previously used for abattoir wastewater treatment

SBR: sequential bed reactor; EGSB: expanded granular sludge bed; MBR: membrane bioreactor; IMF: integrated membrane filtration.

Parameters such as COD, TSS, and nitrogen levels are carefully monitored throughout the treatment of abattoir effluent. The primary goal in SA is to minimize the values of these factors, as specified in Table 3 . COD and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) are comparable in that they both assess the quantity of organic matter in wastewater; however, COD is preferred over BOD ( Kayaalp et al. 2010 ). The BOD test is performed at certain temperatures (typically 20 °C), and the results are obtained in about 5 days ( Attiogbe et al. 2011 ; Jouanneau et al. 2014 ). Because of the 5-day incubation time for BOD analysis, COD has become the preferred alternative over BOD.

Anaerobic treatment appears to be the ideal approach for treating slaughterhouse wastewater, owing to its efficacy in treating high-strength effluent while requiring less sophisticated equipment ( Johns 1995 ; Bustillo-Lecompte & Mehrvar 2017 ). However, treated water frequently contains solubilized organic matter that requires further treatment via aerobic processes. Additionally, certain slaughterhouse effluents contain hazardous, nonbiodegradable, bioresistant, and recalcitrant chemicals. Thus, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) may be employed to enhance the biodegradability of slaughterhouse wastewater and inactivate harmful bacteria and viruses that remain after biological treatment ( Kanafin et al. 2022 ). In general, it is more effective to integrate several treatment technologies in order to accomplish efficient slaughterhouse wastewater treatment.

Fat, oil, and grease

Techniques used for the treatment of FOG in abattoir wastewater

In resolving the problem of FOG build-up, it was observed that screening and scraping are the most prevalent methods of removing solid particles such as fat, bone, hair, and meat that were lost during the slaughtering process. The screening strainers are made of metal wire and may catch particles of varying sizes depending on the mesh size of the strainer ( Mittal 2006 ; EOH 2018 ). The screening and filtration methods are efficient in removing solids (up to 70% removal rates). However, they create another environmental challenge of disposal ( Mittal 2006 ).

There is a link between solid removal and biodegradability of the preceeding wastewater. Due to this, it is recommended to remove the FOG and other solids before the biodegradation of the wastewater. This will form part of the pre-treatment of the wastewater. This phenomenon was investigated by Pereira et al. (2006) . The study was aimed at understanding how different conditions affect the hydrolysis of fat and grease present in abattoir wastewater by a commercial Candida rugosa lipase. Biogas was used as a measure of biodegradabilition of the wastewater. It was revealed that pre-treatment of fat and grease resulted in four times more production of biogas than raw crude water. This proved that hydrolysis as a form of pre-treatment is an effective method to improve the biodegradability of abattoir wastewater.

The use of a developing bioremediation agent, which is an enzyme-based agent, called Eco-flush ™ , has recently been identified to be a novel hydrolysis approach, to validate the efficacy and practicality of adopting the hydrolysis process as a kind of fat pre-treatment ( Bingo et al. 2021 ). Eco-flush ™ is a cluster of naturally occurring bacteria that are isolated from soil, packaged in an inactive state, and activated when exposed to nutrient-rich wastewater. Eco-flush ™ contains glaucids and essential amino acids that promote the natural proliferation of certain bacteria that produce enzymes capable of degrading hydrocarbon chains in FOG and oxidizing ammonia (NH 3 ) to nitrite (NO 2 − ) and nitrate (NO 3 − ), as well as the elimination of pathogenic bacteria and odour-causing bacteria. Additionally, it reduces the components of wastewater that contribute to COD and BOD levels ( Ergofito 2012 ).

Although this technology has not been completely researched, it is expected to be a more cost-effective and superior alternative to pure commercial enzymes. The employment of the innovative Eco-flush ™ achieved COD removal efficiencies of 98%, FOG removal efficiencies of 97%, and TSS removal efficiencies of 99% ( Bingo et al. 2021 ; Gutu et al. 2021 ). Because of its efficacy, this review indicates the potential of using Eco-flush ™ in a broader range of slaughterhouse wastewaters, such as red meat as a pre-treatment to hydrolyze FOG as well the odour.

Advantages and disadvantages of anaerobic digestion ( Chan et al. 2009 ; Mittal 2011 )

Expectations of aerobic treatment ( Chan et al. 2009 )

In an aerobic biological system, the floating fats found in abattoir wastewater may cause a decline in dissolved oxygen (DO) levels. DO levels in aerobic systems should be maintained between 0.5 and 2.0 mg/L to aid the completion of the digestion process and to avoid odour ( Shammas & Wang 2007 ; Daskiran et al. 2019 ). Low oxygen levels in an aerobic system promote an anaerobic environment, which causes a fouling smell and the release of toxic greenhouse gases such as methane and H 2 S that is a corrosion agent. Inadequate amounts of oxygen cause a change in the species present, enzyme activity, as well as death and reduction in microbial growth ( Kazbar et al. 2019 ; Meng et al. 2019 ).

The role of microorganisms in wastewater treatment

Various living organisms that make up the food chain and, to some extent, the food web are known. By having these natural chains and webs, the natural processes that balance nature take place and make the earth what it is today. Bacteria play a major role of decomposition in the environment and wastewater treatment plants. Without decomposition, the earth would pile up with matter and most living organisms would die without decomposing. Bacteria decompose dead matter from the soil, food, and waste from our guts. Bacteria play a role in cleaning up the environment by degrading waste generated by human beings ( Jenkins et al. 2004 ). Several types of bacteria exist in the environment, mammals, or other living organisms. To classify bacteria, taxonomic studies are performed in a sub-discipline of microbiology.

Common microorganisms found in various samples of abattoir wastewater

As useful as microorganisms are in the biological treatment of wastewater, the discharged effluent (containing microorganisms) frequently ends up in water resources that humans may use for drinking and domestic purposes ( Adesemoye et al. 2006 ). The existence of such microbes in bodies of water is cause for concern in this situation because the majority of them are harmful when taken in large quantities or on a regular basis ( U.S. EPA 2014 ). This is reason enough to put in place robust water treatment systems that will prevent hazardous microorganisms from entering the environment.

Hybrid systems

A comparison of biological, non-biological, and hybrid treatment systems for the treatment of abattoir wastewater

UF: ultrafiltration; RO: reverse osmosis; AD: anaerobic digestion; EGSB: expanded granular sludge bed.

Advantages and disadvantages of treatment methods

South African abattoirs have become negligent with regard to the usage and waste of water in their facilities. Currently, little information is available on the consequences of handling abattoir waste. The legislature must place strict restrictions on the flow of abattoir effluent into water treatment plants. Furthermore, the advantages of installing a water treatment system must be explained to abattoir management. Water reuse for toilet flushing and biogas production are two examples of such advantages. With SA experiencing an energy crisis, residents are encouraged to adopt alternative energy sources to reduce the demand for power. This goal will be reached by utilizing biogas from water treatment facilities as an energy source. To minimize the spread of infectious illnesses caused by improper waste management, abattoirs must employ methods based on low-cost and practical wastewater treatment technologies. This may be addressed by using biological treatment alternatives and incorporating emerging low-cost materials like enzyme-based pre-treatment such as Eco-flush ™ to bioremediate the FOG and also can be used to decrease odour that attracts disease-carrying insects.

All relevant data are included in the paper or its Supplementary Information.

The authors declare there is no conflict.

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    The Poultry Sector Master Plan was developed in close partnership between government and a number of stakeholders in the industry, including poultry producers, processors, exporters, importers and organized labour. The process culminated in the official sign-off by all social partners during the 2nd South African Investment Conference held on ...

  15. Starting a Butchery Business in South Africa

    Butchery Business Plan Funding Version - Editable Word File (Short version for applying for a loan - 41 pages) Butcher Shop Business Plan Automated Financial Statements - (Editable Excel file) South Africa Meat Suppliers and Abattoirs Directory - Supplementary PDF File; The financial statements are automated.

  16. The challenges and treatment of abattoir effluents: a South African

    A slaughterhouse, sometimes known as an abattoir, is a business that butchers animals for meat processing and other commercial goods. Dung for manure production, skin/hide for the leather industry, bones for poultry food, medications, cutlery, fats for tallow manufacture, and blood for blood meal production are some of the commercial items (GDARD (Gauteng Department of Agriculture and Rural ...

  17. PDF Guideline Manual for The Management of Abattoirs and Other Waste of

    Table 3: Standard Environmental Management Plan for the Name of Abattoir (OPERATIONAL PHASE) 127 Table 4: Hygiene Management Program and Evaluation Systems 149 Table 5: Incident and Environmental Log 156 Table 6: Complaints Sheet 157 ANNEXURES 7 ANNEXURE 1: Minimum Requirements For Disposal Of Hazardous Waste To Landfill 88 ...

  18. Starting Beef Cattle Fattening Farming Business in South Africa

    Beef Cattle Fattening Business Plan Funding Version - Editable Word File (Short version for applying for a loan - 45 pages) Beef Cattle Fattening Business Plan Automated Financial Statements - (Editable Excel file) Cattle Abattoirs in South Africa -Supplementary PDF File; The financial statements are automated.

  19. Pre-written Business Plans for South Africa (Pdf, Word and Excel

    Ways to raise capital to start your business in South Africa; ... day old chicks, abattoirs, training companies etc) The Business plan package consist of 4 files. Business Plan - PDF file (Comprehensive - Between 70-105 pages) ... Starting a Pharmacy Business in South Africa - Business Plan (PDF, Word & Excel) January 2, 2023. Search for ...

  20. PDF Business plan for a centralized Pig abattoir

    Saharan Africa including South Africa (FAO, 2011). In spite of its growth, the pig sector in Uganda has been quite neglected and is not among the priority enterprises selected under the Ugandan Agriculture Sector Development Strategy and Investment Plan for 2010-11 to 2014-15. Pork consumption, though popular, remains well below

  21. List Of Abattoirs In South Africa

    Find below are the list of Abattoirs In South Africa. Morgan Abattoir. Address: Javelin Road, Geduld Extension 4, Springs, 1559 Hours: Open ⋅ Closes 4PM Phone: 011 362 4471. Billy's Chicken Abattoir. Address: Plot 7 Old Bronkhorstspruit Rd, Donkerhoek, Pretoria, 0001 Hours: Open ⋅ Closes 5PM Phone: 084 320 0723. Huntersvlei Abattoir

  22. PDF Microsoft Word

    1 Existing Class E License (Ft. Steele) - Bison. Existing Class A Abattoir. Figure 1. Location of the Proposed Abattoir within East Kootenay Region. Figure 2. Location of the Proposed Abattoir in area of the "Crossroads" Highway 93/95 intersects with Athalmer Road. WDFI Abattoir Business Plan May 2013, updated September 2013. Figure 3.